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REFRESHER COURSE ON SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN

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Contents (Part - A) Water Resources of India Water Use in India Major causes of water quality degradation Approaches to Water Quality Management – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: REFRESHER COURSE ON SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN


1
Contents (Part - A)
  • Water Resources of India
  • Water Use in India
  • Major causes of water quality degradation
  • Approaches to Water Quality Management

2
Part - A I) Water Resources of India
3
Water Resources - Rainfall
  • Annual average rainfall 105 cm
  • Largest in the world for a country
  • Surface flow 1880 km3 /700 km3 for beneficial
    use
  • Ground water 600 Km3/420 km3 usable

4
Water Resources- Water Bodies
  • River Canals 7420 Km
  • Reservoir 0.52 Lakh hectares
  • Tanks, Lakes ponds 6.91 Lakh hectares
  • Brackish Water 0.56 Lakh hectares

5
Water Resources - Ground water
  • Total potential 431 km3 per year
  • Drinking Industrial purposes (16 of total
    potential)
  • 68 is still remaining untapped
  • Tamil nadu exploited more than 50 of Ground
    water resources.

6
Part - A II) Water Use in India
7
Water use in India
  • Abstractive uses
  • In-stream use

8
Water use in India- Abstractive uses
  • Domestic (85 population depend GW)
  • Irrigation (84 of water used for only
    irrigation)
  • Industrial

9
Industry
Irrigation
Domestic
Power
Others
10
1.Distilleries 2.Pulp Paper 3.Fertilizer
plants 4. Steel Industries 5.Sugar
industries 6.Textiles (Cotton) 7.Engineering 8.
Organic Chemicals 9. Others
11
Wastewater Generation (mld)
BOD Generation ( t/ d)
BOD Reduction ( t / d )
12
Water consumed In 1990,
  • 25 BCM of water for domestic
  • 460 BCM of water for agricultural
  • 40 BCM of water for industrial
  • (10 BCM as process water 30 BCM as cooling
    water)

13
In-stream use
  • Hydro-power
  • Fisheries
  • Navigation
  • Community bathing washing (Holy dip)
  • Cattle bathing washing

14
Five Designated Best uses of water bodies
15
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16
Part - A III)Major Causes of Water Quality
Degradation in India
17
Main Causes of Water Quality Degradation
  • 1. Pollution due to Domestic Wastewaters
  • Environmental problems are water supply,
    wastewater generation and its collection,
    treatment and disposal.

18
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19
Open Well Nearby Eri
20
Effluent Disposal and utilisation
  • Water body, land ( disposal )
  • Reclamation ( industrial reuse )
  • Reuse in agriculture, horticulture
  • GW recharge

21
Paddy Field
22
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23
2. Pollution due to Industrial Wastewaters
  • Total wastewater generated from all major
    industrial sources (83, 048 MLD)
  • Cooling water (66, 700 MLD) from power plants
  • Process water from industries

24
2. Pollution due to Industrial Wastewaters
  • The first largest contributor is thermal power
    plant (16, 348 MLD)
  • The second largest contributor is engineering
    industries.
  • Major polluting industries are electroplating
    units.

25
2. Pollution due to Industrial Wastewaters
  • Other significant contributors are Paper Mills,
    Steel Plants, Textile Industries, Sugar
    Industries.
  • The major contributors of organic pollution are
    distilleries followed by Paper Mills, Sugar and
    Tannery industries.

26
2. Pollution due to Industrial Wastewaters
  • The contributors of chemical pollution are
    divided into 2 categories.
  • Those which generate high TDS bearing wastes (eg
    Pharmaceuticals, rayon, chemicals, caustic soda,
    soap and detergents)

27
2. Pollution due to Industrial Wastewaters
  • Those which generate toxic wastes (eg pesticides,
    organic inorganic chemicals, steel plants,
    pharmaceutical tanneries)
  • Steel plants and oil refineries are major
    contributors of phenol.
  • Engineering industries contribute maximum amount
    of oil and grease followed by oil refineries

28
2. Pollution due to Industrial Wastewaters
  • The major contributors of ammonia pollution are
    fertiliser plants followed by steel plants.

29
Pollutants generation
  • Chloride (Tanneries)
  • Fluorides (Fertilizer Phosphate)
  • Sulphide (Oil refineries)
  • Total Wastewater generation from industries is
    10,125 MLD

30
3. Wastewaters and pollutants from unsewered Towns
  • 22 of wastewater (Class I cities) and 14 of
    wastewater (Class II cities) is collected through
    sewerage.
  • Most cities / towns do not have sewerage system.

31
4. Sewage, sullage and pollutants from Urban Areas
  • Only 40 50 of population of major metro cities
    are served by sewer systems.
  • Sewers often leak

32
5. Industrial pollutants from cottage / small
scale industries
  • 3 million in the country
  • Causes significant water pollution

33
6. Industrial pollutants from large industries
  • Installed Treatment and disposal
  • Treated effluents having some pollutants get
    leached and causes pollution.
  • Waste dumping, ash-ponds, sludge-pits, etc.

