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Response to Intervention (RTI): A Practical Guide for All Educators

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Response to Intervention (RTI): A Practical Guide for All Educators Educational Resource Services Corey Layne, EdS 2009 * Corey Layne, EdS * * * * * Initial Meeting ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Response to Intervention (RTI): A Practical Guide for All Educators


1
Response to Intervention (RTI)A Practical Guide
for All Educators
  • Educational Resource Services
  • Corey Layne, EdS

2
Who am I?
3
Agenda
  • Session I- 830 AM 1000 AM
  • Break 15 minutes
  • Session II 1015 AM 1145 AM
  • Lunch on Your Own
  • Session III 100 PM 215 PM
  • Break 15 minutes
  • Session IV 230 PM 330 PM

4
Session I
  • Understanding the new IDEA

5
IDEA
  • The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act,
    IDEA, was rewritten and signed into law in early
    December 2004.
  • This Act changes many sections of the statute to
    reflect new ideas around learning disabilities
    and the strategy called response to intervention
    or RTI.

6
IDEA
  • The changes were made in an effort to reduce
    misdiagnosis of learning disabilities.

7
IDEA 2004 provides an additional inclusionary
criterion that must be assessed regardless of the
identification model employed
  • To ensure that underachievement in a child
    suspected of having a specific learning
    disability is not due to lack of appropriate
    instruction in reading or math, the group must
    consider, as part of the evaluation
  • (1) Data that demonstrate that prior to, or as a
    part of, the referral process, the child was
    provided appropriate instruction in regular
    education settings, delivered by qualified
    personnel and
  • (2) Data-based documentation of repeated
    assessments of achievement at reasonable
    intervals, reflecting formal assessment of
    student progress during instruction, which was
    provided to the child's parents. (Progress
    Monitoring)

8
Defining the RTI Model
  • The Response to Intervention model focuses on
    providing more effective instruction by
    encouraging early intervention for students
    experiencing difficulty learning to read.
  • The assumption is that this will prevent some
    students from being identified as LD by providing
    intervention as concerns emerge.

9
Response to Intervention
  • Is defined as a data-based method to determine
    the level of a students response to
    interventions that range from universal (those
    provided to all students, e.g., core reading
    program, core discipline program) to intensive
    individually delivered interventions.

10
Purposes of Response to Intervention
  • To provide an instructional framework that
    accommodates the needs of all students and
    results in the improved achievement for all
    students
  • To offer a means for appropriately
    identifying/selecting students for continued
    services through an IEP based on their
    demonstrated responses to scientific research
    based instruction

11
Response to Intervention is
  • NOT a special education initiative
  • first and foremost, a framework for organizing
    instruction for ALL students
  • a process designed to intervene early and prevent
    academic difficulties
  • a process that documents increasing levels of
    support have been provided to at-risk students
    prior to referral to special education

12
  • RTI is effective for students who are at risk for
    school failure as well as students in other
    disability categories.
  • RTI is not limited to students with learning
    disabilities.

13
  • RTI is an opportunity to align IDEA and NCLB
    principles and practices.
  • RTI is not just an special education approach.

14
Components of NCLB addressed through an RTI
framework
  • Prevention of and intervention for academic
    progress
  • Scientifically based research
  • Accountability

15
IDEA and RTI
  • RTI is one way to identify specific learning
    disabilities
  • Elements of IDEA align with RTI
  • Scientifically-based research
  • Early intervening
  • Prevention of overidentification and
    disproportionate representation, and special
    requirements for determining and documenting the
    presence of a disability.

16
Moving through the Tiers Intervention Levels
  • Tiers include increasing levels of intensity of
    interventions
  • Tier 1 Instruction -- differentiated curriculum
    and instruction for all students
  • Tier 2 Interventions -- Targeted interventions
    for students at-risk
  • Tier 3 Interventions -- planned/Intense
    interventions for students with intensive needs

17
How the Tiers Work
  • Goal Student is successful with Tier 1 level of
    support-academic or behavioral
  • Greater the tier, greater support and severity
  • Increase level of support (Tier level) until you
    identify an intervention that results in a
    positive response to intervention
  • Continue until student strengthens response
    significantly

18
Tier 1
  • All students
  • Evidence-based differential instruction in the
    general classroom setting
  • Guided by progress monitoring
  • Implemented for minimum of 4 weeks

19
Tier 2
  • Students experiencing academic and/or behavioral
    difficulties
  • (identified through progress monitoring data)
  • Instruction that uses established intervention
    protocols
  • Frequent progress monitoring
  • Tier 1 strategies continue
  • Implemented for minimum of 6 weeks

20
Tier 3
  • Students participating in the Student Support
    Team
  • Individualized assessment and interventions
  • More frequent progress monitoring
  • Tier 1 strategies continue
  • Time/intensity of supplemental instruction at
    Tier 2 increases

21
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY
SCHOOLS
  • Elementary Focus on basic skills (learning to
    read)
  • Secondary Focus on content (reading to learn)
  • Elementary One to two teachers
  • Secondary Five to seven teachers
  • Elementary Reading and Writing Narrative
  • Secondary Reading and Writing Expository

22
SOME ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT RTI
  • Students who do well in Tier One wont have
    problems
  • in later grades and Vice Versa
  • Students who do well in Tier Two will go back
    to Tier One - and stay there
  • Students who dont do well in Tier Two will
    probably be identified as LD - Nobody will be
    identified at the secondary level?

