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Title: Anatomy and Physiology by Rod R Seeley 6th edition chapter 5 power-point


1
Anatomy and Physiology, Sixth Edition
Rod R. SeeleyIdaho State University Trent D.
StephensIdaho State University Philip
TatePhoenix College
Chapter 05 Lecture Outline
See PowerPoint Image Slides for all figures and
tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes.
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Permission required for reproduction or display.
2
Chapter 5
  • Integumentary System

3
Integumentary System
  • Consists of
  • Skin
  • Hair
  • Nails
  • Glands
  • Functions
  • Protection
  • Sensation
  • Temperature regulation
  • Vitamin D production
  • Excretion

4
Hypodermis
  • Skin rests on this, but not a part
  • Consists of loose connective tissue
  • Types of cells
  • Fibroblasts
  • Adipose cells
  • Macrophages
  • Also called
  • Subcutaneous tissue
  • Superficial fascia

5
Skin
  • Dermis
  • Structural strength
  • Cleavage lines
  • Two layers
  • Reticular
  • Papillary
  • Epidermis
  • Avascular
  • Cells
  • Layers or strata

6
Cleavage or Tension Lines
  • Elastin and collagen fibers oriented in some
    directions more than others
  • Important in surgery
  • If incision parallel to lines there is less
    gapping, faster healing, less scar tissue

7
Dermis and Epidermis
8
Epidermal Cells
  • Cell types
  • Keratinocytes Produce keratin for strength
  • Melanocytes Contribute to skin color
  • Langerhans cells Part of the immune system
  • Merkels cells Detect light touch and pressure
  • Desquamate Older cells slough off
  • Keratinization Cells die and produce outer layer
    that resists abrasion and forms permeability layer

9
Epidermal Strata
  • Stratum Basale
  • Deepest portion of epidermis and single layer
  • High mitotic activity and cells become
    keratinized
  • Stratum Spinosum
  • Limited cell division
  • Stratum Granulosum
  • In superficial layers nucleus and other
    organelles degenerate and cell dies
  • Stratum Lucidum
  • Thin, clear zone
  • Stratum Corneum
  • Most superficial and consists of cornified cells

10
Epidermal Layers and Keratinization
11
Thick and Thin Skin
  • Thick skin
  • Has all 5 epithelial strata
  • Found in areas subject to pressure or friction
  • Palms of hands, fingertips, soles of feet
  • Thin skin
  • More flexible than thick skin
  • Covers rest of body

12
Skin Color
  • Determined by 3 factors
  • Pigments
  • Melanin Provides for protection against UV light
  • Albinism Deficiency or absence of pigment
  • Carotene Yellow pigment
  • Blood circulating through the skin
  • Imparts reddish hue and increases during
    blushing, anger, inflammation
  • Cyanosis Blue color caused by decrease in blood
    oxygen content
  • Thickness of stratum corneum

13
Accessory Skin Structures
  • Hair
  • Found everywhere on human body except palms,
    soles, lips, nipples, parts of external
    genitalia, and distal segments of fingers and
    toes
  • Glands
  • Sebaceous or oil glands
  • Sudoriferous or sweat glands
  • Ceruminous glands
  • Mammary glands
  • Nails

14
Hair Structure
  • Composed of shaft and root
  • Shaft protrudes above skin surface
  • Root located below surface and base forms the
    hair bulb
  • Has 3 concentric layers
  • Medulla Central axis
  • Cortex Forms bulk of hair
  • Cuticle Forms hair surface

15
Hair Growth, Color, and Muscles
  • Hair Growth
  • Cycles
  • Growth and resting
  • Permanent hair loss
  • Pattern balding most common
  • Hair Color
  • Caused by varying amounts and types of melanin
  • Muscles
  • Arrector pili Muscle contraction causes hair to
    stand on end

16
Oil and Sweat Glands
  • Sebaceous glands
  • Produce sebum
  • Oils hair and skin surface
  • Sudoriferous glands
  • Merocrine or eccrine
  • Most common
  • Numerous in palms and soles
  • Apocrine
  • Found in axillae, genitalia, around anus

17
Nails
  • Anatomy
  • Nail root proximally
  • Nail body distally Eponychium or cuticle
  • Growth
  • Grow continuously unlike hair

18
Burns
  • Classifications
  • First-degree
  • Second-degree
  • Third-degree
  • Skin Grafts
  • Split skin
  • Artificial skin
  • Cadavers or pigs

19
The Rule of Nines
20
Aging Effects
  • Skin more easily damaged
  • Skin becomes drier
  • Functioning melanocytes decrease or increase as
    with age spots
  • Sunlight ages skin more rapidly

21
Clinical Disorders
  • Bacterial infections
  • Acne
  • Viral Infections
  • Chicken pox, German measles, cold sores
  • Decubitus ulcers or bedsores
  • Ischemia and necrosis
  • Cancer
  • Basal cell carcinoma
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Malignant melanoma
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