Research Program - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Research Program


1
Research Program
  • Todd Joseph Miles Holden
  • Chair, Department of Multi-Cultural Societies
  • Professor, Mediated Sociology
  • Graduate School of International Cultural Studies
  • Tohoku University

2
Research ProgramAn Intellectual Historyand
Recent Review
  • Todd Joseph Miles Holden

3
Overview
  • Brief Intellectual History
  • Institutional road traveled to this point
  • Research traditions/contributions
  • Organizational involvements
  • Recent Publications
  • Current Projects
  • In-depth View of One Project

4
I. Brief Intellectual History
  • From whence I came
  • how I got from there to here

5
Institutional Road
  • Syracuse University, Maxwell School of Public
    Affairs and Citizenship
  • Ph.D. in Interdisciplinary Social Science (1988)
  • Tohoku University
  • College of General Education, Assistant Professor
    (1989 - 1993) -- English, American Studies
  • Graduate School of Information Science, Adjunct
    Assistant Professor (1993 - 2001) -- Social
    Structure and Change
  • Faculty of Language and Culture, Associate
    Professor (1993 - 2001) -- Communication Studies
  • Graduate School of International Cultural
    Sciences, Professor (2001 to present) -- Mediated
    Sociology

6
Inferentially
  • Institutionally rooted loyal.
  • Intellectually committed to melding disciplines
  • Sociology, anthropology, media and communication
    studies, cultural studies, Japanese Studies and
    (earlier) American Studies represented
  • Also a commitment to balancing theory and
    empiricism
  • With grounded theorization prominently featured

7
Organizational Involvements
  • Executive on the boards of the following
    professional associations
  • Asia Pacific Sociology Association (2002 to
    present)
  • Vice President in charge of Publications
  • Anthropology of Japan in Japan (2001 to 2005)
  • Director of Communications
  • International Association for Media and
    Communication Research (2005 to present)
  • Co-Chair, Gender Section

8
Organizational Involvements
  • Member of these Editorial Boards
  • Communication Theory
  • Communication, Culture Critique
  • Journal of Multicultural Discourses
  • Asia Pacific Sociology
  • Managing Editor

9
Organizational Involvements
  • Referee for
  • International Communication Association, Popular
    Communication Section
  • Cambridge University Press
  • Trans Pacific Press
  • Asian Journal of Social Science
  • Japanese Studies
  • M/C a Journal of Media and Culture

10
Organizational Involvements
  • Webmaster for
  • Asia Pacific Sociological Association (APSA)
  • Gender Section, International Association for
    Media and Communication Research (IAMCR)
  • Anthropology of Japan in Japan (AJJ), 2002-2006

11
Organizational Involvements
  • And . . .
  • There was that stint for 5 years as Head Coach of
    the Mens basketball team at Tohoku University
    (1989 - 1994) and
  • Two years as Head Coach of a womens pro team
    (1994 - 1996) in Yamagata (Yamagata Ginko Lyers).

12
II. Publications
  • In the past few years, I have published books,
    chapters and articles on the following
    communication-related topics

13
Recent Publications
  • The Naturalizing of Gender in Japanese TV
    Commercials (Hampton, 2007)
  • Media, Cultural Values and Cycles of Heroic
    Construction in Japan (Hampton, 2007)
  • Media in Asia (Routledge 2006)
  • Intimacy and Japanese TV (Routledge 2006)
  • Adolescent cell phone use in Japan (Routledge
    2006)
  • Sportsports and globalization (Routledge 2006)

14
Past Publications
  • Extending a bit farther back
  • Masculinities in Japanese TV Food Shows (Food and
    Foodways 2005)
  • "Japanese Television," in The Encyclopedia of
    Television (Routledge 2005)
  • "Advertising a synthetic approach" in Handbook
    of Media Studies. (Sage 2004)
  • "Japans Mediated Global Identities" (Trans
    Pacific Press 2003
  • Globalization and Inequality in Asia (Trans
    Pacific Press 2003)
  • Internet dating and sociation in Japan (Routledge
    2003)

15
III. Current Projects
  • Four projects I am involved in now
  • ReDotPop Mediations of Japanese popular culture
    (Soft Skull Press)
  • Inspired by my column in PopMatters
  • Gender Ads, Japan (Hampton Press)
  • The New Floating World Navigating the world of
    Japanese advertising
  • Sportsports An uncommon theorization of
    globalization

16
Current Projects
  • Today I want to talk in more detail about the
    Sportsports research, because it is
  • original

17
Current Projects
  • This Sportsports research is
  • representative of my perspective, which
  • Balances theory and empiricism
  • Melds popular culture with sociology and
    anthropology

18
Current Projects
  • The Sportsports research
  • Emphasizes media and communication
  • In multiple incarnations / permutations
  • And the phenomenological processes that result
  • In this case globalization, the trans-national
    flow of praxis and ideas, and influences on
    identity

19
Relevance
  • It is this perspective set
  • trans-cultural
  • inter-disciplinary
  • theoretical and empirical
  • That I would bring to the design and management
    of a nascent Communication Program in an American
    University open for business in Japan.

20
A. Introduction
  • Contextualizing Sportsports

21
To Begin
  • This is a significant moment in Japanese history
  • A time in which Japans place in the increasingly
    interconnected web of nations, products, ideas
    and practices is mediated in large part by its
    popular culture
  • And, in particular, sporting culture.
  • This process is supported if not driven by
    media which focus on what I call sportsports.

22
Sportsports A Definition
  • The moniker refers to the flow of sporting goods
    or services both into and out of nations
  • This includes games, players, practices and
    philosophies
  • Sportsports also refers to the array of
    techniques by which domestic media package and
    audiences consume information about athletes and
    athletics at home and abroad
  • In short, these are information imports, too

23
Medias Role
  • Formal media are the conscious agent in the
    Sportsport phenomenon
  • TV, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising

24
Medias Role
  • Communications about sportsports have become
    seminal social text in everyday Japanese life
  • With concrete, significant effects
  • Above all related to national and gendered
    identity

25
B. Evaluative Components
  • Theories of Globalization
  • Japans Globalizations
  • The History of Sportsports in Japan
  • Media Effects / Social Outcomes

26
Theorizing Globalization
27
Globalization in a Nutshell
  • I have tendered a macro level analysis of
    globalization (Holden 2003, 2006)
  • It conceives of globalization as transpiring in
    stages or careers
  • (which are) distinctly expressed via various
    theoretically specifiable
  • Entities
  • Epochs
  • Activities

28
Global Career
  • Every country possesses its own unique global
    signature (or profile)
  • based on its individualized history of
    local/global encounters
  • across a range of analytic units and societal
    sectors
  • Which are specifiable, but not particularly
    germane to todays discussion

29
Terms
  • units
  • globalization may touch a geographic region
    differently than it does a singular nation or any
    particular social group
  • sectors
  • globalization manifests itself differently
    depending on which of the traditional domains of
    sociological analysis it is associated with
  • Political
  • Economic
  • Social
  • Cultural
  • Moral

30
Factors Influencing Career
  • Every nations career differs depending on an
    array of factors present in the context.
  • Including
  • ethnic composition
  • cultural history
  • religious practices
  • technological development
  • political structure
  • economic system
  • resource mix

31
Important Dimensions
  • Temporality
  • As between nations, Global Careers are not
    necessarily coterminous
  • One nation may be in the midst of
    politically-defined globalization, while another
    may be engaged in an economic or cultural
    globalization

32
Important Dimensions
  • Directionality of Flow
  • Inflow
  • Outflow
  • Career stages are also marked (and dictated) by
    export and import
  • The goods or services (or engagements) entering
    or leaving the context may be
  • Economic Political Social
  • Cultural Environmental

33
In a Nutshell
  • To decipher the global career of any given unit,
    sectors have to be specified and assessed
  • Further, it is necessary to distinguish between
    the "import and export" of
  • Ideas
  • People
  • Diplomacy
  • Trade
  • Military contact
  • At different historical moments.

34
Globalization Footprints
  • Differ based on the various mix of these factors
  • As between 2 comparable units (for instance,
    countries)
  • Also as between 2 epochs for the same analytic
    unit

35
A Simple Comparison
36
Footprints by Epoch
  • Thus, for instance, America and Japan have both
    manifested career stages in which they were
  • quiescent (or isolated)
  • active (or expansionist)

37
Footprints by Epoch Japan
  • Some bouts of outward extension between 1200 and
    1865
  • Yet, generally quiescent (i.e. local) pre-Meiji
  • then (globally) active between 1865 and 1945
    (primarily militarily, though with economic
    aggrandizement)
  • After brief quiescence (1945 - 1955), it again
    emerged (economically) as an export power
  • By the 1980s this became as much cultural as
    economic (export)
  • Fashion Cinema Manga Cuisine
  • Sports

38
Footprints by Epoch USA
  • America has gone through numerous bouts of local
    quiescence (isolationism) and global activity.
  • A history many of you are familiar with
  • And which is intricate enough that, for reasons
    of time (and the fact that I am not an
    historian), we ought to skip
  • Yet can be separated into military, diplomatic,
    economic, and cultural phases

39
Japans Globalization Careers
40
Befu on Globalization
  • Befu has argued that there were 3 distinct
    periods to Japans globalization
  • pre-Tokugawa
  • mid-19th century through 1945
  • the period following the Pacific War
  • His focus, however, is basically on diaspora

41
Period 1 Pre-Tokugawa
  • From the 15th century to 17th centuries Japanese
    patrolled the coasts of China and Southeast Asia
  • as pirates and merchants
  • establishing "Japan towns" abroad
  • This era came to end by governmental fiat

42
Period 2 Mid-19th Century to WWII
  • This era was marked by Japanese emigration by the
    millions to
  • Hawaii
  • North and South America
  • East and Southeast Asia
  • Oceania
  • This period of diaspora was brought to a close
    with the conclusion of the Pacific War in 1945

43
Period 3 Post-War Diaspora
  • The third period started soon after the end of
    the war and continues to the present
  • According to Befu, it is characterized by 8
    distinct categories of diaspora

44
Alternate Conceptualizations
  • As considered earlier, a fuller accounting of any
    countrys globalization would consider inward, as
    well as outward, flow.
  • We can think in terms of cultural, political,
    social and economic processes.
  • A global signature will include
  • goods and services
  • political structures and ideas
  • social groups
  • cultural ideas and practices

45
Japans Global Outflow
  • Japan has experienced moments of export as far
    back as the early third century, when diplomats
    ventured to China.
  • export was (political and cultural) information
  • Militarizers ventured to what is now the Korean
    peninsula in the late fourth century, seeking to
    exert dominion
  • More diplomacy ensued, with missions to China in
    the seventh century and then to Europe in 1613

46
Japans Global Outflow
  • During the Meiji period (1867-1912) the
    government sent numerous scholars and leaders to
    foreign countries on fact-finding missions.
  • This period of hyper-consumption of the West
    resulted in the appropriation of everything from
    postal systems and irrigation projects to goods
    and culture, both high and low

47
Japans Global Outflow
  • Then the militarists fought with China in 1894
    and Russia in 1904
  • They moved to occupied China in the 1920s
  • Thereafter came the formation of the Greater East
    Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere
  • And the occupation of numerous Asian countries --
    from Burma to Malaysia

48
Japans Global Outflow
  • The next bout of outward-reach was in the
    mass-production export-driven era, running from
    the mid 1950s to mid-1980s
  • During the 1970s Japanese fashion designers
    joined international haute couture
  • Beginning in the 1980s cultural exports in music,
    film, animation and books began

49
Japan and Inflow
  • Historically, inflow has been more extensive than
    outflow
  • Buddhism came in the 6th century
  • The gun and then Christianity in the middle of
    the 16th century
  • Business from Holland came in the early 17th
    century and Russia in the later stages of the
    17th century
  • The forced opening of Japan by the United States
    transpired in the mid-19th century
  • Once again, the enforced reconstruction by the
    United States following armed conflict between
    the nations

50
The Sports Stage of Japans Globalization Career
  • Generally
  • athletic inflow has also been more extensive than
    outflow
  • until establishment of Japan as a global economic
    power, sports outflow was scant.

