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Title: European Union


1
EUROPEAN UNION
2
SEQUENCE
  • HISTORY OF EUROPEAN UNION
  • EARLY COOPERATION
  • EUROPEAN COAL AND STEEL COMMUNITY
  • EUROPEAN COOPERATION
  • SINGLR EUROPEAN ACT
  • TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION
  • INSTITUTIONS OF EUROPEAN UNION

3
SEQUENCE
  • ECONOMIC IMPACT OF EUROPEAN UNION
  • SOCIAL IMPACT OF EUROPEAN UNION
  • POLITICAL IMPACT OF EUROPEAN UNION
  • SECURITY PROVIDED BY EUROPEAN UNION
  • EUROPEAN UNION AND AMERICAN TRADE

4
SEQUENCE
  • EUROPEAN UNION AND WORLD AT LARGE
  • SUMMARY
  • CONCLUSION
  • QUESTIONS

5
HISTORY OF EUROPEAN UNION
  • 9TH-CENTURY EMPIRE OF CHARLEMAGNE
  • 1800 THE FRENCH EMPIRE OF NAPOLEON I
  • WORLD WAR II (1939-1945), ADOLF HITLER
  • INTERNATIONAL OR INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORAGANIZATIONS
  • SUPRANATIONAL ORGANIZATION

6
MEMBER STATES WERE REQUIRED TO DELEGATE
SOVEREIGNTY TO COMMON INSTITUTIONS REPRESENTING
THE INTERESTS OF THE UNION AS A WHOLE ON
QUESTIONS OF JOINT INTEREST.
7
CREATION OF EUROPEAN UNION
  • EARLY COOPERATION

8
EARLY COOPERATION
  • POLITICAL MOTIVE
  • THREAT OF WAR BETWEEN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
  • THE LAW OF DEMOCRACY
  • WHERE IT WAS NEITHER A NEW STATE REPLACING THE
    EXISTING ONE NOR IT WAS COMPARABLE TO ANY OTHER
    INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION

9
French statesman Jean Monnet, further believed
that if the nations of Europe were to resume
their dominant role in world affairs, they had to
speak with one voice and have to have their
command resources comparable to those of the
United States.
10
ECONOMIC MOTIVE
  • LARGER MARKETS WOULD PROMOTE INCREASED
    COMPETITION
  • HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY AND STANDARDS OF LIVING

11
ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL VIEWPOINTS MERGED IN THE
ASSUMPTIONS THAT ECONOMIC STRENGTH WAS THE BASIS
OF POLITICAL AND MILITARY POWER, AND THAT A FULLY
INTEGRATED EUROPEAN ECONOMY WOULD MAKE CONFLICTS
BETWEEN EUROPEAN NATIONS LESS LIKELY
12
BENELUX CUSTOMS UNION
  • BENELUX ECONOMIC UNION

13
BENELUX CUSTOMS UNION
  • BELGIUM
  • NETHERLANDS
  • LUXEMBOURG
  • COMMON TARIFF IMPOSED ON GOODS FROM OUTSIDE THE
    UNION

14
European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)
15
European Coal and Steel Community
  • EUROPEAN INTEGRATION TOOK PLACE IN 1950
  • THE INTEGRATION OF THE FRENCH AND GERMAN COAL AND
    STEEL INDUSTRIES
  • SCHUMAN'S MOTIVES WERE AS MUCH POLITICAL AS
    ECONOMIC
  • ESPECIALLY THE ARMAMENTS INDUSTRY

16
European Coal and Steel Community
  • THE SCHUMAN PLAN
  • LEVELS OF PRODUCTION AND PRICES
  • GERMAN INDUSTRY UNDER SURVEILLANCE AND CONTROL
  • WEST GERMANY
  • BENELUX NATIONS AND ITALY
  • BRITAIN DECLINED TO JOIN

17
European Coal and Steel Community
  • THE TREATY ESTABLISHING THE ECSC WAS SIGNED IN
    1951
  • ELIMINATION OF TARIFFS AND QUOTAS
  • IRON ORE
  • COAL
  • COKE
  • STEEL
  • A COMMON EXTERNAL TARIFF
  • PRODUCTION AND SALES

18
European Coal and Steel Community
  • A HIGH AUTHORITY WITH EXECUTIVE POWERS
  • A COUNCIL OF MINISTERS TO SAFEGUARD THE INTERESTS
    OF THE MEMBER STATES
  • A COMMON ASSEMBLY WITH ADVISORY AUTHORITY ONLY
  • A COURT OF JUSTICE TO SETTLE DISPUTES

19
European Economic Community (EEC)
20
EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY
  • IN 1957 THE PARTICIPANTS IN THE ECSC SIGNED TWO
    MORE TREATIES IN ROME
  • THE EUROPEAN ATOMIC ENERGY COMMUNITY (EURATOM)
  • EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (EEC, OFTEN REFERRED
    TO AS THE COMMON MARKET)

21
EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY
  • MEMBER NATIONS AGREED TO IMPLEMENT COMMON
    POLICIES REGARDING
  • TRANSPORTATION
  • AGRICULTURE
  • SOCIAL INSURANCE
  • FREE MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE AND FUNDS WITHIN THE
    BOUNDARIES OF THE COMMUNITY

