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Empires to Decolonization to Neocolonialism (Globalization and economic relationships vs. Modernization)

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Title: Empires to Decolonization to Neocolonialism (Globalization and economic relationships vs. Modernization)


1
Empires to Decolonization to Neocolonialism (Globa
lization and economic relationships vs.
Modernization)
E C O N O M I C
Nation
Human rights
Todays World
Environmental issues
World
POLITICAL
2
Competing Economic Models
  • After World War II most of Europe was in ruins.
  • One quarter of Germanys cities were rubble
  • Yugoslavia had lost approximately 10 percent of
    its population
  • 27 million people had died in the Soviet Union
  • In China, survivors faced famine, disease, civil
    war, and revolution
  • Britain and France were bankrupt.
  • Forty four nations met at the original session of
    United Nations in July 1944 at Bretton Woods, New
    Hampshire to ensure post war economies did not
    return to the Autarky and Protectionism that had
    led to the rise of dictators.
  • The Bretton Woods Conference created the
    International Monetary Fund, as well as the
    International Bank for Reconstruction and
    Development (The World Bank)

3
Decolonization following wars
  • Causes instability in the region
  • After World War I
  • League of Nations mandates for Great Britain and
    France
  • Self-determination Atlantic Charter
  • After World War II
  • Post World War II settlements helped provide
    stability especially for the defeated Axis powers
    creating economic miracles for Japan, Germany
    and as a secondary effect for France.
  • Marshall Plan, Bretton Woods IMF, Common market
    (later EU)

4
Post WWII to present
  • End to European colonial Empires
  • Nationalism and independence
  • Different roads to freedom
  • Global impact
  • About 90 new countries
  • Pursuit of modernization
  • Cold War goes global
  • Superpowers
  • Nonaligned nations
  • Cold war ends (effects of dissolution of USSR
    1990s)
  • Ethnic conflict
  • New nations seek stability
  • Regional and global organizations
  • UN
  • NGO
  • Global Issues
  • Culture clash
  • Weapon escalation
  • Terrorism

5
Post-Surrender Terms for Japan Occupation of
Japan (August 1945 - April 1952)
  • Condition of Japan following war and peace treaty
    of October 1951 carried out by the Us (McArthur)
  • Japan was devastated as the cities (except
    Kyoto), the industries, and transportation
    networks were severely damaged.
  • A severe shortage of food continued for several
    years with Inflation the cost of living rose by
    10 percent each month for about two years.
  • The chief objective of SCAP were demilitarization
    and democratization as there would be continued
    U.S. military presence to protect it from
    communism Okinawa was to remain under U.S.
    occupation (1972) retaining rights to military
    bases.
  • Demilitarization
  • The remains of Japans war machine were
    destroyeddisarmed but eventually able to maintain
    self-defense forces
  • Japan basically lost all the territory seized
    after 1894,
  • Democratization
  • Economic reforms
  • Effort to eliminate big business conglomerates
    independent companies such as Honda, Toyota, and
    Sony emerged.
  • Land reform program to achieve a more equitable
    distribution of wealth.
  • nuclear power instead of petrolm based dependency
  • Keiretzu or Horizontal and vertical integration
  • Educational reforms
  • Efforts to remove militaristic and
    ultranationalistic influences from schools so
    suspended the teaching of Japanese history and
    geography until new textbooks could be written
    encouraged students to think (no rote learning).
  • Political reforms
  • Eliminate the power of the emperor (figurehead)
    announce that he was not divine peerage
    eliminated included war crimes trials
  • Make the executive power of the government
    responsible to the people or the representatives.
  • Establish a legislative body that would be
    directly responsible to all adult citizens
    (universal suffrage).

6
Post War Western Europe
  • Marshall Plan aid helped western Europe begin
    recovery in 1947
  • Korean War in 1950 stimulated economic activity.
  • Economic growth became a basic objective of all
    western European governments.
  • Governments accepted Keynesian economics to
    stimulate their economies.
  • Addresses the issue of relationship between the
    public and private sectors of business and the
    need for International economic institutions
  • Germany and France were especially successful and
    influential.
  • In most countries many people willing to work
    hard for low wages expanding industries
    benefited.
  • Increased demand for consumer goods.
  • Many economic barriers eliminated and a large
    unified market emerged Common Market created in
    1957
  • Created out of a coal and steel agreement
  • Eventually created the Economic Union and the
    more current Maastricht Treaty which includes 27
    countries
  • Combined free-market economy extensive social
    welfare network inherited from Nazi era.
  • By late 1950s, West Germany had robust economy,
    full employment, a strong currency and stable
    prices while France used Marshall Plan aid money
    and the nationalized banks to funnel money into
    key industries, several of which were state
    owned.
  • Combined flexible planning and a mixed state
    and private economy to achieve most rapid
    economic development in its history.

7
Henry David Thoreau Resistance to civil government
  • 1846 Thoreau chooses to go to jail.
  • Protesting Poll Tax (opposing Mexican-American
    War (1846-1848).
  • Passive resistance (later adopted by Gandhi and
    Dr. King)
  • The individual, Thoreau claimed, is "a higher
    and independent power," from which the state
    obtains its power.

8
Civil Disobedience vs. Terrorism
  • The individual, Thoreau claimed, is "a higher and
    independent power," from which the state obtains
    its power.
  • Civil Disobedience
  • Refusal to obey civil laws
  • People practicing civil disobedience break a law
    because they
  • 1. consider the law unjust
  • 2. want to call attention to its injustice
  • 3. hope to bring about its repeal or amendment.
  • They are also willing to accept any penalty, such
    as imprisonment, for breaking the law.
  • This is what separates them from other
    protesters/lawbreakers or terrorists.