51
The Sports Stage of Japans Global Inflow
  • Since about the turn of the (twentieth) century,
    Japan has served as a visitation ground for
    foreign athletic imports
  • In 1908 a team of major league reserves visited
    and won all seventeen games they played against
    Japanese teams
  • A 1931 all-star team featured Lou Gehrig, Lefty
    Grove, Mickey Cochrane and Frankie Frisch.
  • Another visit featured Babe Ruth who drew 75,000
    fans to one game, 65,000 to another he hit 14
    homers in 17 games
  • Two Negro League visits were staged in 1927 and
    1932. Their collective record was 46 wins against
    one loss.

52
The Sports Stage of Japans Global Inflow
  • In the pre-war years at least 4 foreigners played
    for Japanese teams
  • a Russian won over 300 games in a nineteen year
    career
  • a Hawaiian American won 240 games
  • a Taiwanese became the first foreigner to win a
    batting title in 1942
  • Following the war, Hawaiian Wally Yonamine, a
    nikei, was recruited to help pave the way for
    regular foreign involvement in Japanese baseball.
  • Nearly every year for the past forty years
    foreigners have been featured on Japanese rosters

53
The Sports Stage of Japans Global Inflow
  • Over the years, Japan has also served as a site
    for athletic competitions, facilitating the entry
    into Japan of people and practices from beyond
    national borders
  • Tokyo hosted the Third Asian Games in 1958 and
    the Summer Olympics in 1965
  • This was the first Olympics held in Asia
    rightfully a point of pride for Japanese
  • Also the first TV Olympics
  • Subsequent (winter) Olympiads were staged in
    Sapporo in 1972 and Nagano in 1998.
  • The former was the first winter games held
    outside of Europe or North America
  • Japan was the site of Footballs World Cup in 2002

54
The Sports Stage of Japans Global Inflow
  • Japan has also served as host of numerous
    international competitions
  • The First Winter Asian Games were convened in
    Sapporo in 1986 the Second were also held in
    Sapporo, in 1990
  • The Fifth Winter Games, staged in Aomori in 2003
  • The Ninth World Swimming Championships, held in
    Fukuoka in 2001
  • The World Wheelchair Basketball championships, in
    Kitakyushu in 2002
  • The World Cup of Volleyball, in various Japanese
    cities in late 2003
  • Since 2000, ten Japanese cities have hosted
    seventeen international marathons
  • FIFAs Club championship in 2006

55
The Sports Stage of Japans Global Inflow
  • Japan has become a venue for other nations
    professional leagues
  • The National Basketball Association
  • Major League Baseball
  • The National Football League
  • The National Hockey League
  • The former two have even held official regular
    season games on Japanese soil in the past five
    years

56
The Sports Stage of Japans Global Outflow
  • Waseda Universitys baseball team traveled to
    Americas west coast in 1905
  • Compiled a 7-win 19-loss record against schools
    like Stanford, USC and Washington
  • Participation in the Stockholm Olympics of 1912
  • Took part in the First Far Eastern Championship
    Games held in Manila, in 1913
  • The government first subsidized an international
    sports event at the Fifth Far Eastern Games, held
    in Shanghai, in 1921
  • Japan participated in the Davis Cup in 1921
  • Otherwise, episodes of athletic outflow prior to
    the Pacific War were limited to individual
    efforts
  • American professional baseball in 1914-15
  • Wimbledon in 1934

57
Athletic Globalization now a steadily accreting
stream
  • Number of Japanese on MLB rosters
  • 1995 1
  • 2000 7
  • 2002 15
  • 2007 15
  • Number of Japanese on European football rosters
  • 1995 0
  • 2000 1
  • 2001 4
  • 2002 7
  • 2004 8
  • 2007 9

58
Concluding about FlowImport, Export and
Episodes
  • Flow manifests itself as economic, political,
    social, cultural, or environmental
  • sometimes in combination
  • When flow enters from the outside, it can be
    thought of as global import
  • When flow emanates from a country and enters
    another, foreign, context, it can be thought of
    as global export
  • When incidents of flow occur they can be called
    episodes
  • When episodes occur in great enough measure to
    suggest a trend, the apparent phenomenon can be
    thought of as constituting a stage in the focal
    countrys globalization career

59
The Import/Export Nexus
  • Certainly, Japans status as an economic power
    has been central in facilitating the sport import
    phenomenon
  • This demonstrates the crucial role of resource
    mix in a countrys global career.
  • However, the embrace of exogenous content has
    always been a hallmark of Japans global
    signature
  • A habituated response for a society too often
    isolated from the rest of the world, only to
    learn belatedly that it has fallen behind

60
Mediating Global Career
61
Medias Role
  • Media become involved in the import and export of
    (political, economic, social, cultural, moral)
    information.
  • This can have influences in specific contexts,
    based on the attitudes and practices of those
    exposed to and consuming these information
    imports and/or exports.

62
Sportsport Re-import
  • Japans current stage of globalization can be
    called sport export/media re-import
  • domestic athletes are global economic/cultural
    exports
  • But in the hands of news and entertainment media,
    they are re-imported
  • With tangible effects -- above all on national
    and gendered identity

63
Sports Re-Import Examples
  • On June 8th 2005, Hodo Station (a 10 p.m. news
    program) led its reportage and devoted nearly its
    entire hour-long broadcast to Japans
    qualification for Soccers 2006 World Cup.
  • The final qualifier, against political nemesis
    North Korea, had been broadcast live from
    Thailand on TV Asahi, Hodo Stations network.

64
Sports Re-Import Examples
  • The news hour was filled with live interviews
    with players, national team executives, and
    coaches, along with in-studio analysis, and
    remote feeds from bars and eating establishments
    nationwide.
  • Well into the following day, news programs,
    morning wake-up and wide-shows normally dedicated
    to celebrity, fashion, gossip and social problems
    devoted the bulk of their programming to reports
    about the soccer teams success.

65
Sports Re-Import Examples
  • One week later, Hodo Station began their telecast
    with side-by-side images of Ichiro and Hideki
    Matsui. Each picture dissolved to game footage.
  • First Ichiro was shown blasting a single off the
    outfield wall, with the excited voiceover of an
    American television announcer. As he barked that
    this was Ichiros one thousandth hit in America,
    the stadium was shown erupting in a standing
    ovation.
  • Ichiro was shown acknowledging the ovation by
    tipping his batting helmet.

66
Sports Re-Import Examples
  • Cue to the next image of Matsui connecting with
    a pitch. Again an American announcers
    enthusiastic voice-over could be heard its out
    of the infield, its out of the outfield. Bye-bye
    baseball. Home run, Hideki Matsui!
  • Fade to two newscasters seated in the studio. The
    male announcer gushing Japans Superstars.
    Well show them later in the show. But first
    and then the top (hard) news story of the day
    began wheels that fell off of a Japanese Air
    Lines jet upon landing at Haneda.

67
Mediated Sportsport
  • Although Japans popular cultural stage of
    globalization includes film, music and fashion,
    the most locally pervasive and influential is
    sportsports.

68
Ubiquitous Media . . .
Implicated are indigenous media such as
television news, entertainment programming,
advertising, the Internet and publishing.
69
Relentless Mediation
70
Mediated Sportsport
Particularly news and advertising
  • Featuring Japanese athletes
  • Participating outside Japan, or
  • Engaged in international competitions in which
    Japanese athletes are/have been pitted against
    foreign rivals

71
Media EffectsValue-Added Mediation
72
Primary Media Effects
  • Attentiveness
  • Framing
  • Distortion Effects
  • Accretion
  • Magnification
  • Amplification

73
Attentiveness
  • The ubiquity of sportsports in any one medium, as
    well as cumulatively across media, creates
  • attentiveness
  • even over-exposure
  • exaggeration
  • of sportsports in contemporary Japanese society.

74
Attentiveness
Source Yomiuri Shimbun, February 2002 Sample
3,000 Japanese aged 20 or older
75
A Media Effect?
  • Japanese professional baseball was the number-one
    choice of fans for the eighth year in a row
  • So what is all this noise about media, sport and
    globalization?
  • It turns out that Major League Baseball was up
    six percentage points over the previous year
  • Moreover, it cracked the top ten for the first
    time ever.
  • It is likely the result of Ichiro, Shinjo and
    Sasaki, taking the Export Challenge (and the
    media choosing to focus on it)

76
More on the Media Effect
  • The likely power of media in shaping public
    consciousness and tastes comes through in the
    next survey question.
  • There, we see that Ichiro topped all Japanese
    athletes -- foreign-based or domestic by a
    whopping 2 to 1 margin
  • Moreover, 5 of the 10 listed athletes are playing
    in foreign leagues
  • Two other athletes a marathoner and a speed
    skater -- compete in foreign locations against
    international fields
  • Only 3 are based primarily in Japan. All 3 play
    for the Japanese cultural icon, the Yomiuri
    Giants baseball team

77
Most Popular Players
78
Interest in Japanese Players Overseas
  • 71 of all respondents indicated that they were
    "very interested" or "somewhat interested" in the
    exploits of Japanese players in the U.S.
  • Over 70 of respondents between age 20 and 50
    answered this way
  • 80 of those in their thirties
  • By profession
  • 88 of managers and professionals
  • 80 of students

79
Framing
80
About Frames
  • As most of you probably know, Frame is a
    serviceable concept in communication studies.
  • Over the years, it has been employed in the
    analysis of
  • organizational structure (Tuchman 1978)
  • elites (Gitlin 1980)
  • hegemony (Hallin 1987)
  • social process (Carragee and Roefs 2004).

81
Organizational Frames
  • Sociologists of Media long ago demonstrated that
    news organizations are guided by practices that
    structure message delivery.
  • These include
  • newsroom routines that frame (Goffman 1974)
    news . . .
  • temporally, spatially and topically (Tuchman 1978)

82
News Organizations,. Routines, and Frames
  • This often results in news that reads the mood
    of the surrounding world and media consumers
    (e.g. Gitlin 1983)
  • In this way, certain values are legitimated and
    given preference over others

83
Framing Sportsports
  • Invariably, reports on Japans sportsports lift
    the players out of the game
  • Emphasizing their achievements
  • The players receive nearly exclusive attention
  • They take precedence over -- even obviate
    attention to -- the game/match, itself.

84
Frame from Formin Japanese Sports News
  • The form of sports news is strikingly similar
    among TV stations
  • Capsule summaries of the at bats of every
    Japanese Major League baseball player
  • The substitution pattern of European-based
    Japanese soccer players
  • Along with any pass, assist, shot on goal, free
    kick or score that may have occurred
  • When available, interviews with the players

85
Meaning from Frame
  • This formatic frame is employed also in
    newspapers and on the Internet
  • Providing a unified media voice
  • The message is about Japanese performance out in
    the world.
  • And, to the degree that individual players serve
    as signifiers for nation, then the frame
    spotlights Japans performance on the world stage.

86
Ancillary / Derivative Meanings
  • To the degree that these players are almost
    exclusively male, a (spurious) association is
    engendered
  • between individual existential condition
  • freedom, mobility, globality, and achievement
  • and male/ness.

