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Title: Anatomy and Physiology by Rod R Seeley 6th edition chapter 18 power-point


1
Anatomy and Physiology, Sixth Edition
Rod R. SeeleyIdaho State University Trent D.
StephensIdaho State University Philip
TatePhoenix College
Chapter 18 Lecture Outline
See PowerPoint Image Slides for all figures and
tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Permission required for reproduction or display.
2
Chapter 18
  • Endocrine Glands

3
Endocrine System Functions
  • Metabolism and tissue maturation
  • Ion regulation
  • Water balance
  • Immune system regulation
  • Heart rate and blood pressure regulation
  • Control of blood glucose and other nutrients
  • Control of reproductive functions
  • Uterine contractions and milk release

4
Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus
  • Where nervous and endocrine systems interact
  • Pituitary gland/hypophysis
  • Secretes 9 major hormones
  • Hypothalamus
  • Regulates secretory activity of pituitary gland
    through neurohormones and action potentials
  • Posterior pituitary is an extension of

5
Pituitary Gland Structure
  • Posterior or neurohypophysis
  • Continuous with the brain
  • Secretes neurohormones
  • Anterior or adenohypophysis
  • Consists of three areas with indistinct
    boundaries pars distalis, pars intermedia, pars
    tuberalis

6
Relationship of Pituitary to Brain
7
Hypothalamus, Anterior Pituitary and Target
Tissues
8
Pituitary Gland Hormones
  • Posterior
  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  • Oxytocin
  • Anterior
  • Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
  • Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
  • Luteinizing hormone (LH)
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  • Prolactin

9
Antidiuretic Hormone
  • Also called vasopressin
  • Promotes water retention by kidneys
  • Secretion rate changes in response to alterations
    in blood osmolality and blood volume
  • Lack of ADH secretion is a cause of diabetes
    insipidus

10
Oxytocin
  • Promotes uterine contractions during delivery
  • Causes milk ejection in lactating women

11
Growth Hormone (GH)
  • Stimulates uptake of amino acids and conversion
    into proteins
  • Stimulates breakdown of fats and glycogen
  • Promotes bone and cartilage growth
  • Increased secretion in response to increase amino
    acids, low blood glucose, or stress
  • Regulated by GHRH and GHIH or somatostatin

12
TSH, ACTH, MSH
  • ACTH
  • Stimulates cortisol secretion from adrenal cortex
  • MSH
  • Increases skin pigmentation
  • TSH or thyrotropin
  • Causes release of thyroid hormones from thyroid
    gland

13
LH, FSH, Prolactin
  • LH and FSH
  • Both hormones regulate production of gametes and
    reproductive hormones
  • Testosterone in males
  • Estrogen and progesterone in females
  • GnRH from hypothalamus stimulates LH and FSH
    secretion
  • Prolactin
  • Stimulates milk production in lactating females

14
Thyroid Gland
  • One of largest endocrine glands
  • Highly vascular
  • Histology
  • Composed of follicles
  • Parafollicular cells
  • Secrete calcitonin which reduces calcium
    concentration in body fluids when levels elevated

15
Biosynthesis of Thyroid Hormones
16
Thyroid Hormones
  • Include
  • Triiodothryronine or T3
  • Tetraiodothyronine or T4 or thyroxine
  • Transported in blood
  • Bind with intracellular receptor molecules and
    initiate new protein synthesis
  • Increase rate of glucose, fat, protein metabolism
    in many tissues thus increasing body temperature
  • Normal growth of many tissues dependent on

17
Regulation of T3 and T4 Secretion
18
Thyroid Hormone Hyposecretion and Hypersecretion
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Decreased metabolic rate
  • Weight gain, reduced appetite
  • Dry and cold skin
  • Weak, flabby skeletal muscles, sluggish
  • Myxedema
  • Apathetic, somnolent
  • Coarse hair, rough dry skin
  • Decreased iodide uptake
  • Possible goiter
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Increased metabolic rate
  • Weight loss, increased appetite
  • Warm flushed skin
  • Weak muscles that exhibit tremors
  • Exophthalmos
  • Hyperactivity, insomnia
  • Soft smooth hair and skin
  • Increased iodide uptake
  • Almost always develops goiter

19
Parathyroid Glands
  • Embedded in thyroid
  • Secrete PTH
  • Increases blood calcium levels
  • Stimulates osteoclasts
  • Promotes calcium reabsorption by kidneys

20
Regulation of PTH Secretion
21
Adrenal Glands
  • Functions as part of sympathetic nervous system
  • Composed of medulla and cortex (3 layers)
  • Hormones
  • Medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
  • Cortex secretes mineralocorticoids,
    glucocorticoids, androgens

22
Hormones of Adrenal Cortex
  • Mineralocorticoids
  • Zona glomerulosa
  • Aldosterone produced in greatest amounts
  • Increases rate of sodium reabsorption by kidneys
    increasing sodium blood levels
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Zona fasciculata
  • Cortisol is major hormone
  • Increases fat and protein breakdown, increases
    glucose synthesis, decreases inflammatory
    response
  • Androgens
  • Zona reticularis
  • Converted to androgen and testosterone

23
Pancreas
  • Located along small intestine and stomach
  • Exocrine gland
  • Produces pancreatic digestive juices
  • Endocrine gland
  • Consists of pancreatic islets
  • Composed of
  • Alpha cells secrete glucagon
  • Beta cells secrete insulin
  • Delta cells secrete somatostatin

24
Insulin and Glucagon
  • Insulin
  • Target tissues liver, adipose tissue, muscle,
    and satiety center of hypothalamus
  • Increases uptake of glucose and amino acids by
    cells
  • Glucagon
  • Target tissue is liver
  • Causes breakdown of glycogen and fats for energy

25
Regulation of Insulin Secretion
26
Regulation of Blood Nutrient Levels After a Meal
27
Regulation of Blood Nutrient Levels During
Exercise
28
Hormones of the Reproductive System
  • Female Ovaries
  • Estrogen and Progesterone
  • Uterine and mammary gland development and
    function, external genitalia structure, secondary
    sex characteristics, menstrual cycle
  • Inhibin
  • Inhibits FSH secretion
  • Relaxin
  • Increases flexibility of symphysis pubis
  • Male Testes
  • Testosterone
  • Regulates production of sperm cells and
    development and maintenance of male reproductive
    organs and secondary sex characteristics
  • Inhibin
  • Inhibits FSH secretion

29
Pineal Body
  • In epithalamus
  • Produces
  • Melatonin
  • Enhances sleep
  • Arginine vasotocin
  • Regulates function of reproductive system in some
    animals

30
Effects of Aging on Endocrine System
  • Gradual decrease in secretory activity of some
    glands
  • GH as people age
  • Melatonin
  • Thyroid hormones
  • Kidneys secrete less renin
  • Familial tendency to develop type II diabetes

31
Diabetes Mellitus
  • Results from inadequate secretion of insulin or
    inability of tissues to respond to insulin
  • Types
  • Type I or IDDM (Insulin-dependent)
  • Develops in young people
  • Type II or NIDDM (Non-insulin dependent)
  • Develops in people older than 40-45
  • More common
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