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Live Feeds: Artemia

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Live Feeds: Artemia Developed by the Harbor Branch ACTED staff Live Foods Fish larvae must be fed live foods which have the nutrition and enzymes (exogenous) they ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Live Feeds: Artemia


1
Live Feeds Artemia
  • Developed by the Harbor Branch ACTED staff

2
Live Foods
  • Fish larvae must be fed live foods which have the
    nutrition and enzymes (exogenous) they need,
    before their own digestive system is formed.
  • After the fish has developed its own digestive
    system, then weaning to dry feed can begin.

3
Live Foods
  • The two main live feeds commonly used
  • Rotifers
  • Artemia (brine shrimp)
  • Other live feeds include
  • Mollusc trochophore larvae
  • Ciliates
  • Copepods
  • Wild plankton

4
Live Foods
  • Most commercial hatcheries rely on rotifers and
    Artemia, for their ease of production, cost and
    reliability.

5
Rotifers
  • Rotifers can be produced using algae, yeast, or
    other custom products, or a combination.
  • Rotifer production range from 100 to 10,000
    animals per ml.
  • Rotifers are usually maintained in larvae tanks
    at a density of 5 to 30 per ml of larval tank
    water.

6
Brine Shrimp, Artemia
Photograph by HBOI
7
Brine Shrimp (Artemia)
  • Artemia can be hatched in 17 liter
  • containers with hatches of 5 to 10 million.
  • Artemia are maintained at less than 1 per ml
  • of culture water.

8
Brine Shrimp (Artemia)
  • Newly hatched brine shrimp have maximum
    nutritional value.
  • Artemia lose their nutritional value after 10 -
    12 hours.
  • At this time Artemia begin to feed and may be
    enriched with various products including algae.
  • After 24 hours, the enriched Artemia is fed to
    larvae.

9
Brine Shrimp (Artemia)
  • Most enrichment products increase the fatty acid
    content of the shrimp which is beneficial to
    larvae.
  • Other beneficial products can be incorporated
    into Artemia, including
  • Probiotics
  • Medications

10
Conventional Hatching for Marine Fish (No
de-capsulating)
  • 1. 8 a.m. Disinfect cysts with chlorine and
    hydrate cysts for 1 hour in freshwater.
  • 2. Chlorinate hatching saltwater, de-chlorinate,
    and check for residual chlorine.
  • 3. 9 a.m. Drain cysts into net, rinse and add to
    saltwater. Add de-foamer.
  • 4. Next day 8 a.m. Turn off air and let settle
    until shells, nauplii and unhatched
  • cysts are separate, about 15 minutes. Drain
    unhatched cysts on the floor,
  • then drain shrimp in net, stopping before the
    shells begin.
  • 5. Rinse shrimp with salt water, and then put in
    a bucket of saltwater.
  • 6. Remove as many floating shells as possible
    with a baster.
  • 7. Feed to larvae.

11
Hatching for Freshwater Fish (No
de-capsulating)
  • 1. 8 a.m. Add salt to freshwater.
  • 2. Add cysts straight from the can.
  • 3. Next day 8 a.m. Turn off air and let settle
    until shells, nauplii
  • and unhatched cysts are separate, about 15
    minutes. Drain unhatched
  • cysts on the floor, then drain shrimp in net,
    stopping before the shells begin.
  • 4. Rinse shrimp with freshwater.
  • 5. Feed to larvae.

12
Hatching with De-capsulated cysts
  • 3 p.m. Add de-capsulated cysts to seawater. Add
    de-foamer.
  • 2. Next day 7 a.m. Turn off air and drain
    immediately
  • into net and rinse.
  • 3. Feed to larvae.

13
Advantages of De-capsulating
  • Cysts must be disinfected with chlorine when
    using Artemia for saltwater, to kill bacteria
    such as Vibrio.
  • 2. Cysts do not need to be hydrated before
    hatching, saving time.
  • 3. With no shells, nauplii can hatch quicker with
    less expenditure of energy (fat content),
    increasing their nutritional value.