87
The Baseball Export Frame
88
MLB SportsportsIndividualist Frame
The focus, throughout, is not on the game rather
the individual Japanese player toiling in the
game.
89
The Soccer Export Frame
  • The identical process occurs in the case of
    Japans overseas soccer players
  • with every arrival in a foreign city detailed,
    every practice session, every meaningful kick,
    assist, goal, and substitution

90
Domestic Framing
  • This stands in contrast to the domestic versions
    of the same sports
  • As I have shown in other work (Holden 2003b)
  • Domestically, team-centered stories take
    precedence over the individual player focus
  • The game is told in story-form

91
In Japanese Team is Spelled with an ?
  • Because achievements tend only to be reported as
    part of the game story . . .
  • One result is that collectivities become the
    invisible filter for understanding sporting life
    INSIDE Japan.
  • In this way the myth of collectivity is
    reproduced

92
Comparative Framing
  • In short, discursive strategies differ between
    domestic and foreign sportsports
  • Foreign coverage exists only due to the presence
    of Japanese players . . .
  • Not because of the games or teams involved.

93
Comparing ContentKey Findings
1. Prioritization Global over Local 2.
Prioritization Local in the Global 3.
Prioritization Japanese over Foreign 4. Story
Structure Telling Global and Local Differently
94
PrioritizationGlobal over Local
  • In most TV news shows a main segment of sports
    reportage concerns Sports Exports
  • They are generally featured first or else
    spotlighted as a tease prior to commercial break.
  • They often are placed ahead of the domestic
    league games

95
2. PrioritizationLocal in the Global
  • At the same time, the only foreign action shown
    are those games in which Japanese players appear
  • News from foreign leagues only occasionally is
    presented
  • and then only highlights of foreign players if
    they have accomplished a major feat

96
Local in the GlobalAn example
  • In 2002, the Anaheim Angels won the U.S. World
    Series in seven games.
  • However, the tease for the Japanese news
    broadcast that night was San Francisco Giant,
    Tsuyoshi Shinjo, swinging at a pitch.
  • After the ad, the news highlighting Shinjos 9th
    inning strikeout (and reminding us he was the
    first Japanese to play in the World Series).
  • The only interview segment was with Shinjo
  • Not the MVP of the series
  • Not the winning manager
  • Not even Shinjos star teammate, Barry Bonds

97
3. PrioritizationJapanese over Foreign
  • Generally, the feats of foreign players will take
    a back seat to those of Japanese players
  • even if those achievements are out of the
    ordinary

98
Japanese over ForeignAn example
  • Back in 2002 a Dodger player hit 4 home runs in
    one game, tying a major league record
  • Yet, the only reason it made the Japanese news
    was because Kazuhisa Ishii happened to be
    pitching for the Dodgers.
  • He was the frame around which the story was
    built.
  • His strike-outs and troubled innings were shown
    first.
  • His ultimate victory was noted.
  • Only then was it reported By the way, Ishiis
    teammate, Shawn Green, hit 4 home runs

99
4. Story StructureTelling Global and Local
Differently
  • As explained above, the clear difference between
    news reports about Japanese and American games
    featuring Japanese players is the structure of
    the story.
  • In the U.S. games, the action is decontextualized
  • There are only reports about the Japanese players
    or their teams
  • Japanese games, by contrast, are more
    traditionally treated
  • They are stories, told with heroes and villains,
  • Engaged in a systematic unfolding of linked
    action
  • There is context, drama and often a message

100
Distortion Effects
  • Media inflate the presence and influence of
    Sportsports in the world
  • Three kinds of distortion can be distinguished
  • accretion
  • amplification
  • magnification

101
Accretion
  • Defined the process of stockpiling images
  • Effect lends a sense of constancy and ubiquity
  • The accumulation of images not of any one
    player, but all players together produces a
    global awareness a hyperawareness of
    sportsports within the consciousness of knowledge
    consumers.

102
Accretion
  • Taken a step further, it could be said that this
    incessant appearance of sportsports functions as
    a form of operant conditioning.
  • It primes viewers to regard sportsports outside
    Japan
  • AND see them as possessing significance beyond
    indigenous boundaries.

103
Accretion
  • In 2005, a typical MLB capsule included a
    cross-country relay of reports lasting minutes
  • 2 Matsuis in New York
  • Nomo in Florida
  • Taguchi in St. Louis
  • Iguchi in Chicago
  • Ichiro in Seattle
  • Ohtsuka in San Diego

104
Accretion
  • In 2005, a typical European soccer capsule
    included multiple border crossings
  • Inamoto in England
  • Okubo in Spain
  • Nakata and Nakamura in Italy
  • Takahara in Germany
  • Ono in Holland.

105
Accretion
  • While not unreal the reportage was contrived.
  • For, the continued exhibition of these players
    has an additive effect
  • day after day
  • channel after channel
  • program after program
  • It inflates the presence of sportsports in the
    world beyond Japanese borders.

106
Accretion
  • When this over-inflation becomes translated into
    perceived impact of sportsports on their
    respective sports, this becomes amplification.
  • Accretion differs insofar as it refers to the
    simple daily appearance of these players on
    screen
  • in practice
  • in the interview room
  • in games
  • (not to mention in advertisements between media
    reports).
  • Such repetition produces a particular mediated
    effect aggregated images of exports manufactures
    a hyper-presence and, ultimately, efficacy

107
Amplification
  • Defined the process of inflating the size or
    presence of sportsports by according them
    over-abundance of attention and detail
  • individually or aggregately
  • Effect creates impressions out of proportion to
    prevailing reality

108
Amplification Exemplified
  • In June 2005 Ichiro advanced toward 1,000 hits
    for his American career. His effort was virtually
    ignored in the American media.
  • Why?
  • There are well over 100 batters in major league
    history who have garnered 2,000 career hits
  • 25 batters with over 3,000 hits
  • And two with over 4,000.

109
Amplification Exemplified
  • So, although Ichiros 1,000 constitute the third
    fastest tally in MLB history, the number, itself,
    has been exceeded by a legion of players too
    numerous to list (and many long forgotten).
  • Nevertheless, in Japan this was a milestone
    worthy of fetishistic attention
  • A case study of amplification incarnate.

110
Amplification Exemplified
  • Or . . . consider the MVP vote in 2004, when
    Ichiro placed fifth.
  • This came as a shock -- raising claims of racism
    -- by many Japanese fans.
  • For in this year Ichiro set numerous records
  • first player to secure 200 hits or more in his
    first four MLB seasons
  • most hits collected in four seasons
  • most hits in a single season.

111
Amplification Exemplified
  • Comparatively, wasnt Ichiro better than the MVP,
    Vladimir Guerrero, who had
  • 206 hits (56 less than Ichiro)
  • a .337 batting average (.035 points less than
    Ichiro)
  • 39 home runs
  • 126 runs batted in
  • . . . Or so Japanese critics claimed

112
Amplification Exemplified
  • Such surprise was a function (and strong
    evidence) of the amplification effect.
  • Ichiros achievements were daily fixtures in
    Japanese media, commanding prime daily newscast
    time. News stations
  • placed a life-size likeness of Ichiro on their
    set
  • Built a holographic staircase with Ichiro darumas
    moving upward with each hit garnered
  • even stodgy NHK allowed its announcer to lift his
    arms triumphantly when Ichiro finally broke
    George Sislers 84 year-old record, exclaiming
    banzai!.

113
Magnification
  • Defined The process by which sportsport
    activities are unduly extolled, the respect due
    them over-inflated, or their achievements are
    exaggerated in ways that confer greater
    significance than perhaps they deserve.
  • Effect audiences tend to come to see players as
    more central and significant

114
Magnification Exemplified
  • A comparison of how sportsports are reported in
    the host and home country media captures
    magnification.
  • On June 21, 2005, the headline in the U.S.
    edition of Yahoo!Sports was Yankees bury Rays
    with 13 runs in eighth.
  • The Japanese headline in Yahoo!Sports was Hideki
    Matsui, praises his effort in a huge comeback
    victory.

115
Magnification Exemplified
  • The US version led with a paragraph about one
    stunning inning in which the New York Yankees
    appeared to exorcise three months of
    frustration.
  • It singling out Bernie Williams and Gary
    Sheffield for specific mention
  • By contrast, the Japanese version led with a
    sentence gushing that Hideki Matsui hit his
    ninth home run (a solo shot) while collecting
    four hits and two runs batted in.

116
Magnification Exemplified
  • The 13-run inning was the second sentence in the
    Japanese story, while in the American story,
    Matsuis name appeared in the lead sentence of
    the ninth paragraph
  • That paragraph read Sheffield, Alex Rodriguez
    and Hideki Matsui hit consecutive homers in the
    eighth.
  • A later Japanese version of the story adopted the
    three consecutive home run angle for its
    headline, though again leading with Matsuis
    name, followed by Sheffield and Rodriguez a
    shift from the actual scoring chronology.

117
Magnification
  • There are (many) other examples of this.
  • Such comparisons reveal that
  • Japanese stories tend to be locally-centered,
    insular, microscopic, and individually-based
  • American stories, by contrast, are generally
    holistic, context-based, macroscopic, and
    historically-rooted.

118
Summing Up So Far
  • In Japanese media, distortion concerning
    sportsports is pervasive and continuous.
  • This is not without macro-sociological impact.
  • Daily reproduction of sportsports stems from
    intentional positioning by institutions of mass
    communication of particular images in the
    consciousness of information consumers
  • what Berger and Luckmann (1967) referred to as
    the symbolic universes of the media audience.

119
Summing Up So Far
  • Like the mechanisms of communication, themselves,
    these symbolic worlds are comprised of precious
    information space.
  • Whatever topic is selected and inserted into that
    space mitigates the appearance of other topics.
  • In the case of the media, themselves, one or more
    topics must be reduced, cancelled, ignored,
    silenced, reassigned and/or deemphasized to
    accommodate reports on sportsports.

120
Summing Up So Far
  • It is not only the presence, but the constant
    appearance, of sportsports that is significant.
  • Sportsports become an endemic, taken-for-granted
    element of everyday life.
  • Japans information consumers cannot ignore them
  • Moreover, given that the media frame is also one
    of successful performance (generally overseas),
    sportsports are seen
  • in macro, essentialized terms
  • in ways that speak about nation and national
    success.

121
More Value-Added MediationOther Effects
  • International Equivalence
  • Global Positioning
  • Nation Centering
  • Boundary Blurring/Status Shifting
  • Foreign Gaze

The effects just described were identified as
concepts meaning that they can be thought of as
ways of assessing media activity in other
contexts (not simply Japan). The 5 listed here,
though, seem to be mediated effects that are
exclusive to Japanese media.
122
International Equivalence
  • Generally the skill level of the average European
    or South American professional soccer player
    exceeds that of the average Japanese player.
  • However, pictures, highlights, or accounts of
    Japanese sportsports alongside their foreign
    counterparts, can have a de facto leveling effect

123
International Equivalence
  • For example, a digest show (such as J Super
    Soccer Plus) or sports corners on the evening
    news show extraordinary passes, dribbles, goals
    by European-based foreigners, followed by clips
    of Japanese players (often simple touches on the
    pitch).
  • While a discerning viewer might appreciate the
    qualitative difference between a brilliantly
    struck free kick by Roberto Carlos and a simple
    midfield run by Nakata, the result for less
    critical consumers may be a perception of
    comparability.
  • Shared pitch, in short, may translate into shared
    ability.