9
Go Against the Flow
  • If a man does not keep pace with his companions,
    perhaps it is because he hears a different
    drummer. Let him step to the music which he
    hears, however measured or far away.- Thoreau

10
Characterized by level of violence
  • Gandhi-Passive Resistance.
  • This is more effective in India because of the
    numbers of people.
  • Any massive action would totally disrupt
    governmental activities.
  • King-Non-Violent Resistance.
  • Action against the law other than just marches.
  • Mandela-Militaristic Resistance.
  • The more violent the reaction against the
    disobedience the more violent the resistance
    becomes.

11
Quotes
  • "Nonviolence is the greatest force at the
    disposal of mankind. It is mightier than the
    mightiest weapon of destruction devised by the
    ingenuity of man."
  • Mohandas K. Gandhi on nonviolence
  • "Generations to come will scarce believe that
    such a one as this ever in flesh and blood walked
    upon this earth."
  • Albert Einstein
  • "Gandhi was inevitable.
  • If humanity is to progress,
  • Gandhi is inescapable.
  • He lived, thought and acted,
  • inspired by the vision of humanity evolving
    toward
  • a world of peace and harmony.
  • We may ignore Gandhi at our own risk."
  • Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

12
Phases of modern national expansion
  • Period of exploration and discovery
  • Period of early contact, conquest, settlement and
    colonization
  • Establishment of permanent European settlement,
    colonization or exploitation
  • Climax of the scramble for colonies, markets, and
    raw materials
  • Ex-colonies are formally decolonized and
    independent, yet still economic dependent on the
    West
  • Cold War proxies and social transformations to
    welfare states are the end game in the late 20th
    century
  • Former colonies discarded by superpowers
  • Lesser countries such as France and Great Britain
    discard former colonies as they attempt to
    protect their citizens from risk in the new
    welfare states of the Post World War II era

13
Methods-Issues-Stages
  • Young educated (mostly western educated) such as
    Young Turks of Ottoman Empire and May 4th
    movement of China or Aung San of Burma
  • Three patterns
  • Civil war (China) Three Peoples Principles
    (Nationalism-Democracy-Welfare of the People
    through food, clothing, housing, and
    transportation) Both Kuomintang and CCP as May
    4th Movement
  • Negotiated independence (India and much of
    Africa)
  • Incomplete de-colonization (Palestine, Algeria
    and Southern Africa, Vietnam)
  • Empires and issues
  • British 1931 Statute of Westminster
  • converted the British Empire into the British
    Commonwealth also allowed varying degrees of
    autonomy (Australia, New Zealand, Dominions of
    Canada
  • 1941 Atlantic Charter written by Roosevelt and
    Churchill affirming all nations the right self
    determination
  • French colonies were given representation in
    French parliament in the Fourth French Republic
    in 1947
  • 1960 the United Nations General Assembly passed
    Resolution 1514 that supported the end of
    colonization
  • Pan African Congress African National Congress
  • Indian National Congress Muslim League
  • Pan American Union evolves into Organization of
    American States in 1947
  • Chinese May 4th movement or (Kuomintang CCP)
    after Japanese occupation and the CCPs Long
    March of 1937 drumming up peasant support while
    the Kuomintang lost to the Japanese many people
    thought the CCP had inherited the right to the
    tenets of the May 4th movement after Mao Zedongs
    May 1939 speech and formation of New Cultural
    movement

14
Causes and Impact
  • Three main issues lead to decolonization
  • desire for independence and issue of
    self-determination
  • European distraction with internal affairs and
    their security (social welfare states)
  • resentment against discrimination
  • Further issues were promises of independence
    during WWII, increased education and a wave of
    nationalism separated Africa from Latin America
  • The results of decolonization include political
    instability, economic weaknesses and debt lead to
    dependency of the former colonies

15
Changing patterns of Life due to Decolonization
and Globalization
  • New roles for women
  • Feminist movement
  • Nationalist struggles
  • Science and Technology
  • Green revolution
  • Space race
  • Computer revolution (age of Information to Age of
    access)
  • Medical breakthroughs
  • Urbanization
  • New definitions of community and older rural
    beliefs challenged
  • Shantytowns
  • New Global Culture
  • Westernization
  • Preservation of old and blending of artistic
    traditions

16
4 effected Empires throughout the World British,
French, American, Dutch
  • Latin America (United Fruit Company)
  • Mexico (early 20th Century)
  • South America (1920s and 30s)
  • MesoAmerica (Nicaruaga, Guatamala, El Salvador
    1980s)
  • Cuba 1950s
  • South Asia (Afghanistan is considered Middle
    East and was never a colony of the British
    although occupied by them)
  • India, Pakistan and later Bangladesh
  • Southeast Asia
  • Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Burma was under the
    British Rag until 1948 and became Union of
    Mayamar
  • Africa
  • Madagascar
  • 1960 Year of Africa
  • Middle East (mostly as mandates by 20th century
    and as a result of dissolution of Ottomans
    following WWI)
  • Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt
  • United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait,
    Oman as British withdrew in 1961

17
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18
The Global Impact
  • Around 90 countries will emerge during this Great
    Liberation, some large (India) some small
    (Kuwait)
  • These new nations (as well as those in Latin
    America became known as the developing world.
    Although each differs from each other, they share
    common goals
  • Determined to pursue MODERNIZATION (stable
    governments economies)

