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Title: Anatomy and Physiology by Rod R Seeley 6th edition Chapter 3


1
Anatomy and Physiology, Sixth Edition
Rod R. Seeley Idaho State University Trent D.
Stephens Idaho State University Philip
Tate Phoenix College
Chapter 3 Lecture Outline
See PowerPoint Image Slides for all figures and
tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes.
19-1
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Permission required for reproduction or display.
2
Chapter 3
  • REVIEW-Cell Structure and Function

3
Cell Characteristics
  • Plasma Membrane
  • Outer cell boundary
  • Cytoplasm
  • Cytosol
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Cytoplasmic inclusions
  • Organelles
  • Specialized structures that perform specific
    functions

4
Functions of the Cell
  • Basic unit of life
  • Protection and support
  • Movement
  • Communication
  • Cell metabolism and energy release
  • Inheritance

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6
Plasma Membrane
  • Intracellular versus extracellular
  • Membrane potential
  • Glycolipids and glycoproteins
  • Fluid-mosaic model

7
Membrane Lipids
  • Phospholipids form a lipid bilayer
  • Hydrophilic (water-loving) polar heads
  • Hydrophobic (water-fearing) nonpolar heads
  • Cholesterol Determines fluid nature of membrane

8
Membrane Proteins
  • Integral or intrinsic
  • Extend from one surface to the other
  • Peripheral or extrinsic
  • Attached to either the inner or outer surfaces of
    the lipid bilayer

9
Marker Molecules
  • Allow cells to identify one another or other
    molecules
  • Glycoproteins
  • Glycolipids
  • Examples
  • Immune system
  • Recognition of oocyte by sperm cell

10
Channel Proteins
  • Non-gated ion channels
  • Always open
  • Ligand-gated ion channel
  • Open in response to small molecules that bind to
    proteins or glycoproteins
  • Voltage-gated ion channel
  • Open when there is a change in charge across the
    plasma membrane

11
Receptors
  • Receptor molecules
  • Exposed receptor sites
  • Linked to channel proteins
  • Acetylcholine
  • Linked to G proteins
  • Alter activity on inner surface of plasma membrane

12
Enzymes and Carrier Proteins
13
Movement through the Plasma Membrane
  • Diffusion
  • Osmosis
  • Filtration
  • Mediated transport mechanisms
  • Facilitated diffusion
  • Active transport
  • Secondary active transport

14
Diffusion
  • Movement of solutes from an area of higher
    concentration to an area of lower concentration
    in solution
  • Concentration (or density) gradient
  • Difference between two points
  • Viscosity
  • How easily a liquid flows

15
Diffusion
16
Osmosis
  • Diffusion of water (solvent) across a selectively
    permeable membrane
  • Important because large volume changes caused by
    water movement disrupts normal cell function
  • Cell shrinkage or swelling
  • Isotonic cell neither shrinks nor swells
  • Hypertonic cell shrinks (crenation)
  • Hypotonic cell swells and bursts (lysis)

17
Osmosis
18
Osmosis
19
Filtration
  • Works like a sieve
  • Depends on pressure difference on either side of
    partition
  • Small particles move through holes with liquid
  • Larger particles cannot move beyond partition
  • Moves from side of greater pressure to lower
  • Example In kidneys in urine formation
  • BP moves fluid from blood through filtration
    membrane
  • Water, ions, small molecules pass through
    partition most proteins and blood cells remain
    in blood

20
Mediated Transport Mechanisms
  • Involve carrier proteins
  • Characteristics
  • Specificity
  • To a single type of molecule
  • Competition
  • Saturation
  • Rate of transport limited to number of available
    carrier proteins

21
Saturation of a Carrier Protein
22
Mediated Transport Mechanisms
  • Facilitated diffusion
  • Higher to lower concentration without metabolic
    energy
  • Active transport
  • Requires ATP
  • Moves against gradient
  • Secondary active transport
  • Ions or molecules move in same (symport) or
    different direction (antiport)

23
Secondary Active Transport
24
Endocytosis
  • Internalization of substances by formation of a
    vesicle
  • Types
  • Phagocytosis
  • Pinocytosis
  • Receptor-mediated endocytosis

25
Pinocytosis and Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
26
Exocytosis
  • Accumulated vesicle secretions expelled from cell
  • Examples
  • Secretion of digestive enzymes by pancreas
  • Secretion of mucus by salivary glands
  • Secretion of milk by mammary glands

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29
Cytoplasm
  • Cellular material outside nucleus but inside
    plasma membrane
  • Half cytosol, half organelles
  • Cytosol Fluid portion
  • Cytoskeleton Supports the cell
  • Microtubules
  • Microfilaments
  • Intermediate filaments
  • Cytoplasmic inclusions
  • Melanin, hemoglobin, lipid droplets