124
International Equivalence
  • Since Japanese players compete in the leagues
    where such highlights are produced, Japanese
    sportsports are, logically and via association,
    capable of such physical feats, themselves.
  • In truth, here stands another distortion process
    at work one of exaggeration.
  • This same process of exaggeration exists when
    Japanese golfers finish well down the list of
    names on the leaderboard (golf) or lose in two or
    three sets (tennis).
  • The message communicated goes beyond
    participation and inclusion toward effective
    equivalence domestic athletes holding stature
    and ability on a par with the foreign competitors
    they challenge.

125
Global Positioning
126
Global Positioning
  • In 2005 Ai Miyazato, a 19 year old female golfer,
    paired with Rui Kitada to win the inaugural
    Womens World Cup of Golf in South Africa, then
    placed second in the Australian Ladies Masters
    tournament.
  • The following day, newspapers and television news
    adopted the identical frame
  • Sekai no Ai-chan (The Worlds Little Ai)
  • Sekai no Miyazato Ai (The Worlds Miyazato Ai).
  • Soon thereafter, the media dubbed her Japans
    Tiger Woods.

127
Global Positioning
  • The use of sportsports to position Japan in the
    world occurs with great regularity.
  • One example of positioning can be found in the
    nightly sports show, Suporuto (Sports)
  • It presents European soccer by country (England,
    Spain, France, Germany, Italy, Holland).
  • After etching geographic boundaries on-screen,
    player portraits along with name and
    nationality are intoned by an announcer (in
    English and Japanese).
  • Then individual highlights appear.

128
Global Positioning
  • In 2005, Hodo Station adopted a comparable
    approach for its baseball reports
  • placing an over-sized map of the United States
    behind the newscasters.
  • There, the faces of every Japanese MLB player
    were posted, located in their teams city.
  • In this way, Japan was positioned in America via
    its native sons.
  • If the point were lost, one night the anchor
    turned to the sports reporter and asked Well,
    how did the American Japanese do today?

129
Global Positioning
  • The subtext of these daily communiqués is
  • we Japanese play in leagues and competitions
    around the world.
  • Our sports are global
  • our nation is not sited in one geographical
    place
  • it transpires in many places, at once.

130
Nation-Centering
  • The chest-thumping involving nation is neither
    uniform nor totalized. Nor is it entirely
    jingoistic. But it is pervasive.
  • In the 2005 Womens U.S. Open, Japanese media
    (TV, newspapers, Internet ) devoted full coverage
    to Miyazato Ais American debut.
  • For the Nikkei Shimbun on-line, Miyazato was
    among the top six front page news items for June
    24.
  • No other sports topic was listed on this
    political-economic journals start page.

131
Nation-Centering
  • Inside, a special golf section was devoted to the
    tourney, with the headline Yosen Ochi Shita
    Nihon Jo-o (Japanese Queen Misses Final Cut).
  • The articles lead announced With a two day
    score of 78, Miyazato Ai failed to make the cut
    the fifth consecutive year that Japans top
    money-earner failed to make the final round.

132
Nation-Centering
  • This example captures how sportsports even in
    individual sports are employed as surrogates
    for nation.
  • As for nation-based competitions (such as
    volleyballs Grand Prix or soccers World Cup),
    consider TV advertisements for the former
  • there the entire 15 second spot consisted of a
    rippling hinomaru superimposed on a grandstand
  • a voiceover of (presumably) the gathered throng,
    rhythmically chanted as they clapped in unison
    Nippon Nippon Nippon.

133
Nation-Centering
  • When Japans soccer team qualified for the 2006
    World Cup, it was the exclusive news story on
    every TV station.
  • Reporters were transmogrified into cheerleaders,
    gushing Great! Great! We did it!
  • News anchors became commentators, exclaiming
    Congratulations Japan
  • Every morning and wide show the following day
    devoted saturation coverage of the nations
    qualification

134
Nation-Centering . . . Boundary Blurring
(Japans Womens Team will appear in the Athens
Olympics tournament)
135
Boundary Blurring /Status Shifting
  • Infotainment is a major rhetorical devise on
    Japanese television (Ergul 2004), where hard news
    has been tabloidized -- and even trivialized --
    by merger with entertainment tropes and forms.
  • I would argue the sportsports reflect another
    kind of genre spanning where hard and sports
    are mixed.
  • Sports are treated as both information and
    entertainment
  • And sportsports are a proximate cause of genre
    melding and, thus, boundary blurring.

136
Boundary Blurring /Status Shifting Examples
  • As mentioned earlier, during the 2006 World Cup
    Qualification, TV stations devoted nearly the
    entirety of their news programs to the story,
    covering every conceivable angle.
  • interviews with players and coaches
  • reaction from Japanese fans in bars and on the
    street
  • comments from German citizens (where Japan would
    play)
  • reaction from newscasts around the world

137
Boundary Blurring /Status Shifting
  • This was something more than a one-off involving
    a unique event. It reflects the on-going status
    shift concerning sports in society.
  • Whannel (1992123-4) has stated that sports was
    once a special preserve (within media)
  • separate from the rest of the social world
  • to defend and communicate conservative ideas and
    practices
  • create the illusion of an apolitical enclave

138
Boundary Blurring /Status Shifting
  • Today we are witnessing a steady march of sports
    out of that insular space toward the center of
    daily life.
  • Powered in large part by sportsports, sports in
    Japanese media has bled through previously fixed
    boundaries, taking residence outside defined
    corners of news programs or sections of
    newspapers and magazines.

139
Boundary Blurring /Status Shifting
  • This can be seen beyond cases of national
    reference. In 2006 a ten p.m. newscast
  • Covered a hard news story for about ten minutes,
    concerning a hostage crisis in Cambodia involving
    Japanese children.
  • Next was footage of a Jamaican sprinter setting
    the world record in the 100 meter dash.
  • Following this was a harder/local story involving
    the alleged defamation of a doctor by Japanese
    journalist, Yoshiko Sakurai.

140
Foreign Gaze
  • Two major filters of sportsports are news and
    advertising. These media differ though in ways
    that we might characterize in terms of
    proximity
  • News is produced from an insiders point of view.
  • Advertising often adopts an outsiders view

141
Foreign Gaze
142
Foreign GazeNews, from the Inside
  • News reporters are Japanese, who observe and
    interview Japanese athletes for a Japanese
    audience.
  • The clips of athletic performances have been
    selected and spliced together by Japanese
    information producers for domestic consumption.

143
Foreign GazeAds, from the Outside
  • In Ads
  • The products are often Japanese, as is the
    sportsport spokesperson.
  • However, the action often transpires in situ in
    the (overseas) venues where sportsports toil
  • It features co-mingling between sportsports and
    foreigners.
  • A major theme is how foreigners view sportsports.

144
Foreign GazeAd Examples
  • In a series of ads in 2003, Shinji Ono, a soccer
    sportsport in Holland was presented interacting
    with Dutch children.
  • The first ad centered on a small girl following
    Ono through a supermarket in awe.
  • The next ad employed the same girl joined by a
    young boy, who lunched and cavorted in a field
    with Ono, windmill in the background.
  • A final ad featured the two children, chasing Ono
    through the streets of Rotterdam on their bikes.

145
Foreign GazeAd Examples
  • The central idea in the Ono series was acceptance
    by foreign others and Japanese fluency in foreign
    climes, culture and lifestyle.
  • This thread has been played out in ads featuring
  • Hideki Matsui for Kirin beer
  • Ichiro Suzuki for a health drink
  • Naohiro Takahara for JCB charge card
  • Hidetoshi Nakata for Canon cameras and Coca-Cola.

146
The Meaning of Foreign Gaze
  • A decade ago it was domestic athletes such as the
    sumo rikishi Wakanohana or foreign athletes (like
    Andy Hug) who starred in locally-consumed sports
    such as K-1.
  • Today, by contrast, product endorsements most
    often involve athletes located overseas.
  • Viewed from a communication perspective, it is
    the gaze that is crucial. Whether it is Dutch
    children, Italian models or slack-jawed
    café-goers in Seattle, the repeated focus of ads
    is on the admiration accorded Japanese
    sportsports.

147
Outside Over Inside
MOVE THE WORLD
148
Outside Over Inside
  • What of local Japanese heroes back home?
  • Are the only sportsports commanding Japanese
    media attention sports exports?
  • Is this stage of Japans globalization career
    dominated exclusively by external vision?
  • In fact, domestic-based athletes do receive
    treatment.
  • The most visible exemplar until last year was
    Shinjo, a former MLB export who, upon returning
    to play in Japan, cashed in on numerous
    product-endorsements.
  • Of course, he is nearly an outsider his
    personality is offbeat by conventional Japanese
    standards and he has significatory power as a
    foreign import

149
Outside Over Inside
  • Other domestic foreigners (e.g. Bob Sapp, a
    former U.S. football player and now K-1 fighter
    Akebono, a former yokozuna and Hawaiian import),
    have carved out spaces for themselves in the
    domestic media (mainly advertising and
    variety-shows)
  • Current dominant foreign stars for instance
    Asashoryu in sumo and any number of soccer and
    baseball imports are almost entirely ignored.
  • Still, few indigenous athletes Japanese or
    foreign sport TV endorsement deals or
    consistently feature in daily news recaps.

150
Outside Over Inside
  • In short, at present, the foreign sportsport is
    favored over the domestic athlete.
  • Only on rare occasions are athletes at home
    spotlighted -- as was the 2005 case of the Hanada
    brothers former yokuzuna Takanohana and
    Wakanohana who generated a fortnight of
    non-stop news and wideshow attention contesting
    their fathers estate.
  • There, it wasnt sports as much as stories of
    sibling hatred, family favoritism, and marital
    discord that stoked media (and public) interest.

151
Conclusions
152
Conclusions Identity
  • In his widely-read tract about Japans modern
    reinvention(s), Buruma (20047) summarized
    overconfidence, fanaticism, a shrill sense of
    inferiority, and a sometimes obsessive
    preoccupation with national status all have
    played their parts in the history of modern
    Japan.
  • Certainly these tendencies are all on display in
    the case of sportsports.
  • Through sportsports we behold phenomena that both
    reflect and feed Japans definitions and
    perceptions of self.

153
Conclusions Mediation
  • It is media -- conveyors of information about
    sportsports that re/produce discourse about
    national identity.
  • TV is a dominant medium in this regard
  • As for TV, Yoshimi (2003) has said that TV was
    the central medium in the construction of this
    postwar nation state (484).
  • I would call it a binding mechanism
  • linking Japanese citizen to State
  • connecting language/cultural communities through
    the re/production and ultimately inculcation of
    shared beliefs, practices and values.

154
Conclusions Bindingness
  • Today, TVs bindingness emanates from both
    content and form
  • Content It continuously cycles a nearly uniform
    set of themes most often centering on shared
    cultural values, practices and national objects
  • Form It also employs a set of strategies
    vis-à-vis these finite objects which have the
    effect of eliciting an emotional response from
    the audience.

155
Conclusions Emotions
  • Thus, both theme and approach serve as emotional
    unifier.
  • The binding strategies all revolve around the
    phenomenon of sportsports.
  • These objects form a phenomenological set which
    underscore nation and, hence, support the
    formulation of national-consciousness.

156
Conclusions Nationalism
  • This underscores Whannels (1992206) claim that
    in the world of sport as seen on TV we are
    united above all, by the constant appeal to our
    sense of national identity.
  • In this way, this popular cultural nationalism
    (or better sports nationalism) is another kind
    of nationalism of Japan to add to the
    comprehensive list advanced by McVeigh (2004).

