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Aquaculture

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Aquaculture Zoology 1450 Dr. Craig Kasper HCC Aquaculture Program Introduction Definition: Rearing of aquatic organisms under controlled or semi-controlled conditions. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Aquaculture


1
Aquaculture
  • Zoology 1450
  • Dr. Craig Kasper
  • HCC Aquaculture Program

2
Introduction
  • Definition Rearing of aquatic organisms under
    controlled or semi-controlled conditions.
  • Intensive Aquaculture Highly controlled, high
    density, RAS, raceways, confined (industrialized)
  • Extensive Aquaculture Minimal control, lower
    density, ponds, third world

3
Properties of Water
  • Aqueous Terrestrial
  • Oxygen 0-14 mg/L 21
  • Temperature 10C 40C
  • Density Variable (4C) Constant
  • Composition Variable Constant
  • Universal Solvent

4
Introduction What Can We Grow?
Fish Husbandry
  • Foodfinfish, crustaceans, mollusks, frogs, algae
  • Baitfishfathead minnow, golden shiner
  • Sportfishbass, bluegill, walleye
  • Ornamentalstilapia, goby,
  • Feeder fishgoldfish, shiner, minnow
  • Biological supply houses

5
Introduction
  • Professional Societies Interested in Aquaculture

6
Aquaculture Journals
  • Journal of the World Aquaculture Society
  • North American Journal of Aquaculture (PFC)
  • Aquaculture
  • Journal of Applied Aquaculture
  • Aquaculture Nutrition
  • Aquaculture Research
  • Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
  • Transaction of the American Fisheries Society

7
Aquaculture History at SIU
  • Cage culture of channel catfish
  • Hydroponics and aquaculture
  • Intensive culture of striped bass fingerlings
  • Aquaculture using heated effluents
  • Recirculating aquaculture systems
  • Hybrid striped bass aquaculture
  • HCG drug approval
  • International (Peru)
  • White bass (brood stock)

8
Why Culture Fish?
  • Finite Resourceoverfishing and habitat
    destruction
  • Fuel Cost
  • ProximityFarms may be closer to local markets.
  • Exclusive Economic Zones
  • Health Consciousness (protein, FAs,
    micronutrients)
  • Efficiency (see next slide)
  • Trade Deficit8 billion imported seafood!

9
Feed Conversion (grain/flesh)
  • Beef cattle on feedlot 81
  • Swine 3.31
  • Poultry 2.251
  • Rainbow trout 1.51
  • Tilapia 1.251
  • Why ARE fish so efficient?

10
Utilization of Feed and Dietary Protein and
Energy.
Feed Composition Efficiency
Animal Protein Energy ME-Protein
Feed Protein gain/ Protein g (kcal/
ratio Efficiency g protein
gain/Mkcal () ME g) (kcal/g)
(gain/feed) consumed MEconsumed
Catfish 32 2.7 8.5 0.84
0.36 47 Chicken 18
2.8 16 0.48 0.33
23 Cattle 11 2.6 24
0.13 0.15
6
11
Why Lower Energy Requirement?
  • Dont have to maintain body temperature (heat
    increment, or HI)
  • Less energy to maintain position (neutral
    buoyancy).
  • Lose less energy in protein catabolism and
    excretion of nitrogen (85 of waste nitrogen
    passes out gills).
  • Livestock use bacteria to convert carbs. to
    proteinnot efficient, but cheap!

12
Aquaculture Species of Interest
  • Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)
  • Hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis X. M.
    chrysops)
  • Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
  • Freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii)
  • Baitfish

13
Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)
14
Channel Catfish
  • Status of Industry
  • -largest aquaculture industry in U.S.
  • -gt610 million pounds (2003)
  • -mostly in Mississippi Delta Region
  • -1st finfish production in U.S.!
  • Culture Systems
  • -primarily ponds (economy of scale)
  • -some reared in cages, pens, raceways

15
Channel Catfish (cont.)
  • Environmental Requirements
  • -Live in wide range of temperatures
  • -Grow best in waters 80-90F
  • -Tolerant to low dissolved oxygen (lt 5 ppm).
  • Availability
  • -Fingerlings of all sized can be purchased
  • -Easy to spawn

16
Channel Catfish (cont.)
  • Growth Rates and Production
  • -Two growing seasons (spring-fall) using 4-6
    fingerlings to reach market size (1 ¼ lbs.)
  • -10 fingerlings will get there in one season!
  • -2000 lbs/acre w/o aeration.
  • -4000 lbs/acre with aeration.

