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BUILDING AUTOMATION

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Building automation describes the advanced functionality provided by the control system of a building. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Updated: 1 February 2013
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Title: BUILDING AUTOMATION


1
A PRESENTATION ON
BUILDING AUTOMATION
2
BUILDING AUTOMATION
Title
AGENDA
  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. NETWORKS
  3. CONTROLLERS
  4. AIR HANDLERS
  5. CENTRE PLANT
  6. ALARMA SECURITY
  7. ROOM AUTOMATION
  8. BUILDING BLOCKS
  9. CONCLUSION

3
WHAT IS BUILDING AUTOMATION??
  • Building automation describes the advanced
    functionality provided by the control system of a
    building.
  • BAS core are-
  • 1) occupancy schedule
  • 2)monitors system performance device failures
  • 3)provides email and/or text notifications .
  • BAS is often referred to as an intelligent
    building system or a Smart home.

4
BUILDING AUTOMATION ARCHITECTURE
5
NETWORKS
  • 1) PRIMARY SECONDARY BUS
  • Examples--BACnet, optical fiber, ethernet,
    ARCNET, RS-232,RS-485 or a wireless network
  • 2)PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS
  • ExamplesZigBee
  • 3)INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES USER CONTROLLERS
  • Examples--analog or digital humidity and
    pressure sensortherlatinum resistance thermometer

6
CONTROLLERS
  • Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs)
  • PLC's provide the most responsiveness and
    processing power
  • System/Network controllers
  • System/Network controllers may be applied to
    control one or more mechanical systems such as an
    Air Handler Unit (AHU), boiler, chiller, etc.
  • Terminal Unit controllers.
  • Terminal Unit controllers usually are suited for
    control of lighting and/or simpler devices such
    as a package rooftop unit, heat pump, VAV box.

7
BUILDING ELECTRICAL SYSTEM RISER DIAGRAM
8
AIR HANDLERS
  • Most air handlers mix return and outside air so
    less temperature change is needed.
  • Analog or digital temperature sensors may be
    placed in the space or room, the return and
    supply air ducts, and sometimes the external air.
  • Actuators are placed on the hot and chilled water
    valves, the outside air and return air dampers.
  • The supply fan (and return if applicable) is
    started and stopped based on either time of day,
    temperatures, building pressures or a
    combination.

9
AIR HANDLERS ACHITECTURER
10
CONSTANT VOLUME AIR-HANDLING UNITS
  • The less efficient type of air-handler is a
    "constant volume air handling unit," or CAV.
  • CAVs open and close dampers .
  • They heat or cool the spaces by opening or
    closing chilled or hot water valves that feed
    their internal heat exchangers.
  • Generally one CAV serves several spaces.
  • VARIABLE VOLUME AIR HANDLING UNITS
  • A more efficient unit is a "variable air volume
    (VAV) air-handling unit," or VAV.
  • A VAV air handler can change the pressure to the
    VAV boxes by changing the speed of a fan or
    blower with a variable frequency drive
  • Each VAV box supply air to a small space, like an
    office. Each box has a damper that is opened or
    closed based on how much heating or cooling is
    required in its space.

11
VAV HYBRID SYSTEM
Another variation is a hybrid between VAV and CAV
systems.1) INTERIOR ZONES operate as in a VAV
system.2) OUTER ZONES differ in that the
heating is supplied by a heating fan in a central
location usually with a heating coil fed by the
building boiler.
12
CENTRAL PLANT
  • A central plant is needed to supply the
    air-handling units with water.
  • chilled water system
  • hot water system
  • condenser water system

13
CHILLED WATER SYSTEM
  • Chilled water is often used to cool a building's
    air and equipment. The chilled water system will
    have chiller(s) and pumps

14
HOT WATER SYSTEM
  • The hot water system supplies heat to the
    building's air-handling unit or VAV box heating
    coils, along with the domestic hot water heating
    coils (Calorifie) The hot water system will have
    a boiler(s) and pumps.

15
CONDENSER WATER SYSTEM
Cooling tower(s)and pumps are used to supply cool
condenser water to the chillers.
16
ALARMS SECURITY
  • Many building automation systems have alarm
    capabilities. Notification can be through a
    computer, pager, cellular phone, or audible
    alarm.
  • Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide sensors can be
    used to alarm if levels are too high.
  • Refrigerant sensors can be used to indicate a
    possible refrigerant leak.
  • Security systems can be interlocked to a building
    automation system. If occupancy sensors are
    present, they can also be used as burglar alarms.
  • Fire and smoke alarm systems can be hard-wired to
    override building automation.

17
ROOM AUTOMATION
  • Room automation is a subset of building
    automation ,more systems under centralised
    control, though in this case in one room.
  • Room automation is corporate boardroom,
    presentation suites, and lecture halls, where
    videoconferencing equipment, video projector,
    lighting control systems,public address

18
ROOM AUTOMATION ARCHITECTURE
19
PROCESSING SYSTEM
  • The use of Microprocessors (calculator chips
    Mini computers)
  • Architecture
  • --Input, Memory, Output, Micrpchip
  • --Address bus, Data bus, control bus
  • 8 , 16, 32, 64 bits
  • Microprocessors microcontrollers

20
ANALOG DIGITAL I/O MODULES
Analog inputs
Control outputs
Display outputs
Digital inputs
Interrupt inputs
Timer / counter inputs
21
I/O M O DU L E
  • Interrupt input
  • Draw attention of real time system towards
    abnormal situations
  • Attends to interrupt and resumes normal work
  • Timer / Counter
  • Clock input or Gate input to enable/ disable
    timer/counters
  • Output of timer/counter can be used as interrupts

22
DISPLAY CONTROL MODULE
  • Manual entry sub module
  • CRT controller sub module
  • LED / LCD control sub module
  • Alarm annunciator sub module
  • Printer controller sub module

23
BLOCK DIAGRAM
24
SCADA
  • Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Systems
  • Channel scanning
  • Conversion into engineering units
  • Data processing

25
S C A D A ARCHITECTURE
26
Title
P L C
27
CONCLUSION
  • Opportunities arrive daily to intelligently use
    building automation as more than just a connector
    of brute force comfort generation systems.
  • Growing greener application for building
    automation, making all large buildings part of
    the electrical grid.

28
Thank You For
Your
Time
29
Q U E S T
I O N
S??
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