157
Conclusions Globalization
  • In many ways these conclusions demonstrate the
    way in which global processes work to bolster the
    local.
  • Inside is tied to outside in ways that cant be
    easily seen, but also which are surprising in
    their results.
  • This synergy, certainly, has the capability of
    blurring or even loosening societal and cultural
    understandings of indigenous and exogenous.
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Title: Research Program


1
Research Program
  • Todd Joseph Miles Holden
  • Chair, Department of Multi-Cultural Societies
  • Professor, Mediated Sociology
  • Graduate School of International Cultural Studies
  • Tohoku University

2
Research ProgramAn Intellectual Historyand
Recent Review
  • Todd Joseph Miles Holden

3
Overview
  • Brief Intellectual History
  • Institutional road traveled to this point
  • Research traditions/contributions
  • Organizational involvements
  • Recent Publications
  • Current Projects
  • In-depth View of One Project

4
I. Brief Intellectual History
  • From whence I came
  • how I got from there to here

5
Institutional Road
  • Syracuse University, Maxwell School of Public
    Affairs and Citizenship
  • Ph.D. in Interdisciplinary Social Science (1988)
  • Tohoku University
  • College of General Education, Assistant Professor
    (1989 - 1993) -- English, American Studies
  • Graduate School of Information Science, Adjunct
    Assistant Professor (1993 - 2001) -- Social
    Structure and Change
  • Faculty of Language and Culture, Associate
    Professor (1993 - 2001) -- Communication Studies
  • Graduate School of International Cultural
    Sciences, Professor (2001 to present) -- Mediated
    Sociology

6
Inferentially
  • Institutionally rooted loyal.
  • Intellectually committed to melding disciplines
  • Sociology, anthropology, media and communication
    studies, cultural studies, Japanese Studies and
    (earlier) American Studies represented
  • Also a commitment to balancing theory and
    empiricism
  • With grounded theorization prominently featured

7
Organizational Involvements
  • Executive on the boards of the following
    professional associations
  • Asia Pacific Sociology Association (2002 to
    present)
  • Vice President in charge of Publications
  • Anthropology of Japan in Japan (2001 to 2005)
  • Director of Communications
  • International Association for Media and
    Communication Research (2005 to present)
  • Co-Chair, Gender Section

8
Organizational Involvements
  • Member of these Editorial Boards
  • Communication Theory
  • Communication, Culture Critique
  • Journal of Multicultural Discourses
  • Asia Pacific Sociology
  • Managing Editor

9
Organizational Involvements
  • Referee for
  • International Communication Association, Popular
    Communication Section
  • Cambridge University Press
  • Trans Pacific Press
  • Asian Journal of Social Science
  • Japanese Studies
  • M/C a Journal of Media and Culture

10
Organizational Involvements
  • Webmaster for
  • Asia Pacific Sociological Association (APSA)
  • Gender Section, International Association for
    Media and Communication Research (IAMCR)
  • Anthropology of Japan in Japan (AJJ), 2002-2006

11
Organizational Involvements
  • And . . .
  • There was that stint for 5 years as Head Coach of
    the Mens basketball team at Tohoku University
    (1989 - 1994) and
  • Two years as Head Coach of a womens pro team
    (1994 - 1996) in Yamagata (Yamagata Ginko Lyers).

12
II. Publications
  • In the past few years, I have published books,
    chapters and articles on the following
    communication-related topics

13
Recent Publications
  • The Naturalizing of Gender in Japanese TV
    Commercials (Hampton, 2007)
  • Media, Cultural Values and Cycles of Heroic
    Construction in Japan (Hampton, 2007)
  • Media in Asia (Routledge 2006)
  • Intimacy and Japanese TV (Routledge 2006)
  • Adolescent cell phone use in Japan (Routledge
    2006)
  • Sportsports and globalization (Routledge 2006)

14
Past Publications
  • Extending a bit farther back
  • Masculinities in Japanese TV Food Shows (Food and
    Foodways 2005)
  • "Japanese Television," in The Encyclopedia of
    Television (Routledge 2005)
  • "Advertising a synthetic approach" in Handbook
    of Media Studies. (Sage 2004)
  • "Japans Mediated Global Identities" (Trans
    Pacific Press 2003
  • Globalization and Inequality in Asia (Trans
    Pacific Press 2003)
  • Internet dating and sociation in Japan (Routledge
    2003)

15
III. Current Projects
  • Four projects I am involved in now
  • ReDotPop Mediations of Japanese popular culture
    (Soft Skull Press)
  • Inspired by my column in PopMatters
  • Gender Ads, Japan (Hampton Press)
  • The New Floating World Navigating the world of
    Japanese advertising
  • Sportsports An uncommon theorization of
    globalization

16
Current Projects
  • Today I want to talk in more detail about the
    Sportsports research, because it is
  • original

17
Current Projects
  • This Sportsports research is
  • representative of my perspective, which
  • Balances theory and empiricism
  • Melds popular culture with sociology and
    anthropology

18
Current Projects
  • The Sportsports research
  • Emphasizes media and communication
  • In multiple incarnations / permutations
  • And the phenomenological processes that result
  • In this case globalization, the trans-national
    flow of praxis and ideas, and influences on
    identity

19
Relevance
  • It is this perspective set
  • trans-cultural
  • inter-disciplinary
  • theoretical and empirical
  • That I would bring to the design and management
    of a nascent Communication Program in an American
    University open for business in Japan.

20
A. Introduction
  • Contextualizing Sportsports

21
To Begin
  • This is a significant moment in Japanese history
  • A time in which Japans place in the increasingly
    interconnected web of nations, products, ideas
    and practices is mediated in large part by its
    popular culture
  • And, in particular, sporting culture.
  • This process is supported if not driven by
    media which focus on what I call sportsports.

22
Sportsports A Definition
  • The moniker refers to the flow of sporting goods
    or services both into and out of nations
  • This includes games, players, practices and
    philosophies
  • Sportsports also refers to the array of
    techniques by which domestic media package and
    audiences consume information about athletes and
    athletics at home and abroad
  • In short, these are information imports, too

23
Medias Role
  • Formal media are the conscious agent in the
    Sportsport phenomenon
  • TV, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising

24
Medias Role
  • Communications about sportsports have become
    seminal social text in everyday Japanese life
  • With concrete, significant effects
  • Above all related to national and gendered
    identity

25
B. Evaluative Components
  • Theories of Globalization
  • Japans Globalizations
  • The History of Sportsports in Japan
  • Media Effects / Social Outcomes

26
Theorizing Globalization
27
Globalization in a Nutshell
  • I have tendered a macro level analysis of
    globalization (Holden 2003, 2006)
  • It conceives of globalization as transpiring in
    stages or careers
  • (which are) distinctly expressed via various
    theoretically specifiable
  • Entities
  • Epochs
  • Activities

28
Global Career
  • Every country possesses its own unique global
    signature (or profile)
  • based on its individualized history of
    local/global encounters
  • across a range of analytic units and societal
    sectors
  • Which are specifiable, but not particularly
    germane to todays discussion

29
Terms
  • units
  • globalization may touch a geographic region
    differently than it does a singular nation or any
    particular social group
  • sectors
  • globalization manifests itself differently
    depending on which of the traditional domains of
    sociological analysis it is associated with
  • Political
  • Economic
  • Social
  • Cultural
  • Moral

30
Factors Influencing Career
  • Every nations career differs depending on an
    array of factors present in the context.
  • Including
  • ethnic composition
  • cultural history
  • religious practices
  • technological development
  • political structure
  • economic system
  • resource mix

31
Important Dimensions
  • Temporality
  • As between nations, Global Careers are not
    necessarily coterminous
  • One nation may be in the midst of
    politically-defined globalization, while another
    may be engaged in an economic or cultural
    globalization

32
Important Dimensions
  • Directionality of Flow
  • Inflow
  • Outflow
  • Career stages are also marked (and dictated) by
    export and import
  • The goods or services (or engagements) entering
    or leaving the context may be
  • Economic Political Social
  • Cultural Environmental

33
In a Nutshell
  • To decipher the global career of any given unit,
    sectors have to be specified and assessed
  • Further, it is necessary to distinguish between
    the "import and export" of
  • Ideas
  • People
  • Diplomacy
  • Trade
  • Military contact
  • At different historical moments.

34
Globalization Footprints
  • Differ based on the various mix of these factors
  • As between 2 comparable units (for instance,
    countries)
  • Also as between 2 epochs for the same analytic
    unit

35
A Simple Comparison
36
Footprints by Epoch
  • Thus, for instance, America and Japan have both
    manifested career stages in which they were
  • quiescent (or isolated)
  • active (or expansionist)

37
Footprints by Epoch Japan
  • Some bouts of outward extension between 1200 and
    1865
  • Yet, generally quiescent (i.e. local) pre-Meiji
  • then (globally) active between 1865 and 1945
    (primarily militarily, though with economic
    aggrandizement)
  • After brief quiescence (1945 - 1955), it again
    emerged (economically) as an export power
  • By the 1980s this became as much cultural as
    economic (export)
  • Fashion Cinema Manga Cuisine
  • Sports

38
Footprints by Epoch USA
  • America has gone through numerous bouts of local
    quiescence (isolationism) and global activity.
  • A history many of you are familiar with
  • And which is intricate enough that, for reasons
    of time (and the fact that I am not an
    historian), we ought to skip
  • Yet can be separated into military, diplomatic,
    economic, and cultural phases

39
Japans Globalization Careers
40
Befu on Globalization
  • Befu has argued that there were 3 distinct
    periods to Japans globalization
  • pre-Tokugawa
  • mid-19th century through 1945
  • the period following the Pacific War
  • His focus, however, is basically on diaspora

41
Period 1 Pre-Tokugawa
  • From the 15th century to 17th centuries Japanese
    patrolled the coasts of China and Southeast Asia
  • as pirates and merchants
  • establishing "Japan towns" abroad
  • This era came to end by governmental fiat

42
Period 2 Mid-19th Century to WWII
  • This era was marked by Japanese emigration by the
    millions to
  • Hawaii
  • North and South America
  • East and Southeast Asia
  • Oceania
  • This period of diaspora was brought to a close
    with the conclusion of the Pacific War in 1945

43
Period 3 Post-War Diaspora
  • The third period started soon after the end of
    the war and continues to the present
  • According to Befu, it is characterized by 8
    distinct categories of diaspora

44
Alternate Conceptualizations
  • As considered earlier, a fuller accounting of any
    countrys globalization would consider inward, as
    well as outward, flow.
  • We can think in terms of cultural, political,
    social and economic processes.
  • A global signature will include
  • goods and services
  • political structures and ideas
  • social groups
  • cultural ideas and practices

45
Japans Global Outflow
  • Japan has experienced moments of export as far
    back as the early third century, when diplomats
    ventured to China.
  • export was (political and cultural) information
  • Militarizers ventured to what is now the Korean
    peninsula in the late fourth century, seeking to
    exert dominion
  • More diplomacy ensued, with missions to China in
    the seventh century and then to Europe in 1613

46
Japans Global Outflow
  • During the Meiji period (1867-1912) the
    government sent numerous scholars and leaders to
    foreign countries on fact-finding missions.
  • This period of hyper-consumption of the West
    resulted in the appropriation of everything from
    postal systems and irrigation projects to goods
    and culture, both high and low

47
Japans Global Outflow
  • Then the militarists fought with China in 1894
    and Russia in 1904
  • They moved to occupied China in the 1920s
  • Thereafter came the formation of the Greater East
    Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere
  • And the occupation of numerous Asian countries --
    from Burma to Malaysia

48
Japans Global Outflow
  • The next bout of outward-reach was in the
    mass-production export-driven era, running from
    the mid 1950s to mid-1980s
  • During the 1970s Japanese fashion designers
    joined international haute couture
  • Beginning in the 1980s cultural exports in music,
    film, animation and books began

49
Japan and Inflow
  • Historically, inflow has been more extensive than
    outflow
  • Buddhism came in the 6th century
  • The gun and then Christianity in the middle of
    the 16th century
  • Business from Holland came in the early 17th
    century and Russia in the later stages of the
    17th century
  • The forced opening of Japan by the United States
    transpired in the mid-19th century
  • Once again, the enforced reconstruction by the
    United States following armed conflict between
    the nations

50
The Sports Stage of Japans Globalization Career
  • Generally
  • athletic inflow has also been more extensive than
    outflow
  • until establishment of Japan as a global economic
    power, sports outflow was scant.