23
What kinds of students will need RTI at the
secondary level?
  • Number of students who are identified in middle
    and high school
  • Students who do okay early on but have
    problems when expectations change
  • Students who did not get good early
    intervention
  • Problems with vocabulary accumulate
  • Wide range of problems some still struggle
    with early skills, others have comprehension
    difficulties

24
WHAT WOULD RTI LOOK LIKE AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL
IN TERMS OF INTERVENTION AND PROGRESS MONITORING?
  • Some Initial Research by Vaughn et al
  • Tier one Require Prof. Dev. For Content
    Teachers on Effective Practices in Reading and
    Comprehension of Academic Texts and
    Vocabulary/Concept Development

25
WHAT WOULD RTI LOOK LIKE AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL
IN TERMS OF INTERVENTION AND PROGRESS MONITORING?
  • TIER 2 Teach Word Level Skills, More Intensive,
    Supplemental Instruction in Comprehension and
    Vocabulary and Facilitate Their Use in Tier One
    Activities

26
WHAT WOULD RTI LOOK LIKE AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL
IN TERMS OF INTERVENTION AND PROGRESS MONITORING?
  • Screening Prediction
  • State Assessments of Reading Comprehension
  • Word and Passage Reading Fluency
  • Correct Word Sequences - 7 min. writing
    sample
  • Progress Monitoring
  • Comprehension Measure - test on passages
  • Three Minute Maze Test
  • Vocabulary Matching
  • progressmonitoring.org (Espin et al.)

27
RESEARCH SUPPORTED INTERVENTIONS THAT IMPACT
GENERAL EDUCATION CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE AT THE
SECONDARY LEVEL
  • Self-Management Techniques
  • Study Guides (paper computer- based)
  • Graphic Organizers
  • Class wide Peer Tutoring

28
1-5
1-5
5- 10
29
How do we know the Intervention is working?
  • Progress monitoring
  • As we increase the intervention, we must monitor
    the students progress to determine the
    effectiveness of the intervention.

30
What Tier? (Activity)
  • Remember
  • Interventions are selected based on
  • Progress monitoring data
  • Information obtained using problem solving

31
Scenario 1
  • 85 of students in a 3rd grade are achieving AYP
  • Referred student has been in the school for 3
    years and is 2 years below benchmark expectation
  • Referred student has been absent an average of 43
    days in the past 2 years.
  • Question Has this student been exposed to
    effective instruction?
  • Question What Tier is this student in?

32
Scenario 2
  • 90 of 3rd grade students are achieving AYP
  • Referred student has been in this school since
    Kgn, has attended 4 schools, excellent
    attendance, no significant health history and has
    received a variety of interventions in reading
    twice a week in small group
  • Referred student performance is 50 of peers in
    reading and at grade level in math
  • Question Has this student been exposed to an
    effective learning environment?
  • Question What Tier is this student in?

33
Small Group Discussion
  • What are the barriers of implementing the RTI
    model?
  • What are the benefits of implementing the RTI
    model?

34
Barriers of RTI
  • Its a different way of doing instructing for
    some.
  • It requires new skill set for some.
  • Interventions are integrated, not done by team
    members or special educators only.
  • Requires frequent data collection and analysis
  • Focus is on how and student is doing (progressing
    on the intervention), not WHERE the student is
    going (special education)

35
Benefits of RTI
  • Enhanced Student Performance
  • Accountability - Ensures that the student
    receives appropriate instruction.
  • Greater staff involvement, parent involvement,
    and student involvement
  • Reduce the time a student waits before receiving
    additional instructional assistance.
  • Reduce the overall number of students referred
    for special education services and increase the
    number of students who succeed within general
    education.
  • Limit the amount of unnecessary testing that has
    little or no instructional relevance.

36
Scheduling Interventions
37
Scheduling
  • Establishing a workable schedule that maximizes
    school personnel resources and a high degree of
    collaboration among all members of the teaching
    force of a school.
  • The assignment of specific blocks of time each
    day devoted to tiered instruction proves to be a
    workable mechanism for organization.
  • Schools use various terms for the tiered
    instructional block such as "tier time,
    Thrilling Thursday, "power hour," or "skill
    groups.

38
Scheduling
  • The schedule assigns specific teachers to each
    block, with general education teachers assigned
    mostly to Tier 1, reading specialists typically
    assigned to Tier 2, and Tier 3 and special
    education teachers assigned to Tier 3.
  • In addition, general education teachers trained
    on the delivery of specific instructional
    programs are also periodically assigned to Tier
    2.

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Break 15 minutes
41
Session II
42
Effective vs. Research based interventions
43
Intervention
  • A change in instructing a student in the area of
    learning or behavioral difficulty to try to
    improve performance and achieve adequate progress.

44
What are interventions?
  • What Are Interventions?
  • Targeted assistance based on progress monitoring
  • Administered by classroom teacher, specialized
    teacher, or external interventionist
  • Provides additional instruction (e.g.
    Individual,, Small group, and/or technology
    assisted
  • Match curricular materials and instructional
    level
  • Modify modes of task presentation
  • Modify instruction time
  • Match curricular materials and instructional
    level
  • Teach additional learning strategies
    Organizational / Metacognitive / Work habits
  • Change Curriculum
  • Add intensive one to one or small group
    instruction

45
Interventions are not
  • Preferential seating
  • Shortened assignments
  • Parent contacts
  • Classroom observations
  • Suspension
  • Doing MORE of the same / general classroom
    assignments
  • Retention
  • Peer-tutoring

46
Evident or Best Practices interventions are
  • Supported by expert opinion as appropriate for
    remediation of a deficit area
  • Effective, but has not been part of a clinical
    trial

