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Voice

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Teaching of active and passive voice – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Voice


1
Active and Passive Voice A presentation By Dr.
Nicholas Correa Director, New Horizon
2
Voice Voice is the form a verb which indicates
whether the subject of the verb performs or
receives the action. Voice is a characteristic
of a verb which indicates the relation of the
action of the verb to its subject.  
3
  • There are two types of voice
  • Active voice
  • Passive voice.

4
In active voice subject acts upon object, while
in passive voice object is acted upon by
subject. It can also be said, in active voice
subject does a work on object, while in passive
voice object is worked on by subject.
5
The normal structure of an active voice sentence
is - subjectverbobject . But in passive the
normal structure of sentence is reversed
according to certain rules and becomes like
-objectverbsubject.
6
The real meaning of a sentence does not change if
the sentence is expressed either by active voice
or by passive voice. The active voice is mostly
used in writing because it gives a direct and
more concise meaning.
7
Passive voice is used sometimes due to the
following reasons. When intentionally hiding
the subject of a sentence. For example, a student
who failed in exam might say, some chapters were
not studied. Another example. Women were not
treated as equals . When passive voice better
explains thought of sentence. For example, to
say, cloth is sold in yards, is more meaningful
than to say, Shop keepers sell cloth in yards.
8
When passive voice better emphasizes the main
though of the sentence. For example, a man who is
being teased by another person might say in
anger, you will be beaten by me When subject
is not exactly known. For example, His watch was
stolen. It is not known that who stole his watch,
the subject (thief) is not exactly known so it is
better to use passive voice for such
sentence. There are certain rules for expressing
a thought in passive voice or for changing a
sentence from active voice to passive voice.
9
Fundamental Rules for changing from Active
Voice to Passive Voice
10
Active Voice Active voice verbs are used when
the subject is acting in a sentence.
Example Raj climbed the tree. Climbed is
an active verb because it allows the subject to
undertake an action.
11
PASSIVE VOICE FOR ALL TENSES RULES
12
Passive Voice Passive voice verbs are used
when the subject is being acted upon in a
sentence. Example Football is being played by
boys. Is being played is considered passive
because it indicates that the subject is
receiving an action.
13
Present Simple Tense (passive Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice am/is/are Present Simple Tense (passive Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice am/is/are
Active voice He sings a song. He does not sing a song. Does he sing a song? Passive voice A song is sung by him. A song is not sung by him. Is a song sung by him?
14
Present Continuous Tense (passive
Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice am
being/is being/are being
Active voice I am writing a letter I am not writing a letter. Am I writing a letter? Passive voice A letter is being written by me. A letter is not being written by me. Is a letter being written by me?
15
Present Perfect Tense (passive Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice has been/have been Present Perfect Tense (passive Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice has been/have been
Active voice She has finished his work. She has not finished his work. Has she finished his work? Passive voice His work has been finished by her. His work has not been finished by her. Has his work been finished by her?
16
Past Simple Tense (passive Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice was/were Past Simple Tense (passive Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice was/were
Active voice I killed a snake. I did not kill a snake. Did I kill a snake? Passive voice A snake was killed by me. A snake was not killed by me. Was a snake killed by me?
17
Past Continuous Tense (Passive Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice was being/were being. Past Continuous Tense (Passive Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice was being/were being.
Active voice He was driving a car. He was not driving a car. Was he driving a car? Active voice He was driving a car. He was not driving a car. Was he driving a car?
18
Past Perfect Tense (Passive Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice had been Past Perfect Tense (Passive Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice had been
Active voice They had completed the assignment. They had not completed the assignment. Had they completed the assignment? Passive voice The assignment had been completed by them. The assignment had not been complete by them. Had the assignment been completed by them?
19
Future Simple Tense (Passive Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice will be Future Simple Tense (Passive Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice will be
Active voice She will buy a car. She will not buy a car. Will she buy a car? Passive voice A car will be bought by her. A car will not be bought by her. Will a car be bought by her?
20
Future Perfect Tense (passive Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice will have been Future Perfect Tense (passive Voice) Auxiliary verb in passive voice will have been
Active voice You will have started the job. You will have not started the job. Will you have started the job? Passive voice The job will have been started by you. The job will not have been started by you. Will the job have been started by you?
21
Fundamental Rules for changing from active
voice to passive voice
22
The places of subject and object are interchanged
i.e. the object shifts to the place of subject
and subject shifts to the place of object in
passive voice. Example. Active voice I write a
letter. Passive voice I letter is written by
me. Subject (I) of sentence shifted to the place
of object (letter) and object (letter) shifted to
the place of subject (I) in passive voice.
23
Sometimes subject of sentence is not used in
passive voice. Subject of sentence can be
omitted in passive voice, if without subject it
can give enough meaning in passive
voice. Examples. Passive voice cloth is sold in
yards
24
3rd form of verb (past participle) is always used
as main verb in sentences of passive voice for
all tenses. Base form of verb or present
participle will be never used in passive
voice. The word by is used before subject in
sentences in passive voice. Example. Active
voice He sings a song. Passive voice A song is
sung by him.
25
The word by is not always used before subject
in passive voice. Sometimes words with, to,
etc may also be used before subject in passive
voice. Examples. Active voice The water fills
the tub. Passive voice The tub is filled with
water. Active voice  He knows me. Passive voice
I am known to him.
26
Sentences which cannot be changed into passive
voice
27
Transitive and intransitive verb A verb can be
either transitive or intransitive. A transitive
verb needs an object (in sentence) to give
complete meaning while intransitive verb does
need an object (in sentence) to give complete
meaning.  For example, Transitive
verb.       He sent a letter.   (Send is a
transitive verb and it needs an object i.e.
letter to express full meaning.) Intransitive
Verb.        He laughs.       (Laugh is an
intransitive verb and it does not need object for
expressing full meaning.)     e.g. Sleep, go,
reach, sit, die, are examples of intransitive
verbs.
28
Intransitive verb cannot be changed into passive
voice The sentences having intransitive verbs
(belonging to any tense) cannot be changed into
passive voice. The reason is that there is not
any object in such sentences and without object
of sentence passive voice is not possible. A
sentence can be changed into passive voice if it
has subject and object. Sometimes subject may not
be written in passive voice but it does not mean
that it has no subject. Such sentences have
subject but the subject is so common or familiar
or known that if even it is not written in
passive voice, it gives full meaning. For
example Cloth is sold in yards.   
29
The following tenses also cannot be changed into
passive voice. Present perfect continuous
tense Past perfect continuous tense Future
continuous tense Future perfect continuous tense
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