51
The Sports Stage of Japans Global Inflow
  • Since about the turn of the (twentieth) century,
    Japan has served as a visitation ground for
    foreign athletic imports
  • In 1908 a team of major league reserves visited
    and won all seventeen games they played against
    Japanese teams
  • A 1931 all-star team featured Lou Gehrig, Lefty
    Grove, Mickey Cochrane and Frankie Frisch.
  • Another visit featured Babe Ruth who drew 75,000
    fans to one game, 65,000 to another he hit 14
    homers in 17 games
  • Two Negro League visits were staged in 1927 and
    1932. Their collective record was 46 wins against
    one loss.

52
The Sports Stage of Japans Global Inflow
  • In the pre-war years at least 4 foreigners played
    for Japanese teams
  • a Russian won over 300 games in a nineteen year
    career
  • a Hawaiian American won 240 games
  • a Taiwanese became the first foreigner to win a
    batting title in 1942
  • Following the war, Hawaiian Wally Yonamine, a
    nikei, was recruited to help pave the way for
    regular foreign involvement in Japanese baseball.
  • Nearly every year for the past forty years
    foreigners have been featured on Japanese rosters

53
The Sports Stage of Japans Global Inflow
  • Over the years, Japan has also served as a site
    for athletic competitions, facilitating the entry
    into Japan of people and practices from beyond
    national borders
  • Tokyo hosted the Third Asian Games in 1958 and
    the Summer Olympics in 1965
  • This was the first Olympics held in Asia
    rightfully a point of pride for Japanese
  • Also the first TV Olympics
  • Subsequent (winter) Olympiads were staged in
    Sapporo in 1972 and Nagano in 1998.
  • The former was the first winter games held
    outside of Europe or North America
  • Japan was the site of Footballs World Cup in 2002

54
The Sports Stage of Japans Global Inflow
  • Japan has also served as host of numerous
    international competitions
  • The First Winter Asian Games were convened in
    Sapporo in 1986 the Second were also held in
    Sapporo, in 1990
  • The Fifth Winter Games, staged in Aomori in 2003
  • The Ninth World Swimming Championships, held in
    Fukuoka in 2001
  • The World Wheelchair Basketball championships, in
    Kitakyushu in 2002
  • The World Cup of Volleyball, in various Japanese
    cities in late 2003
  • Since 2000, ten Japanese cities have hosted
    seventeen international marathons
  • FIFAs Club championship in 2006

55
The Sports Stage of Japans Global Inflow
  • Japan has become a venue for other nations
    professional leagues
  • The National Basketball Association
  • Major League Baseball
  • The National Football League
  • The National Hockey League
  • The former two have even held official regular
    season games on Japanese soil in the past five
    years

56
The Sports Stage of Japans Global Outflow
  • Waseda Universitys baseball team traveled to
    Americas west coast in 1905
  • Compiled a 7-win 19-loss record against schools
    like Stanford, USC and Washington
  • Participation in the Stockholm Olympics of 1912
  • Took part in the First Far Eastern Championship
    Games held in Manila, in 1913
  • The government first subsidized an international
    sports event at the Fifth Far Eastern Games, held
    in Shanghai, in 1921
  • Japan participated in the Davis Cup in 1921
  • Otherwise, episodes of athletic outflow prior to
    the Pacific War were limited to individual
    efforts
  • American professional baseball in 1914-15
  • Wimbledon in 1934

57
Athletic Globalization now a steadily accreting
stream
  • Number of Japanese on MLB rosters
  • 1995 1
  • 2000 7
  • 2002 15
  • 2007 15
  • Number of Japanese on European football rosters
  • 1995 0
  • 2000 1
  • 2001 4
  • 2002 7
  • 2004 8
  • 2007 9

58
Concluding about FlowImport, Export and
Episodes
  • Flow manifests itself as economic, political,
    social, cultural, or environmental
  • sometimes in combination
  • When flow enters from the outside, it can be
    thought of as global import
  • When flow emanates from a country and enters
    another, foreign, context, it can be thought of
    as global export
  • When incidents of flow occur they can be called
    episodes
  • When episodes occur in great enough measure to
    suggest a trend, the apparent phenomenon can be
    thought of as constituting a stage in the focal
    countrys globalization career

59
The Import/Export Nexus
  • Certainly, Japans status as an economic power
    has been central in facilitating the sport import
    phenomenon
  • This demonstrates the crucial role of resource
    mix in a countrys global career.
  • However, the embrace of exogenous content has
    always been a hallmark of Japans global
    signature
  • A habituated response for a society too often
    isolated from the rest of the world, only to
    learn belatedly that it has fallen behind

60
Mediating Global Career
61
Medias Role
  • Media become involved in the import and export of
    (political, economic, social, cultural, moral)
    information.
  • This can have influences in specific contexts,
    based on the attitudes and practices of those
    exposed to and consuming these information
    imports and/or exports.

62
Sportsport Re-import
  • Japans current stage of globalization can be
    called sport export/media re-import
  • domestic athletes are global economic/cultural
    exports
  • But in the hands of news and entertainment media,
    they are re-imported
  • With tangible effects -- above all on national
    and gendered identity

63
Sports Re-Import Examples
  • On June 8th 2005, Hodo Station (a 10 p.m. news
    program) led its reportage and devoted nearly its
    entire hour-long broadcast to Japans
    qualification for Soccers 2006 World Cup.
  • The final qualifier, against political nemesis
    North Korea, had been broadcast live from
    Thailand on TV Asahi, Hodo Stations network.

64
Sports Re-Import Examples
  • The news hour was filled with live interviews
    with players, national team executives, and
    coaches, along with in-studio analysis, and
    remote feeds from bars and eating establishments
    nationwide.
  • Well into the following day, news programs,
    morning wake-up and wide-shows normally dedicated
    to celebrity, fashion, gossip and social problems
    devoted the bulk of their programming to reports
    about the soccer teams success.

65
Sports Re-Import Examples
  • One week later, Hodo Station began their telecast
    with side-by-side images of Ichiro and Hideki
    Matsui. Each picture dissolved to game footage.
  • First Ichiro was shown blasting a single off the
    outfield wall, with the excited voiceover of an
    American television announcer. As he barked that
    this was Ichiros one thousandth hit in America,
    the stadium was shown erupting in a standing
    ovation.
  • Ichiro was shown acknowledging the ovation by
    tipping his batting helmet.

66
Sports Re-Import Examples
  • Cue to the next image of Matsui connecting with
    a pitch. Again an American announcers
    enthusiastic voice-over could be heard its out
    of the infield, its out of the outfield. Bye-bye
    baseball. Home run, Hideki Matsui!
  • Fade to two newscasters seated in the studio. The
    male announcer gushing Japans Superstars.
    Well show them later in the show. But first
    and then the top (hard) news story of the day
    began wheels that fell off of a Japanese Air
    Lines jet upon landing at Haneda.

67
Mediated Sportsport
  • Although Japans popular cultural stage of
    globalization includes film, music and fashion,
    the most locally pervasive and influential is
    sportsports.

68
Ubiquitous Media . . .
Implicated are indigenous media such as
television news, entertainment programming,
advertising, the Internet and publishing.
69
Relentless Mediation
70
Mediated Sportsport
Particularly news and advertising
  • Featuring Japanese athletes
  • Participating outside Japan, or
  • Engaged in international competitions in which
    Japanese athletes are/have been pitted against
    foreign rivals

71
Media EffectsValue-Added Mediation
72
Primary Media Effects
  • Attentiveness
  • Framing
  • Distortion Effects
  • Accretion
  • Magnification
  • Amplification

73
Attentiveness
  • The ubiquity of sportsports in any one medium, as
    well as cumulatively across media, creates
  • attentiveness
  • even over-exposure
  • exaggeration
  • of sportsports in contemporary Japanese society.

74
Attentiveness
Source Yomiuri Shimbun, February 2002 Sample
3,000 Japanese aged 20 or older
75
A Media Effect?
  • Japanese professional baseball was the number-one
    choice of fans for the eighth year in a row
  • So what is all this noise about media, sport and
    globalization?
  • It turns out that Major League Baseball was up
    six percentage points over the previous year
  • Moreover, it cracked the top ten for the first
    time ever.
  • It is likely the result of Ichiro, Shinjo and
    Sasaki, taking the Export Challenge (and the
    media choosing to focus on it)

76
More on the Media Effect
  • The likely power of media in shaping public
    consciousness and tastes comes through in the
    next survey question.
  • There, we see that Ichiro topped all Japanese
    athletes -- foreign-based or domestic by a
    whopping 2 to 1 margin
  • Moreover, 5 of the 10 listed athletes are playing
    in foreign leagues
  • Two other athletes a marathoner and a speed
    skater -- compete in foreign locations against
    international fields
  • Only 3 are based primarily in Japan. All 3 play
    for the Japanese cultural icon, the Yomiuri
    Giants baseball team

77
Most Popular Players
78
Interest in Japanese Players Overseas
  • 71 of all respondents indicated that they were
    "very interested" or "somewhat interested" in the
    exploits of Japanese players in the U.S.
  • Over 70 of respondents between age 20 and 50
    answered this way
  • 80 of those in their thirties
  • By profession
  • 88 of managers and professionals
  • 80 of students

79
Framing
80
About Frames
  • As most of you probably know, Frame is a
    serviceable concept in communication studies.
  • Over the years, it has been employed in the
    analysis of
  • organizational structure (Tuchman 1978)
  • elites (Gitlin 1980)
  • hegemony (Hallin 1987)
  • social process (Carragee and Roefs 2004).

81
Organizational Frames
  • Sociologists of Media long ago demonstrated that
    news organizations are guided by practices that
    structure message delivery.
  • These include
  • newsroom routines that frame (Goffman 1974)
    news . . .
  • temporally, spatially and topically (Tuchman 1978)

82
News Organizations,. Routines, and Frames
  • This often results in news that reads the mood
    of the surrounding world and media consumers
    (e.g. Gitlin 1983)
  • In this way, certain values are legitimated and
    given preference over others

83
Framing Sportsports
  • Invariably, reports on Japans sportsports lift
    the players out of the game
  • Emphasizing their achievements
  • The players receive nearly exclusive attention
  • They take precedence over -- even obviate
    attention to -- the game/match, itself.

84
Frame from Formin Japanese Sports News
  • The form of sports news is strikingly similar
    among TV stations
  • Capsule summaries of the at bats of every
    Japanese Major League baseball player
  • The substitution pattern of European-based
    Japanese soccer players
  • Along with any pass, assist, shot on goal, free
    kick or score that may have occurred
  • When available, interviews with the players

85
Meaning from Frame
  • This formatic frame is employed also in
    newspapers and on the Internet
  • Providing a unified media voice
  • The message is about Japanese performance out in
    the world.
  • And, to the degree that individual players serve
    as signifiers for nation, then the frame
    spotlights Japans performance on the world stage.

86
Ancillary / Derivative Meanings
  • To the degree that these players are almost
    exclusively male, a (spurious) association is
    engendered
  • between individual existential condition
  • freedom, mobility, globality, and achievement
  • and male/ness.