19
Decolonization Map 1960 Year of Africa
20
Africa
21
Decolonization in Asia after World War II
22
British in South Asia
  • India was a British colony from the late
    eighteenth century to the mid-twentieth century.
  • First controlled by the British East India Trade
    Company
  • Robert Clive and Battle of Plessey
  • Britain developed the infrastructure of India in
    the form of harbors, railroads, modern cities,
    and cotton and steel mills.
  • The Raj with Zamidars and Nabobs
  • British rule was provided by a viceroy and
    administered by the Indian Civil Service.
  • English rule provided many benefits.
  • English became the lingua franca for a land with
    many different languages. English rule also
    created Western-educated professionals and
    bureaucrats who were to become the leaders of the
    independence movement.
  • These individuals were scrupulously honest and
    imbued with a sense of duty toward the Indian
    people.
  • Movements
  • 1885 Indian National Congress included both
    Muslims and Hindu
  • Muslims, founded the All-India Muslim League in
    1906, thus giving India not one, but two
    independence movements
  • 1909 Legislative councils were formed and
    Morley-Minto Act insured that Muslims would be
    included
  • Rowlett Act prompts Gandhi to propose strikes
    which cripple the British but result in some
    violence including the Amristar Massacre
  • The Amritsar Massacre of April 1919 where 300-400
    protesters, unaware of public assembly ban
    included in the ROWLETT ACT of March 1919, were
    marching in protest of heavy taxation and
    conscription into British army (Sepoy Revolt of
    1857)
  • Reinforces satyagraha or peaceful non-cooperation
    movement as British are horrified at the Massacre
  • Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms lay the foundation for
    Home Rule and Gandhi become the leader
  • Independence was granted gradually with full
    independence coming only after World War II on
    August 15, 1947 after many acts of civil
    disobedience including the Salt March and salt
    protests of the early 1930s.
  • They did, however, try to control the influx of
    technology and industry and were prejudiced
    against dark-skinned people.

23
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24
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25
Conflict begins
26
What happens after Independence
  • Jawarlal Nehru
  • Ally of Gandhi.
  • 1st Prime Minister of India, 1947-1964
  • Advocated Industrialization.
  • Promoted Green Revolution.
  • India's "Green Revolution" allowed farmers to
    triple their crop by using modern science and
    technology.
  • Mixed Economy
  • Nonaligned Movement

27
Green Revolution
28
Major problems Issues in India today
  • Overpopulation
  • 1 billion climbing
  • Economic development.
  • Hindu-Muslim tensions
  • Gender issues
  • dowry killings
  • Caste bias
  • discrimination against untouchables continues
  • The Kashmir dispute and nuclear weapons
  • Political assassinations
  • Growing gap between haves and have nots

29
Cold War influences in area Non-aligned
30
India vs. Egypt
  • Similarities
  • both nations typified by overwhelming population
    growth that ate up much of gains
  • both engaged in state stimulation of economy
    state financed education, land redistribution
    (although largely unsuccessful)
  • Differences
  • no military intervention in India, retention of
    civilian rule
  • India had a larger industrial and scientific
    sector, also better transport and communication
    infrastructure
  • India had larger middle class than Egypt
  • India state intervention in economy less direct
    than in Egypt
  • India had greater access to international
    capitalization.

31
Negotiated Independence in India and Africa
  • In India and much of colonial Africa,
    independence came with little bloodshed.
  • The British withdrew after WWII.
  • Pakistan and India gained independence in August,
    1947.
  • Problems in India between Hindu majority and
    Muslim minority.
  • Gandhi shot dead by a Hindu zealot in 1948.
  • Indias first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru
    was committed to the goal of state-directed
    modernization.
  • Within a decade and a half of Indian
    independence, most of the African states also
    gained their sovereignty.
  • In 1957, the Gold Coast (renamed Ghana) became
    tropical Africas first independent state.
  • By 1963 all of British-ruled Africa except for
    Southern Rhodesia was independent.
  • In each of these colonial possessions,
    charismatic nationalist leaders took charge of
    populist political parties and became the leaders
    to whom the British turned over power.
  • Decolonization in much of French-ruled Africa
    followed a similarly smooth path, though the
    French were initially more resistant than the
    British.
  • At first, treated decolonization as assimilation.
  • France dissolved its political ties with French
    West Africa and French Equatorial Africa in 1960,
    having already given the protectorates in Morocco
    and Tunisia their independence in 1956.

32
Decolonization IndoChina
  • French Indochina (Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam)
  • The French granted limited autonomy
  • to Laos and Cambodia after World War II.
  • Negotiations with the Vietminh (Ho Chi Minhs)
  • later Viet Cong government broke down in 1946.
  • War erupted which continued for eight years until
    the French lost the battle of Dien Bien Phu and
    10,000 soldiers.
  • Vietnam
  • split in two at the 17th parallel and elections
    were supposed to be held. It never happened.
  • SEATO (South East Asian Treaty Organization) to
    stem the flow of communism.
  • Malaya
  • gained independence from British but asked for
    help to keep Chinese communists from taking over
  • Philippines
  • Independence from U.S. on July 4, 1946.
  • Indonesia (Dutch)
  • Revolution broke out before the war ended, gained
    independence in 1948.

33
Southeast Asia
34
Preconditions of Revolution in both China and its
former satellite, Vietnam
  • Both suffered heavily from the assaults and
    exploitive terms of exchange imposed by the
    imperialist powers
  • each contended with underdevelopment,
    overpopulation, and poverty
  • both saw their ancient traditions, embodied in
    the Confucian system, collapse in face of outside
    influence and failure of Confucian-style elites
    to organize resistance
  • both countries gained little, if anything, from
    years of European domination
  • both already had, prior to Western incursion, a
    strong sense of identity, common language, and
    unifying polity.