34
7. Pollutants in Landfills Leachates
  • They are strong polluters
  • BOD (200 mg/L), COD (340 mg/L) and TS (900 mg/L)

35
8. Pollutants in leakages and due to accidents
during transportation, storage or handling
  • Contribution from this is growing

36
9. Washover from Cattle-farms and Animal Husbandry
  • No adequate, arrangements for collection,
    treatment and proper disposal of liquid wastes

37
10. Pollutants in Agricultural Drainage waters
  • High in salts
  • Intensive use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides

38
11. Pollutants from Aquaculture
  • Contribute significant loads of salts, nutrients,
    chemicals, etc.

39
12. Deposition of Air Pollutants
  • Acid rain cause water pollution
  • Heavy metal deposition from air emissions on to
    water

40
Part - A V) Approaches to Water Quality
Management
41
Approach to Water Quality Management
  • Water Act, 1974
  • Water Use Map of the country was prepared based
    on the Designated Best Use
  • Water Quality Map of India and Water Use Map
    of India will be super imposed, so as to identify
    water bodies which are in need of improvement
    (restoration)

42
Approach to Water Quality Management
  • For maintaining quality of water in the river, it
    is necessary to limit entry of pollutants into
    the river both in quality and quantity.
  • Treatment of effluent to the required degree
    before disposal is needed.

43
Approach to Water Quality Management
  • The industrial and domestic effluents may be
    considered for reuse for Irrigation, Industries,
    etc after necessary treatment.
  • Recharging of ground water after treatment of
    sewage should be considered.

44
Indian Standards for Drinking Water Quality
45
Indian Standards Related to Disposal of Treated
Effluents
46
Part - B Relation of CP with Sustainable
Development
47
  • Population 1080 Millions
  • Population growth rate 1.4
  • Industrial Production growth rate 8.2

48
INDIACURRENT ENVIRONMENT ISSUES
  • Deforestation
  • Soil Erosion
  • Air Pollution
  • Water Pollution
  • Huge Growing Population.
  • Overstraining of Natural Resources.

49
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  • Development that meets needs of present without
    compromising ability of future generations to
    meet their own needs.

50
DEVELOPMENT VS ENVIRONMENT
  • To get where we are today, we have lost so much
    of our natural resources beauty. What will be
    there for the next generation or even after 50
    years hence?

51
Industrial Scenario India
  • gt 15000 large scale industries
  • gt 3 million SMEs
  • Export earnings (approx) 35
  • Employment generation more than 15 million
  • Industrial complexes growing rapidly
  • (1000 complexes in 11 states, 30 built during
    last 10 years)

52
INDIAN INDUSTRY MANUFACTORY SUBSECTORS
1. Food pr11. Plastics 12. Petroleum Coal
products 13. Chemicals 14. Non metallic
minerals 15. Basic metals 16. Metal products
17. Non electrical machinery 18. Electrical
machinery 19. Transport equipment 20. Other
manufacturing Products
1. Food products 2. Beverage Tobacco 3.
Textiles 4. Cotton Textiles 5. Jute 6.
Other Textile Products 7. Wood Wooden
products 8. Paper Paper products 9.
Leather Leather products 10. Rubber
53
HEAVILY POLLUTING INDUSTRIAL SECTORS
1. Cement 2. Thermal Power plants 3. Iron
Steel 4. Fertilizers 5. Zinc Smelters 6.
Copper Smelters 7. Aluminum Smelters 8. Oil
Refineries 9. Distilleries 10.Pulp Paper
11.Pharmaceuticals 12.Dyes dye intermediates
13.Pesticides 14.Petrochemicals 15.Tanneries
16.Sugar and 17. Bulk Drugs
54
SMEs
  • 3.1 Million SMEs compared to 7500 large-scale.
  • Rs.5275 Billion Production.
  • 5 Export earnings.
  • 15 Million people employment.

55
ADVANTAGES OF SMEs
  • Low Capital Requirement
  • Low Production Cost
  • High Labour Employment Potential.

56
Environmental Problems of Industrialization
  • Depletion of Natural Resources
  • Large Scale contamination of GW SW resources.
  • Deteriorating Air Quality
  • Decrease in forest cover and bio-diversity
  • Indiscriminate waste disposal
  • Escalating health costs.

57
CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION
  • Outdated, inefficient Technologies.
  • Large number of Industrial Clusters.
  • Large number of SMEs
  • Poor Enforcement of Pollution Control regulations
  • Lack of Resources.

58
Environmental Management Hierarchy
  • Ignore the Problem (dump)
  • Dilute Disperse
  • Regulate Control
  • Prevent

59
CHANGES IN ENVIRONMENTAL FRONT
  • Increased public awareness.
  • Inclusion of CP/WM as Environmental Protection
    Measure in Environment Policy statement by MOEF
    (1992).

60
Industrys Concerns Today
  • Compliance with government regulations
  • Minimizing consumption of resources to enhance
    profitability
  • Safety of employees and others

61
  • Reduce Production Cost
  • Improve Quality of Product
  • Conserve Environment
  • Increase Profitability

BE COMPETITIVE
62
SOLUTION ???
63
ONLY SOLUTION IS CLEANER PRODUCTION
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