87
The Baseball Export Frame
88
MLB SportsportsIndividualist Frame
The focus, throughout, is not on the game rather
the individual Japanese player toiling in the
game.
89
The Soccer Export Frame
  • The identical process occurs in the case of
    Japans overseas soccer players
  • with every arrival in a foreign city detailed,
    every practice session, every meaningful kick,
    assist, goal, and substitution

90
Domestic Framing
  • This stands in contrast to the domestic versions
    of the same sports
  • As I have shown in other work (Holden 2003b)
  • Domestically, team-centered stories take
    precedence over the individual player focus
  • The game is told in story-form

91
In Japanese Team is Spelled with an ?
  • Because achievements tend only to be reported as
    part of the game story . . .
  • One result is that collectivities become the
    invisible filter for understanding sporting life
    INSIDE Japan.
  • In this way the myth of collectivity is
    reproduced

92
Comparative Framing
  • In short, discursive strategies differ between
    domestic and foreign sportsports
  • Foreign coverage exists only due to the presence
    of Japanese players . . .
  • Not because of the games or teams involved.

93
Comparing ContentKey Findings
1. Prioritization Global over Local 2.
Prioritization Local in the Global 3.
Prioritization Japanese over Foreign 4. Story
Structure Telling Global and Local Differently
94
PrioritizationGlobal over Local
  • In most TV news shows a main segment of sports
    reportage concerns Sports Exports
  • They are generally featured first or else
    spotlighted as a tease prior to commercial break.
  • They often are placed ahead of the domestic
    league games

95
2. PrioritizationLocal in the Global
  • At the same time, the only foreign action shown
    are those games in which Japanese players appear
  • News from foreign leagues only occasionally is
    presented
  • and then only highlights of foreign players if
    they have accomplished a major feat

96
Local in the GlobalAn example
  • In 2002, the Anaheim Angels won the U.S. World
    Series in seven games.
  • However, the tease for the Japanese news
    broadcast that night was San Francisco Giant,
    Tsuyoshi Shinjo, swinging at a pitch.
  • After the ad, the news highlighting Shinjos 9th
    inning strikeout (and reminding us he was the
    first Japanese to play in the World Series).
  • The only interview segment was with Shinjo
  • Not the MVP of the series
  • Not the winning manager
  • Not even Shinjos star teammate, Barry Bonds

97
3. PrioritizationJapanese over Foreign
  • Generally, the feats of foreign players will take
    a back seat to those of Japanese players
  • even if those achievements are out of the
    ordinary

98
Japanese over ForeignAn example
  • Back in 2002 a Dodger player hit 4 home runs in
    one game, tying a major league record
  • Yet, the only reason it made the Japanese news
    was because Kazuhisa Ishii happened to be
    pitching for the Dodgers.
  • He was the frame around which the story was
    built.
  • His strike-outs and troubled innings were shown
    first.
  • His ultimate victory was noted.
  • Only then was it reported By the way, Ishiis
    teammate, Shawn Green, hit 4 home runs

99
4. Story StructureTelling Global and Local
Differently
  • As explained above, the clear difference between
    news reports about Japanese and American games
    featuring Japanese players is the structure of
    the story.
  • In the U.S. games, the action is decontextualized
  • There are only reports about the Japanese players
    or their teams
  • Japanese games, by contrast, are more
    traditionally treated
  • They are stories, told with heroes and villains,
  • Engaged in a systematic unfolding of linked
    action
  • There is context, drama and often a message

100
Distortion Effects
  • Media inflate the presence and influence of
    Sportsports in the world
  • Three kinds of distortion can be distinguished
  • accretion
  • amplification
  • magnification

101
Accretion
  • Defined the process of stockpiling images
  • Effect lends a sense of constancy and ubiquity
  • The accumulation of images not of any one
    player, but all players together produces a
    global awareness a hyperawareness of
    sportsports within the consciousness of knowledge
    consumers.

102
Accretion
  • Taken a step further, it could be said that this
    incessant appearance of sportsports functions as
    a form of operant conditioning.
  • It primes viewers to regard sportsports outside
    Japan
  • AND see them as possessing significance beyond
    indigenous boundaries.

103
Accretion
  • In 2005, a typical MLB capsule included a
    cross-country relay of reports lasting minutes
  • 2 Matsuis in New York
  • Nomo in Florida
  • Taguchi in St. Louis
  • Iguchi in Chicago
  • Ichiro in Seattle
  • Ohtsuka in San Diego

104
Accretion
  • In 2005, a typical European soccer capsule
    included multiple border crossings
  • Inamoto in England
  • Okubo in Spain
  • Nakata and Nakamura in Italy
  • Takahara in Germany
  • Ono in Holland.

105
Accretion
  • While not unreal the reportage was contrived.
  • For, the continued exhibition of these players
    has an additive effect
  • day after day
  • channel after channel
  • program after program
  • It inflates the presence of sportsports in the
    world beyond Japanese borders.

106
Accretion
  • When this over-inflation becomes translated into
    perceived impact of sportsports on their
    respective sports, this becomes amplification.
  • Accretion differs insofar as it refers to the
    simple daily appearance of these players on
    screen
  • in practice
  • in the interview room
  • in games
  • (not to mention in advertisements between media
    reports).
  • Such repetition produces a particular mediated
    effect aggregated images of exports manufactures
    a hyper-presence and, ultimately, efficacy

107
Amplification
  • Defined the process of inflating the size or
    presence of sportsports by according them
    over-abundance of attention and detail
  • individually or aggregately
  • Effect creates impressions out of proportion to
    prevailing reality

108
Amplification Exemplified
  • In June 2005 Ichiro advanced toward 1,000 hits
    for his American career. His effort was virtually
    ignored in the American media.
  • Why?
  • There are well over 100 batters in major league
    history who have garnered 2,000 career hits
  • 25 batters with over 3,000 hits
  • And two with over 4,000.

109
Amplification Exemplified
  • So, although Ichiros 1,000 constitute the third
    fastest tally in MLB history, the number, itself,
    has been exceeded by a legion of players too
    numerous to list (and many long forgotten).
  • Nevertheless, in Japan this was a milestone
    worthy of fetishistic attention
  • A case study of amplification incarnate.

110
Amplification Exemplified
  • Or . . . consider the MVP vote in 2004, when
    Ichiro placed fifth.
  • This came as a shock -- raising claims of racism
    -- by many Japanese fans.
  • For in this year Ichiro set numerous records
  • first player to secure 200 hits or more in his
    first four MLB seasons
  • most hits collected in four seasons
  • most hits in a single season.

111
Amplification Exemplified
  • Comparatively, wasnt Ichiro better than the MVP,
    Vladimir Guerrero, who had
  • 206 hits (56 less than Ichiro)
  • a .337 batting average (.035 points less than
    Ichiro)
  • 39 home runs
  • 126 runs batted in
  • . . . Or so Japanese critics claimed

112
Amplification Exemplified
  • Such surprise was a function (and strong
    evidence) of the amplification effect.
  • Ichiros achievements were daily fixtures in
    Japanese media, commanding prime daily newscast
    time. News stations
  • placed a life-size likeness of Ichiro on their
    set
  • Built a holographic staircase with Ichiro darumas
    moving upward with each hit garnered
  • even stodgy NHK allowed its announcer to lift his
    arms triumphantly when Ichiro finally broke
    George Sislers 84 year-old record, exclaiming
    banzai!.

113
Magnification
  • Defined The process by which sportsport
    activities are unduly extolled, the respect due
    them over-inflated, or their achievements are
    exaggerated in ways that confer greater
    significance than perhaps they deserve.
  • Effect audiences tend to come to see players as
    more central and significant

114
Magnification Exemplified
  • A comparison of how sportsports are reported in
    the host and home country media captures
    magnification.
  • On June 21, 2005, the headline in the U.S.
    edition of Yahoo!Sports was Yankees bury Rays
    with 13 runs in eighth.
  • The Japanese headline in Yahoo!Sports was Hideki
    Matsui, praises his effort in a huge comeback
    victory.

115
Magnification Exemplified
  • The US version led with a paragraph about one
    stunning inning in which the New York Yankees
    appeared to exorcise three months of
    frustration.
  • It singling out Bernie Williams and Gary
    Sheffield for specific mention
  • By contrast, the Japanese version led with a
    sentence gushing that Hideki Matsui hit his
    ninth home run (a solo shot) while collecting
    four hits and two runs batted in.

116
Magnification Exemplified
  • The 13-run inning was the second sentence in the
    Japanese story, while in the American story,
    Matsuis name appeared in the lead sentence of
    the ninth paragraph
  • That paragraph read Sheffield, Alex Rodriguez
    and Hideki Matsui hit consecutive homers in the
    eighth.
  • A later Japanese version of the story adopted the
    three consecutive home run angle for its
    headline, though again leading with Matsuis
    name, followed by Sheffield and Rodriguez a
    shift from the actual scoring chronology.

117
Magnification
  • There are (many) other examples of this.
  • Such comparisons reveal that
  • Japanese stories tend to be locally-centered,
    insular, microscopic, and individually-based
  • American stories, by contrast, are generally
    holistic, context-based, macroscopic, and
    historically-rooted.

118
Summing Up So Far
  • In Japanese media, distortion concerning
    sportsports is pervasive and continuous.
  • This is not without macro-sociological impact.
  • Daily reproduction of sportsports stems from
    intentional positioning by institutions of mass
    communication of particular images in the
    consciousness of information consumers
  • what Berger and Luckmann (1967) referred to as
    the symbolic universes of the media audience.

119
Summing Up So Far
  • Like the mechanisms of communication, themselves,
    these symbolic worlds are comprised of precious
    information space.
  • Whatever topic is selected and inserted into that
    space mitigates the appearance of other topics.
  • In the case of the media, themselves, one or more
    topics must be reduced, cancelled, ignored,
    silenced, reassigned and/or deemphasized to
    accommodate reports on sportsports.

120
Summing Up So Far
  • It is not only the presence, but the constant
    appearance, of sportsports that is significant.
  • Sportsports become an endemic, taken-for-granted
    element of everyday life.
  • Japans information consumers cannot ignore them
  • Moreover, given that the media frame is also one
    of successful performance (generally overseas),
    sportsports are seen
  • in macro, essentialized terms
  • in ways that speak about nation and national
    success.

121
More Value-Added MediationOther Effects
  • International Equivalence
  • Global Positioning
  • Nation Centering
  • Boundary Blurring/Status Shifting
  • Foreign Gaze

The effects just described were identified as
concepts meaning that they can be thought of as
ways of assessing media activity in other
contexts (not simply Japan). The 5 listed here,
though, seem to be mediated effects that are
exclusive to Japanese media.
122
International Equivalence
  • Generally the skill level of the average European
    or South American professional soccer player
    exceeds that of the average Japanese player.
  • However, pictures, highlights, or accounts of
    Japanese sportsports alongside their foreign
    counterparts, can have a de facto leveling effect

123
International Equivalence
  • For example, a digest show (such as J Super
    Soccer Plus) or sports corners on the evening
    news show extraordinary passes, dribbles, goals
    by European-based foreigners, followed by clips
    of Japanese players (often simple touches on the
    pitch).
  • While a discerning viewer might appreciate the
    qualitative difference between a brilliantly
    struck free kick by Roberto Carlos and a simple
    midfield run by Nakata, the result for less
    critical consumers may be a perception of
    comparability.
  • Shared pitch, in short, may translate into shared
    ability.