47
Synopsis of Tier 1
  • Tier 1
  • All students
  • Evidence-based differential instruction in the
    general classroom setting
  • Guided by progress monitoring
  • Implemented for minimum of 4 weeks

48
Tier 1
  • Successful programs implement a
    scientifically-based reading program as a basal
    series.
  • These are supplements to the core curriculum
  • Target specific skills (e.g., phonemic awareness)
  • Use of external staff (e.g., para-professionals,
    volunteers)

49
Empirically-based instruction
  • Instruction based on evidence/research.
  • Curriculum that are research based and have been
    proven to be effective for most students

50
Where to find empirically based programs?
  • What Works Clearinghouse http//ies.ed.gov/ncee/w
    wc/
  • An initiative of the U.S. Department of
    Education's Institute of Education Sciences, the
    WWC Produces user-friendly practice guides for
    educators that address instructional challenges
    with research-based recommendations for schools
    and classrooms 
  • Assesses the rigor of research evidence on the
    effectiveness of interventions (programs,
    products, practices, and policies), giving
    educators the tools to make informed decisions 
  • Develops and implements standards for reviewing
    and synthesizing education research and 
  • Provides a public and easily accessible registry
    of education evaluation researchers to assist
    schools, school districts, and program developers
    with designing and carrying out rigorous
    evaluations.

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  • What Works Clearinghouse Standards for Studies.
  • http//ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/references/idocviewer/D
    oc.aspx?docId19tocId11

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Beginning Reading
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Differentiate Instruction
  • multi-faceted customization done by the teacher.
  • provides all types of learners with opportunities
    to both use innate strengths and to shore up
    weaknesses in a variety of experiences,
    activities, and assessments.

69
4 ways to differentiate instruction
  • Differentiating the Content/Topic
  • Differentiating the Process/Activities
  • Differentiating the Product
  • Diffferentiating By Manipulating The Environment
    or Through Accommodating Individual Learning
    Styles

70
Compacting the Curriculum
  • (1) defining the goals and outcomes of a
    particular unit or segment of instruction,
  • (2) determining and documenting which students
    have already mastered most or all of a specified
    set of learning outcomes
  • (3) providing replacement strategies for material
    already mastered through the use of instructional
    options that enable a more challenging and
    productive use of the student's time.

71
Differentiating the Process
  • varying learning activities or strategies to
    provide appropriate methods for students to
    explore the concepts.
  • Graphic organizers, maps, diagrams or charts to
    display their comprehension of concepts covered
  • Printable Graphic Organizers
  • http//www.teachervision.fen.com/graphic-organizer
    s/printable/6293.html

72
Differentiating the Product
73
Differentiating by Manipulating
Environment/Learning Styles
  • Environment
  • change the lighting or sound levels, to eliminate
    visual distracters, or to provide a more casual
    seating arrangement for students.

74
Differentiating by Manipulating
Environment/Learning Styles
  • Multiple Intelligence Theory
  • Ability to read, write, and communicate w/words.
  • ability to reason and calculate, to think things
    through in a logical, systematic manner.
  • ability to think in pictures, visualize a future
    result.
  • ability to make or compose music, to sing well,
    or understand and appreciate music.
  • ability to use your body skillfully to solve
    problems, create products or present ideas and
    emotions.
  • ability to work effectively with others, to
    relate to other people, and display empathy and
    understanding, to notice their motivations and
    goals.
  • ability for self-analysis and reflectionto be
    able to quietly contemplate and assess one's
    accomplishments, to review one's behavior and
    innermost feelings, to make plans and set goals,
    the capacity to know oneself.
  • ability to recognize flora and fauna, to make
    other consequential distinctions in the natural
    world and to use this ability productivelyfor
    example in hunting, farming, or biological
    science.

75
Strategies
  • Readiness / Ability
  • Activities for each group are often
    differentiated by complexity. Students whose
    understanding is below grade level will work at
    tasks inherently less complex than those
    attempted by more advanced students. Those
    students whose reading level is below grade level
    will benefit by reading with a buddy or listening
    to stories/instructions using a tape recorder so
    that they receive information verbally.
  • Varying the level of questioning (and consequent
    thinking skills) and compacting the curriculum
    and  are useful strategies for accommodating
    differences in ability or readiness.

76
Strategies
  • Adjusting Questions
  • During large group discussion activities,
    teachers direct the higher level questions to the
    students who can handle them and adjust questions
    accordingly for student with greater needs. All
    students are answering important questions that
    require them to think but the questions are
    targeted towards the students ability or
    readiness level. 

77
Strategies
  • Compacting Curriculum
  • Compacting the curriculum means assessing a
    students knowledge, skills and attitudes and
    providing alternative activities for the student
    who has already mastered curriculum content. 
    This can be achieved by pre-testing basic
    concepts or using performance assessment methods.
    Students who demonstrate that they do not require
    instruction move on to tiered problem solving
    activities while others receive instruction.
  • Tiered Assignments
  • Tiered activities are a series of related tasks
    of varying complexity. All of these
    activities relate to essential understanding and
    key skills that students need to acquire. 
    Teachers assign the activities as alternative
    ways of reaching the same goals taking into
    account individual student needs.

78
Strategies
  • Acceleration/Deceleration
  • Accelerating or decelerating the pace that
    students move through curriculum is another
    method of differentiating instruction.  Students
    demonstrating a high level of competence can work
    through the curriculum at a faster pace. Students
    experiencing difficulties may need adjusted
    activities that allow for a slower pace in order
    to experience success.
  • Flexible Grouping
  • As student performance will vary it is important
    to permit movement between groups.  Students
    readiness varies depending on personal talents
    and interests, so we must remain open to the
    concept that a student may be below grade level
    in one subject at the same time as being above
    grade level in another subject. 

