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The College Standard

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The College Standard Academic Resource Center Mercer University http://faculty.mercer.edu/zimmerman_jj Writing College Papers: Identifying Standards and Critical ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The College Standard


1
?
The College Standard
2
Writing College Papers Identifying
Standards and Critical Thinking Challenges
3
Building Blocks
  • Grammar
  • Vocabulary
  • Questions
  • The Goals of Academic Writing
  • Thesis
  • Argument
  • Research
  • Plagiarism
  • Critical Analysis
  • Expository Writing
  • The First Draft
  • Rewriting Your Paper

4
Grammar Not Your Bag? Give These Websites a Try!
Guide to Grammar and Writing http//www.ccc.commne
t.edu/grammar/ University of Toronto Advice on
Academic Writing http//www.utoronto.ca/writing/ad
vise.html Guide to Grammar and
Style http//newark.rutgers.edu/jlynch/Writing/
This is a Test of the Emergency Grammar
System http//jcomm.uoregon.edu/russial/grammar/g
rambo.html
5
Vocabulary
  • Precise usage is the hallmark of top level
    scholarship you must be aware of your
    professors expectations
  • Discipline-specific vocabulary must be mastered
    in order to participate in the marketplace of
    ideas
  • The process of acquiring a strong vocabulary can
    help teach you how to become an active learner
  • Identify what it is you need to learn
  • Research
  • Connect new information to what you already know
  • Test your ability to apply new information
  • Refine understanding
  • Reflect on deeper meanings

6
Questions
  • Identify the questions that dominate in lecture
  • Identify the questions that make you want to
    listen
  • Determine which questions prompt you to construct
    an informed argument in response
  • Will you research scholarly arguments on the
    topic?
  • Will you analyze these arguments with an open
    mind?
  • Will you risk adding your own original thinking
    to the scholarly discussion?

http//www.dartmouth.edu/7Ecompose/student/ac_pap
er/what.html
7
Goals of Academic Writing
  • Seek truth
  • Argue a point
  • Propose solutions
  • Deepen insights
  • Clarify a theory
  • Challenge conventional wisdom

8
What is Academic Writing?
  • Writing is a response
  • Writing is linear
  • Writing is recursive
  • Writing is both subject and object
  • Writing is decision-making
  • Writing is a process, frequently involving much
    trial and error

http//www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/pdf/writing.pdf
9
Thesis
  • Generate several theses that respond to on
    topic questions during brainstorming
  • Write each thesis out using complete sentences
  • Evaluate the clarity of each thesis statement and
    force yourself to remove all obfuscation from
    your writing
  • Evaluate each thesis is it ?
  • A generalization and not a fact
  • Demanding of proof or further development
  • Motivating (does it prompt the reader to look for
    facts and details)
  • Thought-provoking
  • Focused (avoid vague words such as interesting,
    good, or disgusting)

10
Argument
  • Sketch out an argument for each working thesis
  • Identify areas where research is needed to
    support your premises
  • Research supporting premises
  • Discard theses/arguments whose premises prove
    unsupportable
  • Choose the working thesis that allows you to make
    the strongest argument for a conclusion about
    which you are motivated to write
  • Be prepared to modify your thesis to reflect the
    final argument that makes it into your paper

11
What is an Argument?
  • A collection of statements that can be given a
    logical ordering such that
  • Given statements designated as premises and a
    statement designated as the conclusion,
  • the conclusion is justified by all the
    information given in the premises
  • Arguments come in different flavors
  • Deductive
  • Inductive
  • Analogy
  • Particular to general
  • General to particular

http//www.kcmetro.cc.mo.us/longview/ctac/flowpt3.
htm
12
What Do We Do With Arguments?
  • Reconstruct sift out the premises and the
    conclusion and lay bare the logical structure of
    the underlying argument
  • Assess determine whether the premises provide
    sufficient grounds for the conclusion
  • Evaluate - judge whether the premises are true or
    false, clear or vague, and in need of further
    defense or not
  • Identify Fallacies double-check the arguments
    reasoning to see if any fallacies appear

http//www.kcmetro.cc.mo.us/longview/ctac/argument
1.htm
13
Another Way to View Arguments
A R G
  • The premises are all acceptable
  • The premises are relevant to the conclusion
  • The premises supply sufficient or good grounds
    for the conclusion