35
Vietnam and China still regional
  • Although traditional imperial, Confucian
    dynasties were destroyed, some concepts typical
    of ancient Chinese culture retained
  • still bias against commercial and business
    classes
  • emphasis on necessity of rulers to promote the
    welfare of the mass of the people
  • ideological systems stress secular, social
    harmony
  • lack of religious emphasis
  • continued sense of cultural superiority
  • reassertion of elitist thinking and bureaucratic
    control in China
  • continued patterns of family and household from
    past.

36
Vietnam Decolonization differs
  • Most third world decolonization achieved without
    violence
  • no tradition of peaceful colonialism as in most
    third world nations Vietnamese experience totally
    violent
  • French rule promoted Vietnamese sense of separate
    identity
  • Confucian tradition regarded French as barbarians
  • any Vietnamese who supported French rule was
    regarded as a traitor
  • failure of Confucian empire to resist foreigners
    led to complete abandonment
  • left no cultural tradition to defend
  • led to radical revolutionary means
  • no strong religious basis as cultural unity
  • French destroyed bourgeois political
    organizations.

37
Civil War in China
  • Communist movement in China grew as poverty
    civil unrest spread.
  • Rise of Mao Zedong (Communist)
  • Party membership swelled from a mere 40,000 in
    1937 to over a million in 1945, mostly peasant
    support after Long March
  • After Japan surrendered to end World War II, the
    civil war between the Nationalists and the
    Communists resumed.
  • U.S. supports Chiang Kai-shek and his
    Nationalists
  • Never fully recovered from its demoralizing
    defeat at the hands of the Japanese. (Lost
    popular support)
  • Corrupt and inefficient government.

Faced with Communist victory, the Nationalist
leaders escaped and set up a rival Chinese state
on the island of Formosa (Taiwan) in 1949.
38
Decolonization Middle East
  • After World War II the Middle East became a
    powder keg of conflicting interests
  • Flood of Jewish refugees from Europe and other
    parts of the world created considerable conflict
  • Britain turned mandate over to the United Nations
    for arbitration
  • State of Israel created out of British mandate of
    Palestine in 1948.
  • Conflict in that region ever since
  • 1954 Egyptian seizure of Suez Channel and
    nationalization of property
  • 1973 Six Day War
  • 1979 Iranian Revolution Fundamentalism
  • Revolution aimed at Westernized regime that was
    demonstrably un-Islamic although composed of
    indigenous rulers
  • Khomeini claimed to be divinely inspired leader
    for return to pure forms of Islam typical of the
    days of the Prophet
  • promised rebels instant paradise should they fall
    during revolution
  • Fundamentalists attempted to spread Islamic
    revolution to other neighboring regimes
  • continued conflict of Shi'ite versions of Islam
    versus Sunnite regimes.
  • Iraq and Sunnis vs. Iran and Shiites

39
Southwest Asia to 1945
  • Egypt was an English protectorate
  • British diplomats, officers dominate foreign
    policy, military to protect canal
  • Egypt was scene of fighting in both World War I
    and II
  • Arabia
  • Wahabis conquer Hejaz (Mecca) Create a united
    Arabia (Saudi Arabia)
  • British control Aden, Oman, UAE protectorates
    over Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar
  • Turkey
  • Turkey was partition between Greek, British,
    French, Italians, Armenians
  • Rise of Turkish nationalist movement under
    Mustafa Kemal
  • Sought peace treaty, alliance, arms from Soviet
    Union
  • Stopped Greek invasion of Anatolia pushed Greeks
    out of treaty lands
  • Expelled all Greeks from 3,000 year old homelands
  • Created a modern, westernized state
  • Dropped use of Arabic script, created a modern
    Turkish script based on Latin alphabet
  • Relied on secularized law, institutions to run
    state women no longer veiled, acquired many
    rights
  • Negotiated the return of the straits and other
    areas with Western Allies
  • Partition Armenia with USSR
  • Iraq, Transjordan, Palestine, Syria, Lebanon
  • Arab aspirations unrealized Western nations
    refused to allow creation of Arab states

40
Southwest Asia since 1945
  • Arab states, except Palestine, gained
    independence during, after World War II
  • British suppress Iraqi nationalist uprising in
    1941 expel Vichy French from Syria
  • British, US force French to grant Lebanon, Syria
    independence in 1943
  • Creation of Israel
  • Unable to resolve conflict, Britain turned
    Palestine question over to UN, 1947
  • UN proposed dividing into two states, Palestine
    and Israel Arabs opposed
  • 1947, British withdrew, civil war broke out, Jews
    proclaimed the state of Israel
  • Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq declared war on
    Israel
  • Israel achieved victory in 1949 claimed
    territories larger than what was granted by UN
  • Egypt
  • Military leaders under Gamal A. Nasser seized
    power in 1952
  • Nasser became prime minister, a leader of
    pan-Arab nationalism
  • Egypt neutral in cold war, accepted aid from both
    powers
  • Nasser dedicated to ending imperialism and
    destroying state of Israel
  • Suez crisis, 1956, greatly enhanced Nasser's
    prestige
  • Canal controlled by Britain Nasser nationalized
    it to build Egypt's economy
  • Attacked by British, French, and Israeli forces,
    which retook canal
  • Both superpowers condemned military action,
    forced them to withdraw
  • Suez crisis divided United States and its allies
    in western Europe