124
International Equivalence
  • Since Japanese players compete in the leagues
    where such highlights are produced, Japanese
    sportsports are, logically and via association,
    capable of such physical feats, themselves.
  • In truth, here stands another distortion process
    at work one of exaggeration.
  • This same process of exaggeration exists when
    Japanese golfers finish well down the list of
    names on the leaderboard (golf) or lose in two or
    three sets (tennis).
  • The message communicated goes beyond
    participation and inclusion toward effective
    equivalence domestic athletes holding stature
    and ability on a par with the foreign competitors
    they challenge.

125
Global Positioning
126
Global Positioning
  • In 2005 Ai Miyazato, a 19 year old female golfer,
    paired with Rui Kitada to win the inaugural
    Womens World Cup of Golf in South Africa, then
    placed second in the Australian Ladies Masters
    tournament.
  • The following day, newspapers and television news
    adopted the identical frame
  • Sekai no Ai-chan (The Worlds Little Ai)
  • Sekai no Miyazato Ai (The Worlds Miyazato Ai).
  • Soon thereafter, the media dubbed her Japans
    Tiger Woods.

127
Global Positioning
  • The use of sportsports to position Japan in the
    world occurs with great regularity.
  • One example of positioning can be found in the
    nightly sports show, Suporuto (Sports)
  • It presents European soccer by country (England,
    Spain, France, Germany, Italy, Holland).
  • After etching geographic boundaries on-screen,
    player portraits along with name and
    nationality are intoned by an announcer (in
    English and Japanese).
  • Then individual highlights appear.

128
Global Positioning
  • In 2005, Hodo Station adopted a comparable
    approach for its baseball reports
  • placing an over-sized map of the United States
    behind the newscasters.
  • There, the faces of every Japanese MLB player
    were posted, located in their teams city.
  • In this way, Japan was positioned in America via
    its native sons.
  • If the point were lost, one night the anchor
    turned to the sports reporter and asked Well,
    how did the American Japanese do today?

129
Global Positioning
  • The subtext of these daily communiqués is
  • we Japanese play in leagues and competitions
    around the world.
  • Our sports are global
  • our nation is not sited in one geographical
    place
  • it transpires in many places, at once.

130
Nation-Centering
  • The chest-thumping involving nation is neither
    uniform nor totalized. Nor is it entirely
    jingoistic. But it is pervasive.
  • In the 2005 Womens U.S. Open, Japanese media
    (TV, newspapers, Internet ) devoted full coverage
    to Miyazato Ais American debut.
  • For the Nikkei Shimbun on-line, Miyazato was
    among the top six front page news items for June
    24.
  • No other sports topic was listed on this
    political-economic journals start page.

131
Nation-Centering
  • Inside, a special golf section was devoted to the
    tourney, with the headline Yosen Ochi Shita
    Nihon Jo-o (Japanese Queen Misses Final Cut).
  • The articles lead announced With a two day
    score of 78, Miyazato Ai failed to make the cut
    the fifth consecutive year that Japans top
    money-earner failed to make the final round.

132
Nation-Centering
  • This example captures how sportsports even in
    individual sports are employed as surrogates
    for nation.
  • As for nation-based competitions (such as
    volleyballs Grand Prix or soccers World Cup),
    consider TV advertisements for the former
  • there the entire 15 second spot consisted of a
    rippling hinomaru superimposed on a grandstand
  • a voiceover of (presumably) the gathered throng,
    rhythmically chanted as they clapped in unison
    Nippon Nippon Nippon.

133
Nation-Centering
  • When Japans soccer team qualified for the 2006
    World Cup, it was the exclusive news story on
    every TV station.
  • Reporters were transmogrified into cheerleaders,
    gushing Great! Great! We did it!
  • News anchors became commentators, exclaiming
    Congratulations Japan
  • Every morning and wide show the following day
    devoted saturation coverage of the nations
    qualification

134
Nation-Centering . . . Boundary Blurring
(Japans Womens Team will appear in the Athens
Olympics tournament)
135
Boundary Blurring /Status Shifting
  • Infotainment is a major rhetorical devise on
    Japanese television (Ergul 2004), where hard news
    has been tabloidized -- and even trivialized --
    by merger with entertainment tropes and forms.
  • I would argue the sportsports reflect another
    kind of genre spanning where hard and sports
    are mixed.
  • Sports are treated as both information and
    entertainment
  • And sportsports are a proximate cause of genre
    melding and, thus, boundary blurring.

136
Boundary Blurring /Status Shifting Examples
  • As mentioned earlier, during the 2006 World Cup
    Qualification, TV stations devoted nearly the
    entirety of their news programs to the story,
    covering every conceivable angle.
  • interviews with players and coaches
  • reaction from Japanese fans in bars and on the
    street
  • comments from German citizens (where Japan would
    play)
  • reaction from newscasts around the world

137
Boundary Blurring /Status Shifting
  • This was something more than a one-off involving
    a unique event. It reflects the on-going status
    shift concerning sports in society.
  • Whannel (1992123-4) has stated that sports was
    once a special preserve (within media)
  • separate from the rest of the social world
  • to defend and communicate conservative ideas and
    practices
  • create the illusion of an apolitical enclave

138
Boundary Blurring /Status Shifting
  • Today we are witnessing a steady march of sports
    out of that insular space toward the center of
    daily life.
  • Powered in large part by sportsports, sports in
    Japanese media has bled through previously fixed
    boundaries, taking residence outside defined
    corners of news programs or sections of
    newspapers and magazines.

139
Boundary Blurring /Status Shifting
  • This can be seen beyond cases of national
    reference. In 2006 a ten p.m. newscast
  • Covered a hard news story for about ten minutes,
    concerning a hostage crisis in Cambodia involving
    Japanese children.
  • Next was footage of a Jamaican sprinter setting
    the world record in the 100 meter dash.
  • Following this was a harder/local story involving
    the alleged defamation of a doctor by Japanese
    journalist, Yoshiko Sakurai.

140
Foreign Gaze
  • Two major filters of sportsports are news and
    advertising. These media differ though in ways
    that we might characterize in terms of
    proximity
  • News is produced from an insiders point of view.
  • Advertising often adopts an outsiders view

141
Foreign Gaze
142
Foreign GazeNews, from the Inside
  • News reporters are Japanese, who observe and
    interview Japanese athletes for a Japanese
    audience.
  • The clips of athletic performances have been
    selected and spliced together by Japanese
    information producers for domestic consumption.

143
Foreign GazeAds, from the Outside
  • In Ads
  • The products are often Japanese, as is the
    sportsport spokesperson.
  • However, the action often transpires in situ in
    the (overseas) venues where sportsports toil
  • It features co-mingling between sportsports and
    foreigners.
  • A major theme is how foreigners view sportsports.

144
Foreign GazeAd Examples
  • In a series of ads in 2003, Shinji Ono, a soccer
    sportsport in Holland was presented interacting
    with Dutch children.
  • The first ad centered on a small girl following
    Ono through a supermarket in awe.
  • The next ad employed the same girl joined by a
    young boy, who lunched and cavorted in a field
    with Ono, windmill in the background.
  • A final ad featured the two children, chasing Ono
    through the streets of Rotterdam on their bikes.

145
Foreign GazeAd Examples
  • The central idea in the Ono series was acceptance
    by foreign others and Japanese fluency in foreign
    climes, culture and lifestyle.
  • This thread has been played out in ads featuring
  • Hideki Matsui for Kirin beer
  • Ichiro Suzuki for a health drink
  • Naohiro Takahara for JCB charge card
  • Hidetoshi Nakata for Canon cameras and Coca-Cola.

146
The Meaning of Foreign Gaze
  • A decade ago it was domestic athletes such as the
    sumo rikishi Wakanohana or foreign athletes (like
    Andy Hug) who starred in locally-consumed sports
    such as K-1.
  • Today, by contrast, product endorsements most
    often involve athletes located overseas.
  • Viewed from a communication perspective, it is
    the gaze that is crucial. Whether it is Dutch
    children, Italian models or slack-jawed
    café-goers in Seattle, the repeated focus of ads
    is on the admiration accorded Japanese
    sportsports.

147
Outside Over Inside
MOVE THE WORLD
148
Outside Over Inside
  • What of local Japanese heroes back home?
  • Are the only sportsports commanding Japanese
    media attention sports exports?
  • Is this stage of Japans globalization career
    dominated exclusively by external vision?
  • In fact, domestic-based athletes do receive
    treatment.
  • The most visible exemplar until last year was
    Shinjo, a former MLB export who, upon returning
    to play in Japan, cashed in on numerous
    product-endorsements.
  • Of course, he is nearly an outsider his
    personality is offbeat by conventional Japanese
    standards and he has significatory power as a
    foreign import

149
Outside Over Inside
  • Other domestic foreigners (e.g. Bob Sapp, a
    former U.S. football player and now K-1 fighter
    Akebono, a former yokozuna and Hawaiian import),
    have carved out spaces for themselves in the
    domestic media (mainly advertising and
    variety-shows)
  • Current dominant foreign stars for instance
    Asashoryu in sumo and any number of soccer and
    baseball imports are almost entirely ignored.
  • Still, few indigenous athletes Japanese or
    foreign sport TV endorsement deals or
    consistently feature in daily news recaps.

150
Outside Over Inside
  • In short, at present, the foreign sportsport is
    favored over the domestic athlete.
  • Only on rare occasions are athletes at home
    spotlighted -- as was the 2005 case of the Hanada
    brothers former yokuzuna Takanohana and
    Wakanohana who generated a fortnight of
    non-stop news and wideshow attention contesting
    their fathers estate.
  • There, it wasnt sports as much as stories of
    sibling hatred, family favoritism, and marital
    discord that stoked media (and public) interest.

151
Conclusions
152
Conclusions Identity
  • In his widely-read tract about Japans modern
    reinvention(s), Buruma (20047) summarized
    overconfidence, fanaticism, a shrill sense of
    inferiority, and a sometimes obsessive
    preoccupation with national status all have
    played their parts in the history of modern
    Japan.
  • Certainly these tendencies are all on display in
    the case of sportsports.
  • Through sportsports we behold phenomena that both
    reflect and feed Japans definitions and
    perceptions of self.

153
Conclusions Mediation
  • It is media -- conveyors of information about
    sportsports that re/produce discourse about
    national identity.
  • TV is a dominant medium in this regard
  • As for TV, Yoshimi (2003) has said that TV was
    the central medium in the construction of this
    postwar nation state (484).
  • I would call it a binding mechanism
  • linking Japanese citizen to State
  • connecting language/cultural communities through
    the re/production and ultimately inculcation of
    shared beliefs, practices and values.

154
Conclusions Bindingness
  • Today, TVs bindingness emanates from both
    content and form
  • Content It continuously cycles a nearly uniform
    set of themes most often centering on shared
    cultural values, practices and national objects
  • Form It also employs a set of strategies
    vis-à-vis these finite objects which have the
    effect of eliciting an emotional response from
    the audience.

155
Conclusions Emotions
  • Thus, both theme and approach serve as emotional
    unifier.
  • The binding strategies all revolve around the
    phenomenon of sportsports.
  • These objects form a phenomenological set which
    underscore nation and, hence, support the
    formulation of national-consciousness.

156
Conclusions Nationalism
  • This underscores Whannels (1992206) claim that
    in the world of sport as seen on TV we are
    united above all, by the constant appeal to our
    sense of national identity.
  • In this way, this popular cultural nationalism
    (or better sports nationalism) is another kind
    of nationalism of Japan to add to the
    comprehensive list advanced by McVeigh (2004).

157
Conclusions Globalization
  • In many ways these conclusions demonstrate the
    way in which global processes work to bolster the
    local.
  • Inside is tied to outside in ways that cant be
    easily seen, but also which are surprising in
    their results.
  • This synergy, certainly, has the capability of
    blurring or even loosening societal and cultural
    understandings of indigenous and exogenous.
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