Trudy Govier's A Practical Study of Argument,
(3rd Ed., Wadsworth Publishing , Belmont,
California 1992) as referenced by Jeff McLaughlin
http//www.cariboo.bc.ca/ae/php/phil/mclaughl/cou
rses/crit/lectures.htm
14
Research
  • Take accurate and complete notes
  • Copy all quotes, statistics, etc. verbatim
  • If you do not quote, paraphrase accurately but in
    your own words
  • Record author, title, page number and note where
    you found the source
  • Clearly indicate when ideas in your notes are
    your own
  • Consider using note cards and limit each card to
    a single point
  • Develop a bibliography even if it is not needed
    for the final paper

15
Plagiarism
Quote
  • What is Plagiarism and Why is it Important?
  • In college courses, we are continually engaged
    with other people's ideas we read them in texts,
    hear them in lecture, discuss them in class, and
    incorporate them into our own writing. As a
    result, it is very important that we give credit
    where it is due. Plagiarism is using others'
    ideas and words without clearly acknowledging the
    source of that information.

End quote
Produced by Writing Tutorial Services, Indiana
University, Bloomington, IN http//www.indiana.edu
/wts/wts/plagiarism.html
16
Plagiarism (contd)
Quote
  • How Can Students Avoid Plagiarism? To avoid
    plagiarism, you must give credit whenever you use
  • another person's idea, opinion, or theory
  • any facts, statistics, graphs, drawings--any
    pieces of information--that are not common
    knowledge
  • quotations of another person's actual spoken or
    written words or
  • paraphrase of another person's spoken or written
    words.

End quote
Produced by Writing Tutorial Services, Indiana
University, Bloomington, IN http//www.indiana.edu
/wts/wts/plagiarism.html
17
Critical Analysis
  • Anticipate readers questions about the strength
    of your argument and supporting evidence
  • Is your argument clearly delineated?
  • Have you left critical assumptions unnamed?
  • Have you acknowledged contextual limitations to
    the universality of your argument?
  • Have you been able to cite evidence or
    justification that draws on sources outside your
    personal beliefs and values?
  • Have you addressed obvious objections to your
    argument or evaluated readily accessible
    counter-evidence?

18
Basic Expository Writing
  • Outline your argument (premises and conclusion)
    before writing
  • Present your conclusion in your thesis statement
    and outline your supporting premises in your
    introduction
  • Write at least one paragraph in support of each
    premise
  • Use transitions to link your premises and to
    structure your argument
  • Write a paragraph summarizing the logic of your
    argument and acknowledging external assumptions
    if necessary
  • Summarize your thesis in your concluding
    paragraph and outline the significance of your
    findings

19
Thesis
Premise 1
Premise 2
Premise 3
Conclusion
20
The First Draft
  • Write one idea per paragraph
  • Follow notes that have been organized logically
  • Go for quantity, not quality
  • Write for revision, not delivery
  • Write freely
  • Write about what is most comfortable first
  • Develop a habit that encourages you to write on a
    regular basis with or without inspiration
  • Identify times when your deep mind is most
    active, and plan to write after those periods

21
Write in Haste, Revise at Leisure
  • Allow 50 of your time for planning, research,
    and writing the first draft
  • Allow the other 50 for revising your paper

22
Rewriting Your Paper
  • When rewriting, consider
  • Your reader
  • Precise language
  • Careful thinking
  • Your own learning rewriting is a great way to
    learn the material
  • To achieve distance when revising your paper,
    try
  • Reading it aloud to yourself
  • Have someone else read it aloud to you
  • Schedule at least one day between revisions, or
    three or four days if possible

23
Rewriting Your Paper (contd)
  • Cut anything that does not contribute to your
    thesis
  • Paste reorder and add new transitions after
    cutting portions
  • Fix words, phrases, sentence structures
  • Prepare adhere to good production values and
    give proper credit
  • Proof check your grammar and confirm that your
    paper features
  • Clear thesis statement
  • Sentences or paragraphs that orient the reader
    introduction, transitions and summary
  • Supporting details specific quotations,
    examples, and statistics
  • Lean sentences
  • Action verbs and concrete, specific nouns

24
Hacker, Diana, The Bedford Handbook, 6th ed.
Boston Bedford/St. Martins Press, 2002.
Link to this PowerPoint Presentation
at http//faculty.mercer.edu/zimmerman_jj/Summer
.htm
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