41
Arab-Israeli Conflict
  • Arab-Israeli Conflict
  • 1947Began over partition of Israel, Arab
    invasions
  • 1956 Israeli invasion of the Sinai
  • 1967 Seven Day War
  • Egypt planned to annihilate Israel
  • Israel struck first annihilating armies and
    airforces of Syria, Egypt, and Jordan
  • Capture West Bank, Sinai, Jerusalem, Golan
    Heights
  • Israelis open West Bank to settlement by Jewish
    settlers
  • Founding of Palestinian Liberation Organization
  • Hundreds of thousands of Palestinians displaced
    1947-67
  • Camps set up in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, elsewhere
  • Goal was to destroy Israel, create Arab state in
    Palestine
  • Used terrorism as means to an end
  • 1973 Yom Kippur War nearly destroyed Israel
  • Israelis recover with US help, key Israeli ally
    nearly destroy Egyptian army
  • Arabs retaliate with Oil Embargo through OPEC
  • US brokers Camp David Accords ending Egyptian,
    Israeli hostilities
  • 1982 Israel invasion of Lebanon to evict PLO
    attacking Israel
  • Beginning of the End

42
Islamic Resurrgence
  • Muslim revival and Arab disunity
  • Cold war split Arab-Muslim world pan-Arab unity
    did not materialize
  • Israel became a staunch ally of United States
    many Arab-Islamic states allied with USSR
  • Israel defeated Egypt and Syria in 1967 and in
    1973
  • Egypt's president, Anwar Sadat, ended alliance
    with USSR in 1976
  • Sadat signed peace treaty with Israel in 1980
    was assassinated, 1981
  • PLO leader Yasser Arafat, Israeli prime minister
    Yitzhak Rabin signed peace treaties 1993-1995
  • Islamism revival of Muslim traditions
  • Reasserting Islamic values in Muslim politics
  • Resentment at European and American societies
  • Extremists embraced jihad, or duty to defend
    Islam from attack justified terrorism
  • Represented by Islamic Brotherhood (Islamic
    world), Hezbollah (Lebanon), Taliban
    (Afghanistan)
  • Activities, funding reach around the world
  • The Iranian revolution, 1979
  • CIA helped anticommunist Shah Mohammed Pahlavi
    gain power, 1953
  • Shah supported anti-communism of US, armed Iran
    to status of a regional power
  • Became major oil supplier of the US, increasing
    westernization of Iranian society
  • Repressive rule overthrown by Islamist followers
    of Ayatollah Khomeini, 1979
  • Khomeini attacked United States for support of
    the shah

43
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44
Role of the United States
  • Middle East
  • Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq nationalized the
    Anglo-Iranian Oil company
  • 1953
  • CIA aided coup d'état in Iran and installed Shah
    Mohammad Reza Pahlavi which ruled until 1979
    Islamic Revolution
  • 1956
  • Egypts Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalizes the Suez
    Canal
  • 1956
  • Israel, France, and Britain invade Egypt
    Eisenhower forces them to abandon the invasion
    US replaces Britain as a major power in the
    region
  • 1957
  • Eisenhower doctrine US will defend the Middle
    Eastern governments from communism and Arab
    nationalism
  • 1958
  • Eisenhower sends 5,000 troops to Lebanon to
    protest pro-Western Christian government against
    Nasser
  • Example of Latin American and Caribbean
    Involvement
  • Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán announces plans to
    nationalize United Fruit Company
  • 1954
  • CIA coup detat in Guatemala overthrows Guzman
    and installs a military dictatorship
  • 200,000 die in repressions in the following years
  • 1993
  • CIA helps restore democratic government in
    Guatemala

45
Military junta entering Guatemala City in a jeep
driven by CIA agent Carlos Castillo Armas
46
Populist politics
  • Populism in Latin America was typified by
    mobilization of support from labor, poor
  • strong nationalism particularly directed against
    foreign ownership of resources
  • often led by military figures who wished to
    retain structure of government.
  • Following general failure of liberal governments
    in Latin America with Great Depression, number of
    populist movements resulted in conservative,
    military responses
  • Peron in Argentina,
  • APRA in Peru,
  • Vargas in Brazil
  • populism continued to play a role in all
    revolutionary movements since the 1930s.

47
LA and African Neocolonialism Dependency
  • Political instability with Marxist and capitalist
    influence
  • Continuing friction from racial inequalities
  • Economy drained of natural resources with no
    opportunity to diversify from its colonial export
    of cash crops
  • Because of competing loans from US and USSR areas
    left with large debts in which the lenders tried
    to exploit
  • Salvadore Allende in Chili
  • Fidel Castro in Cuba
  • Corruption and misconduct of dictators and
    caudios allowed social issues like health care,
    education were ignored and the infrastructures
    weak, including both the political and economic
    institutions

48
Latin American Dependence starts in IR
  • Colonial legacy
  • Prevented industrialization
  • Spain, Portugal never encouraged industries
  • Limited success at industrialization
  • 1820 1850 Economic Stagnation
  • Wars of independence had disrupted economy
  • Most wealth tied to land, agriculture
  • Export of primary, unfinished goods especially
    guano, coffee, hides
  • Too many unsolved social problems retarded
    industrialization
  • Economic growth part of 2nd Industrial Revolution
  • Change grew out of liberalizing effects, reforms
    in late century
  • Entrepreneurs, intellectuals, landowners brought
    in foreign investments
  • Facilitated by new technologies (railroads,
    steamships)
  • Great Boom driven by exports
  • Demand for rubber, copper, tin, silver, beef,
    bananas, oil, coffee, cocoa
  • Capital intensive development of primary product
    exports
  • Trade increased by almost 50 from 1870 1880
  • British initially preeminent Germany and US
    increasingly rivals for area
  • Mexico, Brazil, Argentina

