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The Many Layers of Soil

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The Many Layers of Soil Land Judging . Please use the following websites to train your team http://www.landjudging.com/2009/land_judging_manual_2009.pdf http://www ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Many Layers of Soil


1
The Many Layers of Soil
2
Objectives
  • The students will
  • Define the soil class system
  • Identify the 6 soil layers found in Louisiana
  • Define one characteristic of each layer
  • Distinguish between most intensive use and profit
    vs. land impact

3
Soil Taxonomy
4
Soil Taxonomy
  • Utilizes the concepts of soil as natural bodies
  • Based on observable and measurable soil
    properties
  • Employs a unique nomenclature that connotes the
    major characteristics of the soils in question.

5
Why Classify Soils?
  • Need to make proper land use decisions
  • Need to know what kind of soil this is
  • Need to distinguish one soil from another
  • Communicate with each other about the different
    soils

6
Why Classify Soils Cont? Profit Vs. Land Impact
  • PROFIT
  • When is making money more important than living
    on the land?
  • LAND IMPACT
  • Leaching of important nutrients
  • Nonpoint pollution
  • No-Till Method
  • Organic mulches good or bad

7
Soil Taxonomy Categories
  • Order
  • Suborder
  • Great Group
  • Subgroup
  • Family
  • Series

8
Soil Order
  • All soils belong to one of the twelve soil
    orders which are differentiated from each other
    primarily by the presence or absence of specific
    diagnostic horizons.
  • We will review the soils that are located in
    Louisiana.

9
Inceptisols
  • More development then Entisols
  • Weak B horizon
  • Found in cold, waterlogged climates
  • Few diagnostic features

10
Mollisols
  • Soft, organic rich surface
  • Grassland soils
  • Thick A horizons
  • High OM
  • Very fertile

11
Alfisols
  • Aluminum, Iron and clay found in B horizon
  • Typically (deciduous) forest soils
  • Humid and subhumid climates
  • Water availability much of the growing season

12
Spodisols
  • Grey color of E horizon
  • Sandy and acid forest soils (conifers)
  • High leaching

13
Vertisols
  • High shrink-swell clay content
  • Display deep cracks when dry
  • Found in temperate to tropical climates
  • Very distinct wet and dry season

14
Ultisols
  • Thick A horizon
  • Found in forest
  • vegetation soils
  • Similar to Alfisols but contain more weathered
    minerals

15
Oxisols
  • Highly oxidized throughout profile
  • Highly weathered
  • Mostly Al and Fe oxides
  • Low fertility
  • Sometimes can be found in northern Louisiana

16
Histosols
  • Very organic soils
  • 20 OM at a minimum
  • Develop in wet, cold climates
  • Bogs, marshes and swamps

17
Now its time to match the land.
  • Write the name down of the land usage.

18
  • Very organic soils
  • Develop in wet, cold climates

19
  • Highly oxidized
  • Low fertility

20
  • High shrink swell clay content
  • Displays deep cracks when dry

21
  • Weak B horizon
  • Found in cold, waterlogged climates

22
  • Highly weathered
  • Mostly Al and Fe oxides

23
  • Most recent soil development
  • A horizon only

24
What is a Soil Survey Map?
  • Soil surveys
  • Classify
  • Locate
  • Describe

25
Land Capability Classes
  • Land Capability Classes distinguish soils
    according to their suitability for agriculture
    uses.
  • There are eight classes available for use.

26
Land Capability Classes
  • Class I are suited for cultivation over a long
    period of time and have no limitations that
    restrict their use.
  • They are deep, nearly level, moderately
    permeable, and subject to no more than slight
    erosion.
  • Class II - are suited for cultivation over a long
    period of time, but they have some hazards and
    limitations such as gentle slope, slight erosion,
    or moderate wetness that reduce the choice of
    plants or require moderate conservation practices
    that are easy to apply.

27
Land Capability Classes Cont..
  • Class III - good for cultivated crops, but have
    severe limitations that reduce the choice of
    plants and/or require special conservation
    practices that are more difficult to apply.
  • Terracing and other water control measures will
    be needed.
  • Class IV - can be cultivated, but they have very
    severe limitations that restrict the choice of
    plants, require very careful management, special
    conservation, or both.
  • They are sloping, moderately eroded soils with
    poor characteristics. Cultivated areas should be
    strip tilled, terraced, and farmed on the
    contour. They are best suited for pasture and
    range.

28
Land Capability Classes Cont..
  • Class V - have little or no erosion hazards, but
    have other limitations that make them unsuitable
    for cultivation.
  • Limitations are impractical and very expensive to
    remove and limits their use to pasture, range,
    woodland, or wildlife food and cover.
  • Limitations include very poor surface and
    internal drainage or frequent flooding. (Frequent
    flooding will be shown with other factors when
    it occurs.)
  • Class VI have severe limitations such as steep
    slopes, severe erosion, shallowness, and
    rockiness that make them generally unsuited for
    cultivation and limits their use to pasture or
    range, woodland, or wildlife food and cover.

29
Land Capability Classes Cont..
  • Class VII have many very severe limitations
    similar to Class VI that make them unsuited for
    cultivation and that restrict their use to
    grazing, woodland, or wildlife.
  • Class VIII have limitations that preclude their
    use for crop, pasture, or timber production and
    restrict their use to wildlife, recreation, or
    aesthetics.
  • This land has little or no economic value.

30
Soil Survey Maps
  • A soil survey is a detailed report on the soils
    of an area.
  • The soil survey has maps with soil boundaries and
    photos, descriptions, and tables of soil
    properties and features.
  • Soil surveys are used by farmers, real estate
    agents, land use planners, engineers and others
    who desire information about the soil resource

31
Mapping A Soil Area
  • Soil Scientist walks the land.
  • Frequently stops and probes the land.
  • The scientist takes notes on slope, erosion and
    other interesting factors.
  • The surveyor draws the soil map
  • The NRCS takes aerial photographs on the base map
  • GPSs systems are currently being used.

32
Link to Land Surveys
  • http//soils.usda.gov/survey/online_surveys/louisi
    ana/

33
Land Judging Competition
  • Held annually in November
  • 4 person team lowest score dropped
  • There are seven different areas on the soil card
  • Texture Slope Permeability
  • Depth Erosion Runoff
  • Classes

34
Land Judging. Please use the following websites
to train your team
  • http//www.landjudging.com/2009/land_judging_manua
    l_2009.pdf
  • http//www.laffa.org/main/index.php?optioncom_con
    tentviewarticleid60Itemid59

35
GOOD LUCK
  • ?
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