14
Advantages (continued)
  • 4. Hatching time is reduced from the normal 24
    hours
  • to 16 hours at 30C (86F). Nauplii lose their
    nutritional
  • value over time, so the extra 8 hours saved means
    a nauplii
  • with higher fat content.
  • 5. Quicker hatching time results in smaller, more
    uniform-sized
  • nauplii suitable for the smallest sized larvae.
  • 6. There are no shells or unhatched cysts to
    separate from the
  • nauplii. Even unhatched cysts can be eaten by
    larvae.

15
Advantages of De-capsulating
  • 7. There are no shells or unhatched cysts
    accumulating
  • on the surface of larval tanks. Shells or
    unhatched cysts
  • can lodge in the esophagus and gut and kill
    larvae.
  • 8. Hatching percentage increases compared to
    conventional
  • hatching of unde-capsulated cysts.
  • 9. It is cost efficient as the price of Artemia
    has doubled.
  • 10. As Artemia supply can fluctuate, even poorer
    grades
  • (quality) of cysts (such as Grade A or B) can be
    used.

16
Disadvantages of De-capsulation
  • 1. De-capsulation requires skilled labor as the
    window of
  • de-capsulation is only 2 to 4 minutes. Any errors
    in following procedures result in loss of time
    and cost of Artemia cysts and chemicals.
  • 2. For large scale hatcheries when several cans
    must be hatched
  • every day, following the disinfection / hydration
    techniques is more time and cost efficient.

17
De-capsulating Brine Shrimp
  • Approximately 275,000 cysts/ gram
  • produce
  • 200,000 250,000 nauplii/ gram
  • or
  • 90 113 million per 1 pound can (454 grams)

18
Materials For De-capsulating
  • 1. Pre-cool (5ºC) 1 gallon of salt water and 1
    gallon of liquid chlorine (10) in a
    refrigerator for at least 2 days.
  • 2. Dissolve 20 grams (1/16 cup) of sodium
    hydroxide Na(OH)2 beads in 30 ml (1/8 cup) of
    freshwater. Caution mixture is very hot and can
    burn skin. Do not inhale fumes!
  • 3. Dissolve 1/4 cup of sodium thiosulfate in a 1
    liter beaker of freshwater.
  • 4. Prepare 4 gallons of brine solution (5 lbs. of
    crystal salt dissolved in 5 gallon capacity
    bucket of freshwater).
  • 5. 1 pound can of Brine Shrimp cysts.

19
Photograph by HBOI
Photograph by HBOI
20
Method For De-capsulating
  • 1. Aerate cysts for 1 hour in 15 liters of
    freshwater
  • in a brine shrimp net suspended in a hatching
    cone.
  • 2. Rinse cysts briefly in freshwater.
  • 3. Add the Na(OH)2 solution to 2 liters of
    chilled salt water.
  • Discard remaining salt water.

21
Photograph by HBOI
22
Method For De-capsulating
4. Add cysts to empty clean cone. 5. Add the
2 liters of salt water mixture. Aerate
vigorously. 6. Add 2 liters of chilled bleach
to cone. 7. After 2 - 4 minutes, cysts will
turn bright orange.
23
Photograph by HBOI
24
Photograph by HBOI
25
Photograph by HBOI
26
Photograph by HBOI
27
Photograph by HBOI
Photograph by HBOI
28
Methods (continued)
  • 8. Add 1 liter of sodium thiosulfate solution
    and 15 seconds.
  • 9. Turn of the air, drain, rinse with water in
    a brine shrimp net.
  • 10. Add 2 liters of brine solution to a clean
    cone. Add cysts and
  • rinse net with more brine and fill up to the line
    for the required
  • number of cups. For example, the number of cups
    (18) times 200 ml
  • 3.6 liters water and cysts.

29
Photograph by HBOI
30
Method (continued)
12. Aerate slowly for 18 hours. 13. With
continued aeration, drain cysts into 16 to
24 (average 18) - 200 ml containers 14.
Refrigerate for up to 2 weeks.
31
Photograph by HBOI
32
Photograph by HBOI
33
Photograph by HBOI
34
Photograph by HBOI
35
Photograph by HBOI
36
De-capsulation costs per pound can
  • Liquid chlorine Less than 2.00
  • Sodium hydroxide Less than 0.25
  • Sodium thiosufate Less than 0.25
  • Labor time Less than 30 minutes
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