49
Comparative Revolutions
  • Mexican Revolution of 1910 has some similarities
    with the Cuban revolution of the 1950s.
  • both were launched against long-standing personal
    rules (Diaz, Batista) both were nationalistic
    responses to foreign control of internal
    resources and economy
  • both involved demands for redistribution of land
  • both involved what was essentially guerilla
    warfare against national military forces.
  • the outcomes of the revolutions were different
  • Cuban revolution resulted in establishment of
    Marxist-Leninist socialist government Mexican
    government enacted constitution of 1917 which
    appeared to establish liberal democracy
  • actual government controlled by single party.
  • Also Cuba and Guatemala in the 50s
  • both based on populist appeal of laboring groups,
    nationalist expropriation of foreign capital,
    land redistribution.
  • Guatemalan reform movement under Arevalo and
    Arbenz halted by intervention of U.S. Central
    Intelligence Agency in support of business
    interests while Cuban revolt under Castro
    resulted in creation of Marxist-Leninist state
    with economy dependent on Soviet Union succeeded
    where Guatemalan thwarted by U.S. intervention.

50
Mexican Revolution class struggle
Carranza More Conservative Tries to end
peasant revolts Has Zapata killed Buys off
Villa Reluctantly allows new Constitution Killed
by Zap followers
Diaz Diaz- tries to modernize industrialize but
allows foreign interests allows peasants to
squalor goes into exile -
Caudillos rich, land owners Conservative
Madero demands elections Both sides feel too
little has been granted to them Killed by
conservative general
Middle class desired democracy (bourgeoisie)
Often liberal
Peasants desired land and basic reforms
  • Villa
  • S. Mexico
  • Bandit
  • Loots from land owners (Robin Hood analogy
  • Zapata
  • N. Mexico
  • Leads peasants
  • Desire for land reform
  • Passionate charismatic leader

PRI Middle ground Brings stability to
country Social political reform i.e. land,
education
51
Latin America 1914-Present
  • Latin America Changes
  • World War I
  • Led to upsurge in exports
  • Development of industries
  • 1920s 1940s
  • Depression, World War II hurt economic growth
  • US initiates Good Neighbor Policy to try to
    improve US-Latin relations
  • Formation of Organization of American States to
    support American neutrality in early war
  • Some sympathy for fascists especially in
    Argentina, Brazil
  • Some states declared war against Axis and joined
    United Nations
  • Mexico after the revolution
  • Liberal constitution of 1917 guaranteed land and
    liberty to Mexico
  • Subsoil assets claimed by Mexican government
    redistribution of land to peasants
  • After 1930s, conservative governments dominated
    by Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
  • In 1990s, PRI dictatorship challenged in open,
    free elections
  • Argentina return to military rule
  • Leader of Latin American struggle against U.S.
    and European intervention
  • Gradual shift to free elections, but often
    reverted to military rulers
  • Militarist Juan Peron was elected president,
    1946 immensely popular

52
Revolutions in Latin America
  • Post-War US Policies in Latin America
  • Cold War, Protection of Panama Canal shaped U.S.
    policies Latin America
  • US opposed
  • Nationalization of US property as it attacked
    American property
  • Any perceived interference by USSR,
    revolutionaries
  • US support
  • Land owners, militaries, elites in Latin America
    against any perceived radical elements
  • Aide primarily military
  • US will intervene in Latin America
  • Support military takeovers in Guatemala, El
    Salvador, Chile, Peru, Bolivia
  • US direct interventions Haiti, Dominican
    Republic, Nicaragua, Panama, Granada
  • US returned Panama Canal in 1999
  • Cuba from American dependency to communist state
  • Batista regime in Cuba was corrupt, influenced by
    Mafia
  • Rebels led by Fidel Castro located in Sierra
    Madre drive out regime
  • Rebels openly declare themselves to be communists
    in 1960
  • Nationalized private holdings, industry
    instituted land reform, social revolution
  • US plots to overthrow Cuba led to Soviet missiles
    in Cuba
  • US/Cuba hostile to each other ever since

53
Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil a comparison
  • Until 1910 Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil shared a
    common history and similar culture but their
    political histories diverged radically.
  • Mexico underwent a traumatic and profound social
    revolution.
  • Argentina and Brazil remained under the
    leadership of conservative regimes that were
    devoted to the interests of the wealthy
    landowners and which were periodically overturned
    by military coups
  • Emerging economies
  • Brazil
  • Argentina
  • Mexico
  • NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)
  • 1994 agreement between Canada, Mexico and US that
  • eliminates tariffs
  • Maquiladoras - originated as part of the Mexican
    governments 1965 Border Industrialization
    Program.
  • Most maquiladoras are foreign-owned, controlled
    or subcontracted manufacturing plants that
    process or assemble imported components for
    export.
  • Maquiladora inputs are generally imported
    duty-free, and countries, like the U.S. only tax
    the value-added portion of mapuiladora exports.
  • Maquiladoras accounted for 49 of Mexicos
    exports
  • Low cost of labor sent Industrialists to mostly
    areas that border US and employ mostly females
    between ages of 18-25

54
African Liberation
  • nonsettler colonies vs. those with substantial
    white settler populations.
  • Although there was some resistance, particularly
    in the British colonies, nonsettler colonies
    proceeded to independence more rapidly and
    without violence
  • best example is Ghana Kenyatta led nationalist
    movement that utilized Indian model of
    non-violent resistance to achieve independence in
    1957
  • white settler colonies resisted independence
    movements from nationalist groups
  • led to violent resistance in Kenya, Algeria in
    both colonies rebellions defeated by colonial
    powers, but independence granted as a result of
    war weariness
  • only South Africa able to retain minority, white
    regime.
  • Apartheid (separateness)