17
Channel Catfish (cont.)
  • Cost of Production
  • -cost about 0.55-0.65/lb
  • to produce
  • -Seel whole for 0.80-0.85/lb

18
Channel Catfish (cont.)
  • Markets
  • -Well established and highly competitive
    (mature)
  • -Fee fishing lakes
  • -Niche markets
  • -Illinois prisions and other state institutions
  • Production and transporting
    products to market

19
Channel Catfish (cont.)
  • Future
  • -Prices will reamin low due to volume
  • -Local markets can still be penetrated
  • -Strains suitable for colloer climates needed!
  • -Out-of-season spawning may be beneficial
  • -Foreign competition becoming more apparent
    (Imported Basa and Tra from Vietnam has
    influenced market, 2001).
  • -Country of Origin Labeling (COOL) has been
    enacted to help market US products.

20
Hybrid Striped Bass (Morone chrysops X M.
saxatilis)
21
Hybrid Striped Bass (Morone chrysops X M.
saxatilis)
  • Hybrid between an anadromous (striped) and a
    freshwater (white) bass.
  • Sunshine bass (reciprocal cross)- Morone chyrsops
    ? X M. saxatilis ? is current industry leader.
  • Palmetto bass (original cross) Morone saxatilis ?
    X M. chrysops ?. Less popular due to need for
    large females.

22
Hybrid Striped Bass (cont.)
  • Industry status
  • -Rapidly growing (huge potential)
  • -12 million lbs. produced in 2002
  • -most produced near coasts (CA, NC, SC)
  • Culture Systems
  • -Raised in ponds (NC, SC) and recirculating
    aquaculture systems (RAS, CA)
  • -Can be reared in cages raceways (not much
    here).

23
Hybrid Striped Bass (cont.)
  • Environmental Requirements
  • -Grow rapidly at70-80F, but as low as 45F.
  • -Needs aeration (4000 lbs./acre)
  • Availability
  • -fingerlings and fry can be purchased (2x as
    catfish)
  • -spawning relatively complicated (small
    hatchings, green water for larvae, hybridization
    by manual spawing)

24
Hybrid Striped Bass (cont.)
  • Growth Rates and Production
  • -Two growing seasons from fry to market size
    (1. 5 lbs.)
  • -Can produce 2000 lbs./acre without and 4000
    lbs./
  • acre with aeration.
  • Markets
  • -Most sold whole on ice (still a white
    tablecloth fish!)
  • -Some market demand in Chicago and St. Louis
  • -Niche markets (restaurants, value added)
  • -Stocking as a sportfish (but only large ones gt
    4lbs.)

25
Hybrid Striped Bass (cont.)
  • Markets
  • -Most sold whole on ice (still a white
    tablecloth fish!)
  • -Some market demand in Chicago and St. Louis
  • -Niche markets (restaurants, value added)
  • -Stocking as a sportfish (but only large ones gt
    4lbs.)

26
Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Status of industry
  • -Second largest species produced in the U.S.
  • -55 million pounds of 12 food-sized fish alone
  • (50 million U.S.)
  • -Idaho production
  • is 90 of industry.
  • (Lots of water!)

27
Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
28
Rainbow Trout (cont.)
  • Environmental Requirements
  • -Require cold water (lt70F)
  • -Grow best in 57-59F (tight range!)
  • -Donaldson straindoes well at warmer temp
    (65F).
  • -Not tolerant to low D.O.
  • -Trout are not very
  • robust fish.

29
Rainbow Trout (cont.)
  • Availability
  • -Limited in Illinois
  • -Purchase from out of state (requires permit)
  • -Must purchase from Great Lakes Basin state
  • -Disease control a major issue...may limit
    purchase options.

30
Rainbow Trout (cont.)
  • Growth Rates and Production
  • -Requires 12 months at 59F for 1.5 fingerlings.
  • -6 fingerlings can reach market size (1 lbs.) in
    6 months.
  • -Production depends upon water flow rates.
  • (raceway production very high production
    rates)
  • 2000 lbs./acre in ponds
  • Cost of Production
  • -Limited in Illnois as food (temperature
    dependent early harvest dictates this...)
  • -Fee fishing and niche markets

Lake McDonald in Glacier National Park
31
Rainbow Trout (cont.)
  • Future
  • -Best potential might be for fee fishing.
  • -Double cropping following a warm water species?

