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Title: Anatomy and Physiology by Rod R Seeley 6th edition chapter 29 power-point


1
Anatomy and Physiology, Sixth Edition
Rod R. Seeley Idaho State University Trent D.
Stephens Idaho State University Philip
Tate Phoenix College
Chapter 29 Lecture Outline
See PowerPoint Image Slides for all figures and
tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Permission required for reproduction or display.
2
Chapter 29
  • Development, Growth,
  • Aging, and Genetics

3
Prenatal Development
  • From conception to birth
  • Three stages
  • Germinal period
  • First 2 weeks of development during formation of
    primitive germ layers
  • Embryonic period
  • 2nd to end of 8th week, organ systems develop
  • Fetal period
  • Last 30 weeks, organ systems grow and mature
  • Clinical age
  • Mothers LMP to calculate age of unborn child
  • Postovulatory age
  • Describes timing of developmental events
  • Calculated as 14 days less than clinical age

4
Fertilization
5
Early Cell Division
  • Zygote divides to form 2 cells about 18-39 hours
    after fertilization
  • 2 cells divide to form 4, 8, and so on
  • Pluripotent Ability to develop into wide range
    of tissues
  • Morula
  • Solid ball of 12 or more cells
  • Blastocyst or hollow sphere of cells
  • Implantation
  • Burrowing into uterine wall
  • Placenta develops from trophoblast cells

6
Early Stages of Development
7
Blastocyst
8
Formation of Placenta
9
Mature Placenta and Fetus
10
Formation of Germ Layers
  • Amniotic cavity
  • After implantation, new cavity forms inside inner
    mass and separates
  • Embryonic disk composed of ectoderm and endoderm

11
Primitive Streak
12
Neural Tube Formation
13
Somite Formation and Gut Formation
  • Gut formation
  • Developing digestive tract pinches off from yolk
    sac as a tube but remain attached by yolk stalk
  • Oropharyngeal membrane
  • Cloacal membrane
  • Evaginations
  • Celom or body cavity development
  • Somite formation
  • As neural tube develops, segments or somites form
    or indistinct somitomeres
  • Eventually become part of skull, vertebral
    column, skeletal muscle

14
Formation of Digestive Tract
15
Limb Bud Development and Face Development
  • Face development
  • Fusion of 5 embryonic structures
  • Frontonasal process
  • Maxillary processes
  • Mandibular processes
  • Nasal placodes
  • Cleft lip
  • Failure of frontonasal and 2 maxillary processes
    to fuse
  • Limb bud development
  • Arms and legs appear at about 28 days
  • Apical ectodermal ridge develops on lateral
    margin of each limb and stimulates outgrowth
  • Limb tissue laid down in proximal-to-distal
    sequence

16
Face Development
17
Organ Systems Development
  • Muscle
  • Myoblasts are early embryonic cells that develop
    into skeletal muscle fibers
  • Nervous System
  • Derived from neural tube and crest cells
  • Circulatory System
  • Heart develops from 2 endothelial tubes which fuse
  • Skin
  • Epidermis derived from ectoderm
  • Dermis derived form mesoderm or neural crest
    cells as in face
  • Skeleton
  • Develops from mesoderm or neural crest cells

18
Heart Development
19
Organ Systems Development
  • Respiratory system
  • Lungs develop as single midline evagination from
    foregut in region of future esophagus
  • Urinary system
  • Kidneys develop from mesoderm located between
    somites and lateral part of embryo
  • Reproductive system
  • Male and female gonads appear as gonadal ridges
  • Primordial germ cells are destined to become
    oocytes or sperm cells

20
Lung Development
21
Kidney and Urinary Bladder Development
22
Reproductive System Development
23
Fetal Growth
  • Fetus
  • At 60 days embryo becomes a fetus
  • Fetal period
  • From day 60 to birth is rapid growth
  • Lanugo
  • Fine soft hair covering
  • Vernix caseosa
  • Waxy coat of protection

24
Parturition
  • Labor
  • First stage
  • Onset of regular uterine contraction until cervix
    dilates to fetal head diameter
  • Second stage
  • From maximum cervical dilation until baby exits
    vagina
  • Third stage
  • Expulsion of placenta from uterus
  • Parturition
  • Process by which a baby is born
  • In mother
  • Estrogens overcome inhibitory influence of
    progesterone
  • Oxytocin is released
  • In fetus
  • Adrenal gland is enlarged prior

25
Parturition
26
Factors Influencing Parturition
27
Changes at Birth
  • Digestive System
  • Meconium (anal discharge) is mixture of cells
    from digestive tract, amniotic fluid, bile, and
    mucus excreted by newborn
  • Stomach begin to secrete acid
  • Liver does not form adult bilirubin for 1st 2
    weeks
  • Lactose can be digested, but other food must be
    gradually introduced
  • Respiratory System and Circulatory System
  • Foramen ovale closes, two atria separated
  • Ductus arteriosus closed, blood no longer flows
    between pulmonary trunk and aorta
  • Umbilical vein and arteries degenerate

28
Circulatory Conditions in Fetus
29
Circulatory Changes at Birth
30
Apgar Scores
  • Assessment of newborn baby
  • Appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiratory
    effect
  • Rated on scale of 0-2, 2 denotes normal function
  • Total Apgar score is sum from five characteristics

31
Genetics and Chromosomes
  • Genetics
  • Study of heredity
  • DNA
  • Hereditary material of cells and controls cell
    activities
  • Chromosomes
  • Karyotype or display
  • Autosomal and sex (X or Y)
  • Contain thousands of genes

32
Inheritance of Sex
33
Genes
34
Genes
  • Functional unit of heredity
  • Portion of DNA
  • Types
  • Structural Serve as template for mRNA, code for
    amino acid sequences
  • Regulatory Control which structural genes
    transcribed in given tissue
  • Dominant and Recessive
  • Dominant masks effects of recessive genes
  • Sex-linked traits
  • Traits affected by genes on sex chromosomes
  • Genotype
  • Actual set of alleles a person has for a given
    trait
  • Phenotype
  • Persons appearance

35
Traits
36
Other Types of Gene Expression
  • Incomplete dominance
  • Dominant gene doesnt completely mask effects of
    recessive gene
  • Sickle-cell disease
  • Polygenic traits
  • Determined by expression of multiple genes on
    different chromosomes
  • Persons height, eye and skin color, intelligence

37
Genetic Disorders
  • Cancer
  • Tumor resulting from uncontrolled cell divisions
  • Oncogenes
  • Genes associated with cancer
  • Tumor suppressor genes
  • Carcinogens
  • Genetic susceptibility or predisposition
  • Genetic disorders
  • Abnormalities in DNA
  • Congenital disorders
  • Birth defects not necessarily genetic
  • Teratogens
  • Agents that cause birth defects
  • Mutation
  • Mutagens
  • Agents that cause mutations

38
Genetic Counseling
  • Predicting possible results of matings involving
    carriers of harmful genes
  • Talking to prospective parents about possible
    outcomes and treatments of a genetic disorder

39
Human Genomic Map
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