55
Incomplete Decolonization Algeria South Africa
  • The presence of sizeable European settler
    populations complicated the path from colony to
    nation.
  • Algeria 1 million Europeans
  • French leaders claimed that Algeria was an
    integral part of metropolitan France.
  • The colons constituted a minority to the 9
    million indigenous Arabs and Berber peoples.
  • South Africa 4 million Europeans
  • Minority white rule (Afrikaners) persisted.
  • After winning the elections of 1948, the
    Afrikaner-dominated National Party in South
    Africa enacted an extreme form of racial
    segregation known as apartheid.
  • Apartheid laws stripped Africans, Indians, and
    colored persons (mixed descent) of their few
    political rights.
  • Schools segregated country divided into racial
    homelands
  • The African National Congress opposed this
    legislation.
  • After the Sharpeville massacre of 1960, peaceful
    protest turned into violent protest.
  • Nelson Mandela was sentenced to life in prison in
    1962.
  • The West (U.S.) supported South Africa as a
    bulwark against the spread of communism in
    Africa.
  • The Algerian War of Independence
  • The war dragged on for eight years (1954-1962),
    at a cost of as many as 300,000 lives.
  • At home, French society was torn apart.
  • The negotiations to end the war began only after
    an insurrection led by colons and army officers
    had caused the French Fourth Republic to fall in
    1958 and brought Charles de Gaulle to power.
  • By 1962, more than 9/10ths of the European
    population had departed.

56
Decolonization of Africa
  • Forcing the French out of north Africa
  • France in Africa
  • 1950s and 1960s, French granted independence to
    all its African colonies except Algeria
  • Two million French settlers in Algeria
  • Revolt of May 1954 was repressed by French eight
    thousand Algerian Muslims died
  • War in Algeria, 1954-1962
  • Algerian nationalists pursued guerrilla warfare
    against French rule
  • By 1958, a half-million French soldiers were
    committed to the conflict
  • Atrocities on both sides heavy civilian
    casualties Algerian independence, 1962
  • Revolutionary writer Franz Fanon urged violence
    as weapon against colonial racism
  • Black African nationalism and independence
  • Growth of African nationalism
  • Began as grassroots protest against European
    imperialism
  • African nationalism celebrated Negritude
    (blackness), African roots
  • Obstacles to African independence
  • Imperial powers assumed Africans were not ready
    for self-government
  • White settlers opposed black independence
  • Anticommunist fears justified interference in
    African politics
  • Economic and political instability often hampered
    postindependent Africa

57
Africa after 1945
  • Aftermath of decolonization
  • Organization of African Unity created 1963 to
    maintain peace, promote pan-African unity
  • Artificial boundaries imposed by colonialism were
    ruled inviolable
  • Ghana and many other states became one-party
    military dictatorships
  • South Africa
  • Transformation of South Africa
  • Gained independence in 1901, but denied civil
    rights to black population
  • South African economy strong, both mining and
    industry prospered during WWII
  • Black workers demanded political change
  • Apartheid harsh legal system imposed in 1948,
    designed to keep races separate
  • 87 of South African land was for white
    residents, others classified by race
  • African National Congress, led by Nelson Mandela,
    launched campaign to protest apartheid
  • Severe government repression provoked
    international opposition after 1960
  • Black agitation and international sanctions
    brought end to apartheid in 1989
  • 1994, under new constitution, Mandela won free
    election as first black president
  • Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire)
  • First prime minister, a Marxist, killed in a
    CIA-backed coup, 1961
  • Dictator Mobutu ruled from 1965 to 1997
    plundered Zaire's economy
  • Mobutu ruled Zaire in dictatorial fashion and
    amassed huge personal fortune

58
Liberation Theology of Latin America vs. Black
Theology of South Africa
  • Liberation Theology
  • Commitment to end historical social inequality
  • Against injustice to poor
  • Committed to change social structure
  • Rooted in Catholic teachings and based on the
    bible
  • Non-violent principles
  • Black Theology
  • Committed to ending apartheid (seperatness)
  • Against injustice based on race
  • Trying to change social structure
  • Rooted in teachings from the Bible
  • Based on non-violent principles
  • Although similar in their attempts to change
    social inequality, Liberation Theology differed
    from Black Theology as the Liberation fight
    against inequalities was based on economic
    inequalities while Black Theologys fight against
    injustices was based more on racial distinctions.

59
End of Empires- New non-aligned
  • Burma
  • Aung San (1915-1947)
  • India Pakistan
  • Jawaharlal Nehru (1947-1964)
  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948)
  • Palestine
  • Israel, 1948
  • Ghana
  • Kwame Nkrumah (1957-1966)
  • Kenya
  • Jomo Kenyatta (1963-1978)
  • Indochina
  • Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969)
  • French defeated, 1954
  • Algeria
  • Franco-Algerian War, 1954-1962
  • South Africa
  • Afrikaner Nationalist Party from1948
  • Apartheid

60
Industrialization fueled Imperialism which caused
over expenditures
  • Industrialization fueled imperialism
  • Industry needed raw materials, specialized crops
  • Rubber, tea from SE Asia
  • Gold, diamonds, copper, coffee from Africa
  • Cocoa, hemp from Latin America
  • Industry needed cheap laborers
  • Entrepreneurs needed markets
  • Colonies seemed one easy answer
  • Technology applied to colonial problems
  • Infrastructure built up to exploit colonies
  • Railroads and ports were first to be created
  • Bridges, roads also built
  • Technology used to extract minerals from mines
  • Science applied to farming to increase yields
  • Demand for raw minerals, markets produced
    horrible violence
  • British destroy Indian textiles to sell British
    goods to Indians
  • British, Americans, French fight Opium Wars to
    sell opium to Chinese
  • Belgian atrocities in creating the Belgian Congo
  • British Boer War to obtain gold, diamonds of
    Afrikaaners