32
Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
33
Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
  • Status of Industry
  • -Rapidly growing, but imports still much cheaper!
  • -17 million pounds produced (1997) compared to
    249 million pounds imported!
  • -Primarily due to lower labor in foreign
    countries.
  • -Production scattered throughout U.S.

34
Tilapia
  • Culture Systems
  • -Primarily raised in indoor water recirculating
    systems
  • -Some ponds in the South.

35
Tilapia
  • Environmental Requirements
  • -Tropical species will not overwinter in
    Northern States (Illinois, Indiana).
  • -Grow best at 85-90F, often die below 65F.
  • -Tolerant of low oxygen and poor water quality...
  • Availability
  • -Fingerllings and fry can be
  • purchases
  • -Easy to spawn....
  • horse troughwaterfish

36
Tilapia
  • Growth Rates and Production
  • -Can reach market size (1.25 lbs.) in 6 months!
  • -Can be reared at high densities
  • (0.5 to 1 lb/gal water).

ADM Tilapia Hydro farm
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Typical prices for Tilapia products sold in the
U.S. (August 1999.)
42
Tilapia
  • Markets
  • -Many sold live to Asian markets
  • (New York, Toronto and Chicago.)
  • -Wal-Mart and other chains
  • are becoming large carriers.
  • -Becoming common in the
  • restaurant scene.
  • -Niche markets-not as many due to low profit
    margin.

43
Tilapia
  • Future
  • -Production expected to continue to increase.
  • -New markets needed for U.S. farmers (foreign
    market competition high!)

44
Other Food Fishes
  • Status of Industry
  • -Several speices under consideration
  • -Largemouth bass, hybrid sunfish, yellow perch,
    flounder
  • -Less than 1 million pounds/yr combined
  • Culture Systems
  • -Generally limited to ponds
  • -some yellow perch in RAS

45
Other Food Fishes
  • Environmental requirements
  • -Coolwater fishes (70-80F)
  • -Medium tolerance to low D.O.
  • Availability
  • -Hybrid sunfish fingerlings readily available
  • -Feed-trained largemouth bass and yellow perch
    limited
  • -Spawning more difficult than others.

46
Other Food Fishes
  • Growth Rates and Production
  • -Largemouth bass exhibit excellent growth, but
    become sexually competent early!
  • -Same with hybrid sunfish
  • -Yellow perch, huge market potential, but slow
    growth and market size is 4-5 fish/lb.
  • Cost of Production
  • -Not known for LMB or hybrid sunfish
  • -YP...about 1.75-2.00/lb.....sell for 2.25/lb
    (not 13.00!!)

47
Other Food Fishes
  • Markets
  • -Excellent Asian market for live LMB (NY)!
  • -Hybrid sunfish market unknown
  • -Extreme demand for YP near Great Lakes
  • -All could be used as sportfish.
  • Future
  • -More research, more research, more research....

48
Baitfish
  • Status of Industry
  • -Mature industry in AK and MO (golden shiners
    fathead minnows)
  • -Infant industry in OH (suckers and emerald
    shiners)
  • Culture Systems
  • -Generally ponds.
  • -RAS in north due to cold.
  • Environmental Requirements
  • -Similar to catfish
  • -Tolerant to low oxygen (can also be held at high
    densities)

49
Baitfish (cont.)
  • Availability
  • -Can be readily purchased
  • -Spawning fairly easy.
  • Growth Rates and Production
  • -Most can reach market size same year spawned
  • -Can produce 2,000-3,000lbs./acre
  • Cost of Production
  • 0.50/lb to produce
  • -Sell for 3.50/lb live...huge profit margin!

50
Baitfish (cont.)
  • Market
  • -Most markets saturated by large producers
  • -Very difficult to break in
  • Future
  • -Industry will continue ot be dominated by large
    producers however, legislation alter this by
    limiting transport between States.

51
Exotics
  • Ornamentals
  • Feeder Fish
  • Biological Supply Houses
  • Crayfish (Crawfish, mudbugs)
  • Shrimp
  • -freshwater prawn are becoming popular
  • -marine are mostly imported
  • (37 of ALL imported seafood!)

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Next time....water sources and culture systems...
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