79
Strategies
  • Peer Teaching
  • Occasionally a student may have personal needs
    that require one-on-one instruction that go
    beyond the needs of his or her peers. After
    receiving this extra instruction the student
    could be designated as the "resident expert" for
    that concept or skill and can get valuable
    practice by being given the opportunity to
    re-teach the concept to peers. In these
    circumstances both students benefit. 
  • Learning Profiles/Styles
  • Another filter for assigning students to tasks is
    by learning styles, such as adjusting preferred
    environment (quiet, lower lighting, formal/casual
    seating etc.) or learning modality auditory
    (learns best by hearing information) visual
    (learns best through seeing information in charts
    or pictures)  or kinesthetic preferences (learns
    best by using concrete examples, or may need to
    move around while learning) or through personal
    interests. Since student motivation is also a
    unique element in learning, understanding
    individual learning styles and interests will
    permit teachers to apply appropriate strategies
    for developing intrinsic motivational techniques.

80
Strategies
  • Student Interest
  • Interest surveys are often used for determining
    student interest. Brainstorming for subtopics
    within a curriculum concept and using semantic
    webbing to explore interesting facets of the
    concept is another effective tool. This is also
    an effective way of teaching students how to
    focus on a manageable subtopic. Mindmanager /
    (http//Mindjet.com) and Inspiration are two very
    useful software applications that can facilitate
    the teacher in guiding students through exploring
    a concept and focusing on manageable and
    personally interesting subtopics.
  • Reading Buddies
  • This strategy is particularly useful for younger
    students and/or students with reading
    difficulties. Children get additional practice
    and experience reading away from the teacher as
    they develop fluency and comprehension.   It is
    important that students read with a specific
    purpose in mind and then have an opportunity to
    discuss what was read.  It is not necessary for
    reading buddies to always be at the same reading
    level. Students with varying word recognition,
    word analysis and comprehension skills can help
    each other be more successful. Adjusted follow up
    tasks are also assigned based on readiness level.

81
Strategies
  • Independent Study Projects
  • Independent Study is a research project where
    students learn how to develop the skills for
    independent learning. The degree of help and
    structure will vary between students and depend
    on their ability to manage ideas, time and
    productivity. A modification of the independent
    study is the buddy-study. 
  • Buddy-Studies
  • A buddy-study permits two or three students to
    work together on a project. The expectation is
    that all may share the research and
    analysis/organization of information but each
    student must complete an individual product to
    demonstrate learning that has taken place and be
    accountable for their own planning, time
    management and individual accomplishment.

82
Strategies
  • Learning Contracts
  • A learning contract is a written agreement
    between teacher and student that will result in
    students working independently. The contract
    helps students to set daily and weekly work goals
    and develop management skills. It also helps the
    teacher to keep track of each students progress.
    The actual assignments will vary according to
    specific student needs.
  • Learning Centers
  • Learning Centers have been used by teachers for a
    long time and may contain both differentiated and
    compulsory activities. However a learning center
    is not necessarily differentiated unless the
    activities are varied by complexity taking in to
    account different student ability and readiness.
    It is important that students understand what is
    expected of them at the learning center and are
    encouraged to manage their use of time. The
    degree of structure that is provided will vary
    according to student independent work habits. At
    the end of each week students should be able to
    account for their use of time.

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Differentiated Instruction and RTI
  • Differentiated instruction is an approach to
    teaching and learning for students of differing
    abilities in the same class.
  • Differentiation is an instructional model.
  • Interventions are differentiated throughout all
    tiers of the model.

84
Assessment and RTIWe need to assess student
progress to know if the instruction/intervention
is effective.
  • Assessments
  • Summative and Formative Assessment
  • CBM
  • Benchmarks

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Summative and Formative Assessment
  • Summative assessments way to gauge student
    learning at any point. What has the student
    learned or not?
  • State assessments
  • District benchmark or interim assessments
  • End-of-unit or chapter tests
  • End-of-term or semester exams
  • Scores that are used for accountability for
    schools (AYP) and students (report card grades).
  • Formative assessment is a part of the
    instructional process that provides information
    to adjust teaching and learning while it occurs.
    Students do not receive grades. This just a way
    to assess what they have or have not learned from
    instruction and determine the course of
    instruction.

86
Curriculum Based Measurement -CBM
  • A method of monitoring a students educational
    progress through direct assessment of basic
    academic skills in basic reading, reading
    comprehension, reading fluency, mathematics,
    spelling, written expression, and phonemic
    awareness skills.

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What is a probe?
  • A timed worksheet.

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CBM is
  • Student is given a probe once a week or bi-weekly
    to see if the academic skill is improving or not
  • Probes typically 1-4 minutes in duration
  • Probes are pre-made. These probes can be
    purchased, obtained online (free), or made from
    course text.
  • Probes have standard directions and scoring
    rules.
  • Provides indicator of basic skills

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Baseline Data
  • Initial information taken on a skill or behavior.
  • Students skill level before intervention begins.
  • Serves as the reference point for all future
    data collected on a student.

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Benchmarks
  • Definition Students who are making expected
    progress in the general education curriculum and
    who demonstrate social competence
  • Benchmark also describes those school-wide
    interventions that are available to all students
  • Effective instruction
  • Clear expectations
  • Effective student support
  • Periodic benchmark assessments
  • Universal prevention

91
Progress Monitoring
  • Progress monitoring scientifically based
    practice used to assess students academic
    performance and evaluate the effectiveness of
    instruction. Progress monitoring can be
    implemented with individual students or an entire
    class.