61
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62
Notice Indonesia
63
Pacific Rim
  • The Pacific Ocean is the center of world today
  • Mediterranean Sea was the ocean of the past
  • Atlantic Ocean was the ocean of the present 1450
    1945
  • Pacific Ocean is the ocean of the future
  • 1970 1982 US trade with Europe was up 400
  • Same time period US trade with Asia Pacific was
    up 800
  • Key Players
  • China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore,
    Hong Kong
  • United States, Canada, Australia, Mexico, Chile
  • 1st Economy of the World US
  • 2nd Economy of the World China
  • 3rd Economy of the World Japan
  • High technology, consumer electronics, computers,
    and automobiles
  • Major financial investment of US, China, Japan in
    each other, region
  • Impact on Region
  • Technology has hurt small producers, traditional
    markets
  • Shift of industry, agricultural production around
    Pacific
  • Massive immigration of Asians to the United
    States, Canada, Australia, Latin America
  • Threats to Prosperity

64
1989 A YEAR OF CHANGE
  • Influences
  • Gandhi, Martin Luther King were world symbols
  • End of Cold War and Victory of the West
  • Gorbachevs Perestroika, Glasnost
  • Influence of Pope John Paul II
  • Revolutions
  • Popular revolutions usually peaceful
  • Brought down, ended dictatorship
  • Parties in power rarely fought back
  • Romania and China used violence but only China
    succeeded
  • Around the world
  • Eastern Europe overthrows Communist regimes
  • Poland, E. Germany, Hungary, Czechoslovakia,
    Bulgaria, Romania
  • Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia
  • Russians withdraw troops from Afghanistan
  • South Africa Apartheid Ends
  • People Power of Corazon Aquino overthrows Marcos
    in Philippines
  • Tiananamen Square Demonstrations in China

65
Global Terrorism
  • The weapon of the stateless, powerless
  • Those out of power
  • Of anticolonial and revolutionary movements
  • Cheapest way to oppose someone
  • Not New in History
  • Assassins of Post-Classical SW Asia struck fear
    in Muslim world
  • Thuggees devoted to Kali ritually murdered people
    in India
  • Boxer Rebellion and others attacked foreigners
  • Terrorism (opposite of civil disobedience)
  • Difficult to define terrorism, separate from
    guerrilla movements, independence movements
  • Terrorism is defined by the U.S. Department of
    Defense as "the unlawful use of -- or threatened
    use of -- force or violence against individuals
    or property to coerce or intimidate governments
    or societies, often to achieve political,
    religious, or ideological objectives."
  • The systematic use of terror, the deliberate
    creation and exploitation of fear for bringing
    about political change
  • Deliberate violence, terror against civilians to
    advance political or ideological cause
  • Rarely successful often discredits potentially
    worthy causes
  • Examples
  • Irish Republican Army violence in 20th Century
    Ireland, North Ireland against British
  • Chinese Communist Rebellion in Malaya defeated by
    British
  • Mai Mai Rebellion in Kenya targets Europeans in
    1960s
  • Algerian campaign against French colonial targets

66
Globalization
  • World War II, the Cold War globalized the western
    economy
  • Western allies coordinated their resources to
    defeat Axis and communists
  • US took the lead especially in aid to develop
    economies
  • Us built whole industries abroad to supply its
    troops, allies became world corporations
  • American, European, Japanese companies began to
    operate outside of home country
  • Council for Economic Cooperation and Development
  • American led economic effort to cooperate in
    capitalism, free trade, development of industry
  • Pumped billions through Marshall Plan into allies
    to prevent communist takeover
  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
  • Formed in 1947 as vehicle to promote free trade
  • In 1994, 123 GATT members created Word Trade
    Organization (WTO)
  • Dramatic growth in world trade, 1966-1990
  • Global economy evident after collapse of
    communism
  • Expanding trade, foreign investments,
    privatization of industry
  • Free trade free of state-imposed restrictions
  • Perils of the new economy vulnerable to global
    forces
  • Investors withdrew support from Thailand in 1997
  • Ripple effect contraction of other Asian
    economies
  • Critics of globalization

67
Multi-National Corporations
  • Global corporations symbols of the new economy
  • As defined Exxon, Ford, Boeing, Phillips,
    General Motors, Nissan Bank, Shell, Alcatel
  • Branches in many different countries
  • 25 of business is in a country other than home
    country
  • Multinational businesses
  • Operate apart from laws and restrictions of any
    one nation
  • Move capital to maximize profit (lower business
    costs)
  • Able to get around expensive labor, labor
    restrictions
  • Seek cheapest labor and resources
  • Prefer lax environmental laws
  • Pay less in taxes in developed world than
    formerly
  • Economies of Scale
  • An industry which only becomes cost efficient in
    large production
  • Able to minimize costs, take advantage of mass
    production
  • Exploit expensive technologies
  • Transfer technologies, capital easily across
    borders
  • Forces change from GNP to GDP
  • GNP Gross National Product
  • Value of all goods and services produced in your
    home country

68
Developing Nations
  • LDC vs. DC
  • Emerging economies
  • Developing nations or Emerging Nations
  • Dependence on agriculture, commodities,
    labor-intensive, low value-added manufacturing
  • Weak institutions
  • Strong historical commitment to protectionism
  • Small middle class
  • Often former colonies
  • Often struggling with ethnic or religious
    tensions
  • Identify of classes in development
  • Affluent middle c
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