30
Organelles
  • Small specialized structures for particular
    functions
  • Most have membranes that separate interior of
    organelles from cytoplasm
  • Related to specific structure and function of the
    cell

31
Centrioles
  • In specialized zone of microtubule formation near
    nucleus Centrosome
  • Each unit consists of 9 triplet microtubules
  • Before cell division, centrioles divide, move to
    ends of cell and become spindle fibers

32
Cilia
  • Short appendages projecting from cell surfaces
  • 9 2 microtubule arrangement
  • Capable of movement
  • Moves materials over the cell surface

33
Flagella
  • Similar to cilia but longer
  • Usually only one exists per cell
  • Moves the cell itself in wavelike fashion
  • Example Sperm cell

34
Microvilli
  • Extensions of plasma membrane
  • Normally many on each cell
  • Increase the cell surface
  • One tenth to one twentieth size of cilia
  • Do not move

35
Ribosomes
  • Sites of protein synthesis
  • Composed of a large and small subunit, each
    consisting of rRNA
  • Types
  • Free
  • Attached to endoplasmic reticulum

36
Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Types
  • Rough
  • Has attached ribosomes
  • Proteins produced and modified for secretions
  • Smooth
  • Not attached ribosomes
  • Manufacture lipids
  • Cisternae Interior spaces isolated from rest of
    cytoplasm

37
Golgi Apparatus
  • Modification, packaging, distribution of proteins
    and lipids for secretion or internal use
  • Flattened membrane sacs stacked on each other

38
Function of Golgi Apparatus
39
Action of Lysosomes
  • Membrane-bound vesicles that pinch off from Golgi
  • Hydrolytic enzymes for intracellular digestion,
    autophagia
  • WBCs have many lysosomes to digest bacteria
  • Important in bone remodeling digesting damaged
    cells

40
Peroxisomes and Proteasomes
  • Peroxisomes
  • Membrane-bound vesicles smaller than lysosomes
  • Contain enzymes to break down fatty acids and
    amino acids
  • Hydrogen peroxide is a toxic by-product of
    breakdown catalase breaks it down to water and
    oxygen
  • Proteasomes
  • Consist of large protein complexes
  • Include several enzymes that break down and
    recycle proteins in cell

41
Mitochondria
  • Provide energy for cell
  • Major site of ATP synthesis
  • Membranes
  • Cristae Infoldings of inner membrane
  • Matrix Substance located in space formed by
    inner membrane

42
Nucleus
  • DNA dispersed throughout
  • Consists of
  • Nuclear envelope Separates nucleus from
    cytoplasm and regulates movement of materials in
    and out
  • Chromatin Condenses to form chromosomes during
    cell division
  • Nucleolus Assembly site of ribosomal units

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46
Chromosome Structure
47
Overview of Cell Metabolism
48
Overview of Protein Synthesis
49
Protein Synthesis contd
Transcription
  • Transcription
  • DNA copied to make mRNA
  • Translation
  • Synthesis of a protein
  • Requires mRNA, ribosomes, and tRNA
  • Ribosomes align mRNA codons with tRNA anticodons

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51
Translation
52
Cell Life Cycle
  • Interphase
  • 3 Phases between cell divisions G1, S, G2
  • Mitosis Division of nucleus
  • Prophase
  • Metaphase
  • Anaphase
  • Telophase
  • Cytokinesis Division of cytoplasm
  • Immediately follows mitosis

53
Mitosis
Interphase
Prophase
Metaphase
54
Mitosis
Anaphase
Telophase
Cytokinesis
55
MEIOSIS
  • Sex cells are formed by meiosis
  • Nucleus undergoes 2 divisions (Meiosis I and
    Meiosis II)
  • Resulting in 4 nuclei
  • Each nuclei has half the number of chromosomes as
    parent cell
  • Called haploid 23 chromosomes in human sex cells
  • Resulting daughter cells differentiate into
    gametes or sex cells
  • Sperm cells in males oocytes (egg cells) in
    females
  • During fertilization, a sperm cell fuses with the
    oocyte
  • This restores the normal number of 46 chromosomes
    in the human zygote

56
MEIOSIS
57
Meiosis
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59
Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis
60
Cellular Aspects of Aging
  • Aging involves lipids, proteins, and nucleic
    acids within the cell
  • 35 or more factors are genetic
  • Cellular clock death of cell line after a
    certain number of cell divisions
  • Death genes turn on late in life
  • DNA damage results in cell degeneration and
    death
  • Free radicals direct damage (by atoms with
    unpaired electrons) to DNA in somatic cells
  • Results in somatic mutations, cellular
    dysfunction, and cell death
  • Mitochondrial damage loss of energy to cell and
    cell death
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