92
CBM in Reading
  • This one is easydo DIBELS
  • If you are interested in doing CBM reading probes
    in addition to DIBELS, go to
  • http//www.jimwrightonline.com/pdfdocs/cbmresource
    s/cbmdirections/cbmread.pdf

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Tier 1 Reading Screening
  • Reading Probe
  • Individually administered
  • Materials A content-controlled reading passage.
  • Procedure The student reads aloud as the teacher
    listens and records errors.
  • Timing 1 minute
  • Information obtained words read correctly in one
    minute.

94
CBM Reading Sample Scoring
  • TRW63
  • Errors5
  • CRW58

95
CBM in Spelling
  • This will not be appropriate since spelling is
    not a very good indicator of written expression
    skills but it can be useful to use in your whole
    class or for individual students who are
    struggling with spelling.
  • See JimWrightOnline.com

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CBM in Written Expression
  • Similar to using story starters for journal
    writing only much faster
  • For kindergarten, Written Expression is usually
    writing letters and maybe simple words. For some
    probes to measure early writing skills, go to
    www.interventioncentral.org

97
Guidelines for story starters
  • The story starter should be printed at the top of
    a lined piece of paper before administering
  • Use grade appropriate story starters
  • Avoid starters that encourage list making
  • The starter should be open ended to that yes or
    no answers would not work.
  • Story starters, printable writing sheets, etc.
    httpwww.sabine.k12.la.us/zes/writing/default.htm
  • Some free stuff, some paid worksheets, writing
    sheets www.teach-nology.com

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Administering Writing Probes
  • Have the materials ready
  • Student copy of writing probe with story starter
  • Copy of the standardized directions to read
  • Stopwatch
  • Pencils for students
  • Distribute the writing probes to the student or
    students

99
Writing Probe Directions
  • Read this verbatim every time even when you know
    the students know the directions
  • I want you to write a story. I am going to read
    a sentence to you first, and then I want you to
    write a short story about what happens. You will
    have 1-minute to think about the story you will
    write and then have 3-minutes to write it. Do
    your best work. If you dont know how to spell a
    word, you should guess. Are there any questions?
  • Start the stopwatch
  • After 1 minute, say, start writing
  • Start stopwatch again to allow 3-minutes of
    writing. Monitor the student or students to be
    sure they are writing, have their pencils, etc.
  • If a student asks a question about their writing,
    tell them to just do their best.
  • At the end of 3-minutes, say, Stop writing and
    collect the probes.

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Scoring Written Expression CBM
  • Scoring Options are
  • Total Words Count (incorrectly spelled words are
    counted)
  • Total Letter Count (incorrectly spelled words are
    counted)
  • Correctly Spelled Words Count
  • Correct Writing Sequences Count
  • Note You must use the same scoring method each
    time you score a particular students writing
    probes so pick one you can stick with.
  • http//www.jimwrightonline.com/pdfdocs/cbmresource
    s/cbmdirections.cbmwrit.pdf

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1. Total Word Count Scoring
  • The score is the number of words written in the
    three minute time period
  • Misspelled words are included as long as you can
    figure out that they meant.
  • Numbers in numerical form are not counted (e.g.
    5, 17)

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Written Expression Total Word Count Scoring
  • Pros
  • Quick
  • Easy
  • Reliably correlates with overall written
    expression skills
  • Cons
  • Only a rough estimate of writing fluency
  • No consideration for spelling, punctuation, other
    writing conventions

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Written Expression Total Word Count Scoring
  • Example
  • I woud drink water from the ocean
    ...07
  • and I woud eat the fruit off of.....0
    8
  • the trees. Then I woud bilit a .....0
    7
  • house out of tress, and I woud ..07
  • gather firewood to stay warm. I
    .....06
  • woud try and fix my boat in my ..08
  • spare time. ....02
  • Word Total 45

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2. Total Letter Count Scoring
  • The score is the total number of letters written.
  • Misspelled words are included as long as you can
    figure out that they meant.
  • Numbers in numerical form are not counted (e.g.
    5, 17)

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Written Expression Total Letter Count Scoring
  • Pros
  • Quick
  • Easy
  • Takes longer words into account in scoring so
    that a student who writes few words but tends to
    use longer words would have a low score on Word
    Count but a higher score on Letter Count.
  • Cons
  • Still just looking at writing fluency
  • Still not examining a students mastery of
    writing

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Written Expression Total Letter Count Scoring
  • Example
  • I woud drink water from the ocean ..
    27
  • and I woud eat the fruit off of.....2
    4
  • the trees. Then I woud bilit a .....2
    3
  • house out of tress, and I woud ..23
  • gather firewood to stay warm. I
    .....25
  • woud try and fix my boat in my ..23
  • spare time. ....09
  • Letter Total 154

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3. Correctly Spelled Words Scoring
  • Only those words that are spelled correctly are
    counted in the score
  • Words are considered separately, not within
    context of the sentence. So, in the sentence,
    the boy red the book, the word red would be
    counted as correct even though it is not correct
    in the context of the sentence.

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Written Expression Correctly Spelled Word Count
Scoring
  • Pros
  • Quick
  • Easy
  • Monitors, to some degree, a students mastery of
    writing.
  • Cons
  • Still not fully examining a students mastery of
    writing conventions, only fluency and spelling

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Written Expression Total Correctly Spelled Word
Count Scoring
  • Example
  • I woud drink water from the ocean ...
    06
  • and I woud eat the fruit off of......
    07
  • the trees. Then I woud bilit a .....0
    5
  • house out of tress, and I woud ..06
  • gather firewood to stay warm. I
    .....06
  • woud try and fix my boat in my ..07
  • spare time. .......02
  • Correctly Spelled Words 39

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4. Correct Writing Sequences Count Scoring
  • Units of writing and their relation to one
    another are scored
  • Units are sequential pairs of words and
    essential marks of punctuation
  • Each writing sequence must be correctly spelled
    and be grammatically correct.
  • The words in each writing sequence must make
    sense within the context of the sentence.
  • A caret () is used to mark the presence of a
    correct writing sequence.

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Correct Writing Sequences Scoring
  • Two correctly spelled words in a row make up a
    correct writing sequence.
  • Titles are included in the correct writing
    sequence count
  • Reversed letters are acceptable, so long as they
    do not lead to a misspelling.
  • The first word, if spelled correctly, is
    considered a sequence in its own
  • Necessary marks of punctuation (excluding commas)
    are included in correct writing sequences.

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  • Example
  • Is that a red car ?
  • Total correct writing sequences (as marked by
    carets) is 6.

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  • Syntactically correct words make up a correct
    writing sequence
  • Example
  • Is that a red car ?
  • Is that a car red ?

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  • Semantically correct words make up a correct
    writing sequence
  • Example
  • Is that a red car ?
  • Is that a read car ?

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  • With the exception of dates, numbers written in
    numerical form are not included in the correct
    writing sequence count
  • Example
  • The 14 soldiers waited in the cold .
  • The crash occurred in 1976 .

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Written Expression Total Correct Writing
Sequences Count Scoring
  • Example
  • I woud drink water from the ocean
    ... 05
  • and I woud eat the fruit off
    of......05
  • the trees . Then I woud bilit a
    .......04
  • house out of trees, and I woud
    ..04
  • gather firewood to stay warm . I
    .....06
  • woud try and fix my boat in my
    06
  • spare time . .....02
  • Correct Writing
    Sequences 32

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Correct Writing Sequences Scoring
  • Pros
  • Yields the most comprehensive information about a
    students mastery of written language
  • Cons
  • More time consuming than the other methods.

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Tier 1 Writing Screening
  • Writing Probe
  • Group administered.
  • Materials story starter (e.g., If I had a
    million dollars) printed at the top of a blank
    page.
  • Timing 1 minute to think, 3 minutes to write.
  • Scoring words written or correct word sequences
    in three minutes.

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Writing Example
120
Math CBM Probes
  • Math probes can be generated at
    www.interventioncentral.org/htmdocs/tools/mathprob
    es/addsing.php
  • You can make probes for addition, subtraction,
    multiplication and division
  • Probes can be generated for any level of
    complexity such as with or without regrouping,
    how many digits, etc.
  • Probes can also be generated with a mixture of
    skills very helpful in seeing where a student
    is in their abilities.

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Math CBM directions
  • Distribute the probes to the student or students
  • Read this verbatim every time even when you know
    the students know the directions
  • The sheets on your desk are math facts.
  • (for single skill probes) All the problems are
    addition or subtraction or multiplication or
    division facts.
  • (for multiple skill probes) there are several
    types of problems on the sheet. Some are
    addition, some are subtraction, some are
    multiplication and some are division as
    appropriate. Look at each problem carefully
    before you answer it.

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Math Probe Directions
  • When I say start, turn them over and begin
    answering the problems. Start on the first
    problem on the left on the top row point to
    sample. Work across and then go to the next row.
    If you cant answer the problem, make an X on
    it and go to the next one. If you finish one
    side, go to the back if appropriate. Are there
    any questions? Start.
  • Start the stopwatch immediately.
  • Make sure the students are working on the correct
    sheet, completing problems in the right order,
    and that they have their pencils, etc.
  • After 2 minutes, say stop and collect the
    probes.

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Scoring CBM Math Probes
  • Wrong answer can receive credit. Event though you
    give credit for a wrong answer, the student
    doesnt know so you are not encouraging
    incorrect work.
  • This scoring allows you to see small bits of
    growth in the students skills and sometimes
    identify where they are making their mistakes to
    guide intervention.

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Scoring
  • Individual correct digits are counted as correct
  • Reversed or rotated digits are not counted as
    errors unless the change in position makes them
    appear to be another digit (e.g. 6 and 9)
  • Incorrect digits are counted as errors
  • Digits which appear in the wrong place value,
    even if otherwise correct, are scored as errors
  • 759 is the correct answer to this problem, but
    no credit is given since the addition of the 0
    pushes the other digits out of their proper
    place-value positions.
  • Example 759 is the correct answer to this
    problem, but no credit is given since the
    addition of the 0 pushes the other digits out
    of their proper place-value positions.
  • 416
  • 343
  • 7590

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Scoring
  • In more complex problems such as advanced
    multiplication, the student is given credit for
    all correct numbers that appear below the line.
  • Example
  • Credit is given for all work below the line. In
    this example, the student earns credit for 9
    correct digits.
  • 120
  • x 32
  • 240
  • 360
  • 600

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Scoring
  • Credit is not given for any numbers appearing
    above the line (e.g., numbers marked at the top
    of number columns to signify regrouping).
  • Credit is given for the two digits below the
    line. However, the carried 1 above the line
    does not get credit.
  • Example
  • 1
  • 37
  • 24
  • 61
  • Credit is given for the two digits below the
    line. However, the carried 1 above the line
    does not get credit.

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Scoring
  • Credit is given for place-holder numerals that
    are included simply to correctly align the
    problems. As long as the student includes the
    correct spacer, credit is given whether or not a
    0 has actually been inserted.
  • Credit is given for the place holder in both
    cases. When it is not actually written in, a
    space should be reserved as shown.
  • Example
  • 55 55
  • x 72 x 72
  • 110 110
  • 120_ 1200
  • 2310 2310
  • Credit is given for the place holder in both
    cases. When it is not actually written in, a
    space should be reserved as shown.

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Scoring
Count the number of digits correct and incorrect
per minute (For all skills except long division,
only digits below the line are counted). If the
child does not complete the full probe before
time is up. . . Digits Correct Digits
Correct Per Minute of Minutes Timed For
Probe Example30 Digits Correct 10 Digits
Correct Per Minute3 Minutes (e.g., 3rd grade)
129
Scoring Digits CorrectAddition and Subtraction
Problems
  • Each CORRECT digit in the answer is counted.
  • Use a Number to Number Matching approach to
    score digits correct.
  • Scoring a problem as correct or incorrect does
    not address a childs gradual acquisition of
    skills across time.

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Tier 1 Math Screening
  • Math Probe
  • Group administered.
  • Materials Worksheet consisting of a series of
    problems sampling the target skill(s) (e.g., sums
    to 5, double digit multiplication with
    regrouping).
  • Timing 2 minutes
  • Information obtained digits correct in two
    minutes.

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Math Probe Example
  • Total Digits 38
  • Errors 5
  • Digits Correct 33

132
Tier 1 Assessing all Students
  • You have been provided evidence-based
    differential instruction in the general classroom
    setting. We need to find evidence you are
    progressing based on the current intervention.
  • Math probe.
  • Complete Graph

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Graph
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Session III
137
Synopsis of Tier 2
  • Tier 2
  • Students experiencing academic and/or behavioral
    difficulties
  • (identified through progress monitoring data)
  • Instruction that uses established intervention
    protocols
  • Frequent progress monitoring
  • Tier 1 strategies continue
  • Implemented for minimum of 6 weeks

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Characteristics of Tier 2 Interventions
  • Available in general education settings
  • Opportunity to increase exposure (academic
    engaged time) to curriculum
  • Sufficient time for interventions to have an
    effect (10-30 weeks)
  • Often are standardized supplemental curriculum
    protocols (K-3 Academic Support Plan)

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Core Features
  • Small Groups (e.g., 13, 15)
  • 10-12 wks, 3-4x per wk, 30-60 min per session
  • Scripted, specific interventions
  • Point system for motivation
  • Immediate corrective feedback
  • More time spent on difficult activities
  • More opportunities to respond
  • Setting goals and self monitoring

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How to create Tier 2 options?
  • Staggering times during which similar curriculum
    is delivered
  • Reading Instruction delivered at different times
    by different teachers
  • Offering same curriculum across multiple times
  • High School example where student takes algebra
    two consecutive periods, but gets credit for one
    period.

141
Remember
  • Increased opportunity to learn
  • Increased instructional time
  • Increased assessment
  • Data collection and analysis
  • Data-based decision-making

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Tier 2 What is a Good Response to
Intervention?
  • Good Response
  • Gap is closing
  • Questionable Response
  • Rate at which gap is widening slows considerably,
    but gap is still widening
  • Gap stops widening but closure does not occur
  • Poor Response
  • Gap continues to widen with no change in rate.

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For Example
  • Skill Deficit Reading Fluency
  • Intervention Drill Sandwich

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Progress Monitoring Tool
  • Dibels
  • AIMSweb
  • CBM Reading Fluency Probe (intervention
    central)

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CBM Oral Reading Fluency
  • Administration of CBM reading probes
  • The examiner and the student sit across the table
    from each other. The
  • examiner hands the student the unnumbered copy of
    the CBM reading passage. The
  • examiner takes the numbered copy of the passage,
    shielding it from the student's
  • view.
  • The examiner says to the student
  • When I say, 'start,' begin reading aloud at the
    top of this page.
  • Read across the page demonstrate by pointing.
    Try to read each
  • word. If you come to a word you don't know, I'll
    tell it to you.
  • Be sure to do your best reading. Are there any
    questions?
  • Pause Start.

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  • The examiner begins the stopwatch when the
    student says the first word. If the
  • student does not say the initial word within 3
    seconds, the examiner says the word
  • and starts the stopwatch. As the student reads
    along in the text, the examiner
  • records any errors by marking a slash (/) through
    the incorrectly read word. If the
  • student hesitates for 3 seconds on any word, the
    examiner says the word and marks
  • it as an error. At the end of 1 minute, the
    examiner says, Stop and marks the
  • student's concluding place in the text with a
    bracket ( ).

148
First Grade Level Probe
  • Jack camps. He is six. He likes the big woods. He
    lives
  • off the land. He follows a turtle. They are
    green. They
  • are slow. They are fun. Jack calls the ducks. It
    is fun.
  • They are blue. He watches them move. They fly in
    the sky.
  • It is fun. He sees them swim. He swims too. Jack
    works for
  • his food. He sees a lake. He fishes. He got four
    fish. He
  • makes a fire. He cooks fish. It is night. He can
    see the
  • stars. It is fun

149
Scoring
  • Reading fluency is calculated by first
    determining the total words attempted
  • within the timed reading probe and then deducting
    from that total the number of
  • incorrectly read words.
  • The following scoring rules will aid the
    instructor in marking the reading
  • probe
  • Words read correctly are scored as correct
  • --Self-corrected words are counted as correct.
  • --Repetitions are counted as correct.
  • --Inserted words are ignored.
  • Mispronunciations are counted as errors.
  • Example
  • Text The small gray fox ran to the cover of the
    trees.
  • Student "The smill gray fox ran to the cover of
    the trees."

150
Scoring contd
  • Substitutions are counted as errors.
  • Example
  • Text When she returned to the house, Grandmother
    called for Franchesca.
  • Student "When she returned to the home,
    Grandmother called for
  • Franchesca.
  • Omissions are counted as errors.
  • Example
  • Text Anna could not compete in the last race.
  • Student "Anna could not in the last race.
  • Transpositions of word-pairs are counted as 1
    error.
  • Example
  • Text She looked at the bright, shining face of
    the sun.
  • Student "She looked at the shining bright face
    of the sun."
  • Words read to the student by the examiner after 3
    seconds have
  • gone by are counted as errors.

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Interventions and Progress Monitoring- Data
Collection (Activity)
  • Review the data from the scenario.
  • Based on the current data, What does your team
    recommend?

158
Scenario
  • Jocelyn is a 10th grade student. She attends
    Helpful High School where all students are
    provided with instruction through the curriculum.
    In September, she was identified as an at-risk
    student in writing based on her Standardized Test
    scores. Her English teacher differentiates
    instruction by providing her writing checklists.
    At a conference 7 weeks later, her writing
    samples were reviewed. Jocelyn continued to
    display difficulty writing only one paragraph for
    a 5 paragraph assignment. Jocelyns teacher
    discusses this information with her parents and
    recommends supplemental instruction. After 6
    weeks, an analysis of her writing indicates
    limited improvement in writing quantity.

159
Break 15 minutes
160
Session IV
161
Synopsis of Tier 3
  • Tier 3
  • Students participating in the Student Support
    Team
  • Individualized assessment and interventions
    (Intervention Manual)
  • More frequent progress monitoring
  • Tier 1 strategies continue
  • Time/intensity of supplemental instruction at
    Tier 2 increases

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Tier 3
  • Increased intensity of interventions (e.g.,
    frequency of delivery, amount of time, duration,
    best validated)
  • Individually tailored interventions
  • Instructional grouping of lt 13
  • Frequent progress monitoring measures
  • Delivered by general education with consultation
    and collaboration by special education

163
Pyramid of Interventions 3 Tiers of Instruction
using academic interventions
164
Problem-solving is
  • A process designed to maximize student
    achievement
  • A method focused on outcomes
  • A method to ensure accountability and
    intervention evaluation
  • It is all about student progress

165
Collaborative Problem Solving
  • The Problem-Solving Method is defined as a
    systematic and data-based process for
    identifying, defining, and resolving students
    academic and/or behavioral difficulties.

166
Problem Solving Process
Defining problem/Directly Measuring Behavior
Analyze the Problem Identify the variables that
contribute to problem, then develop a plan.
Evaluate the Students Response to the
Intervention
Implement Plan Implement the intervention as
intended Progress Monitor Modify as Necessary
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Steps in the Problem-Solving Process
  • PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
  • Identify replacement behavior
  • Data- current level of performance
  • Data- benchmark level(s)
  • Data- peer performance
  • Data- GAP analysis
  • PROBLEM ANALYSIS
  • Develop hypotheses( brainstorming)
  • Develop predictions/assessment
  • INTERVENTION DEVELOPMENT
  • Develop interventions in those areas for
    which data are available and hypotheses
    verified
  • Implementation support
  • Response to Intervention (RTI)
  • Frequently collected data
  • Type of Response- good, questionable, poor

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Data Required for Problem Identification
  • Current Level of Functioning
  • Benchmark/Desired Level
  • Peer Performance
  • GAP Analysis

169
Problem Identification
  • Data is essential
  • Current level (Baseline for RTI)
  • Benchmark level (Needed to determine rate of
    progress required)
  • Peer level (Needed to determine Tier 1 or 2
    intervention protocol)
  • GAP (Needed to determine scope of work to be done
    and length of time required to do it)

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Problem Analysis
  • Why is problem occurring?
  • Facilitate Problem Analysis
  • Skill vs performance
  • Develop Hypotheses
  • Which ones supported by data?
  • Note Specific Hypotheses -must lead to
    interventions.
  • Link the assessment to intervention.

171
Hypotheses
  • Reasons why student is not able to do desired
    behavior
  • Ensure it is not due to lack of instruction (e.g.
    frequent moves)

172
How Do We Confirm Hypothesis?
  • Assessment
  • Observe student
  • Formal tests
  • Work samples
  • Intervention and Progress monitoring

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Criteria for Evaluating Response to Intervention
  • Is the gap between current rate or gap between
    slopes of current and benchmark closing? If yes,
    this is a POSITIVE RTI
  • Is the gap parallel, closing but not meeting? If
    yes, this is a QUESTIONABLE RTI
  • If the rate/slope remains unchanged OR if there
    is improvement but shows no evidence of closing
    the gap, then this is a POOR RTI

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Problem Solving Strengths
  • Can be applied to the student, classroom,
    building, and district levels
  • Student- academic problem
  • Classroom- discipline, returning homework
  • Building- bullying, attendance
  • District- over-/under-representation
  • Problem- problem common to students in building

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Problem Solving Potential Weakness Areas
  • Applied consistently across students
  • Treatment fidelity

176
No response to intervention. Check the fidelity
of the intervention implementation.
177
Strategies that improve fidelity
  • Follow-up by a consultant/support staff, other
    team member
  • Presentation of student data illustrating
    response to intervention
  • Use graphs and charts to illustrate progress or
    no progress
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