22
EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY
  • ECSC, EEC, AND EURATOM WOULD BE SERVED BY
  • A SINGLE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
  • REPRESENTATIVE ASSEMBLY
  • COURT OF JUSTICE

23
EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY
  • BRITAIN
  • NORWAY
  • SWEDEN
  • DENMARK
  • SWITZERLAND
  • AUSTRIA
  • PORTUGAL
  • EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION (EFTA)

24
EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY
  • IN 1961, BRITAIN BEGAN NEGOTIATIONS TOWARD EEC
    MEMBERSHIP
  • IN JANUARY 1963,FRENCH PRESIDENT CHARLES DE
    GAULLE VETOED BRITISH MEMBERSHIP
  • DE GAULLE VETOED BRITISH ADMITTANCE A SECOND TIME
    IN 1967

25
European Community (EC)
26
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY (EC)
  • IN JULY 1967 THE THREE ORGANIZATIONS
  • EEC
  • ECSC
  • EURATOM
  • EUROPEAN COMMUNITY (EC)
  • 1968 ALL TARIFFS BETWEEN MEMBER STATES WERE
    ELIMINATED

27
European Community (EC)
  • DE GAULLE RESIGNED AS PRESIDENT OF FRANCE IN MAY
    1969
  • GEORGES POMPIDOU
  • HAGUE, THE NETHERLANDS, IN DECEMBER 1969.
  • PERMANENT FINANCING ARRANGEMENT FOR THE EC
  • FOREIGN POLICY COOPERATION AMONG THE MEMBER
    NATIONS
  • BRITAIN, IRELAND, DENMARK, AND NORWAY

28
Expansion of the European Community (EC)
29
Expansion of the European Community
  • IN 1972,IT WAS AGREED THAT THE FOUR APPLICANT
    COUNTRIES WOULD BE ADMITTED ON JANUARY 1,1973
  • BRITAIN,
  • IRELAND,
  • DENMARK
  • PEOPLE OF NORWAY VOTED AGAINST MEMBERSHIP

30
Single European Act (SEA)
31
SINGLE EUROPEAN ACT (SEA)
  • BY THE 1980S, EVEN THOUGH IT HAD EXISTED FOR MORE
    THAN 30 YEARS,
  • A UNITED STATES OF EUROPE.
  • ON TRADE WITHIN THE EC
  • IN ELIMINATING INTERNAL CUSTOMS FRONTIERS

32
SINGLE EUROPEAN ACT (SEA)
  • GREECE IN 1981
  • SPAIN
  • PORTUGAL IN 1986
  • WEAKER ECONOMIES
  • IRELAND THEIR SHARE OF FUNDS WOULD BE REDUCED

33
SINGLE EUROPEAN ACT (SEA)
  • IN 1985 THE NEXT STEP TOWARD GREATER INTEGRATION
  • IN FEBRUARY 1986 THEY SIGNED THE SINGLE EUROPEAN
    ACT (SEA)
  • AMENDMENTS AND ADDITIONS TO THE EXISTING EC
    TREATIES
  • MORE THAN 300 MEASURES TO REMOVE
  • PHYSICAL
  • TECHNICAL
  • FISCAL BARRIERS
  • TO ESTABLISH A SINGLE MARKET

34
SINGLE EUROPEAN ACT (SEA)
  • MEMBER STATES AGREED TO ADOPT COMMON POLICIES AND
    STANDARDS ON MATTERS RANGING FROM
  • TAXES AND EMPLOYMENT
  • HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT
  • EACH MEMBER STATE ALSO RESOLVED TO BRING ITS
    ECONOMIC AND MONETARY POLICIES IN LINE WITH THOSE
    OF ITS NEIGHBORS

35
CREATION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
36
CREATION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
  • IN THE LATE 1980S INCREASE COOPERATION AND
    INTEGRATION
  • COMMUNISM CRUMBLED IN EASTERN EUROPE
  • EC FOR POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE
  • EAST GERMANY, WHICH WAS AUTOMATICALLY
    INCORPORATED INTO THE EC AFTER GERMAN
    REUNIFICATION

37
CREATION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
  • WEST GERMANY AND FRANCE
  • INTERGOVERNMENTAL CONFERENCE (IGC)
  • EARLIER IN 1989, ANOTHER IGC WAS ESTABLISHED
  • A SINGLE CURRENCY
  • BRITISH PRIME MINISTER MARGARET THATCHER
  • 1990 JOHN MAJOR BECAME PRIME MINISTER
  • TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION

38
TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION
39
TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION
  • OFTEN CALLED THE MAASTRICHT TREATY, SIGNED IN
    1991
  • POLITICAL
  • ECONOMIC
  • SOCIAL
  • IT COMMITTED THE EU TO ECONOMIC AND MONETARY
    UNION (EMU)
  • UNIFY THEIR ECONOMIES AND ADOPT A SINGLE CURRENCY
    BY 1999

40
TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION
  • FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY
  • TO ENCOURAGE GREATER GOVERNMENTAL COOPERATION ON
  • JUDICIAL AND POLICE MATTERS
  • THE MEMBER STATES GRANTED THE EU GOVERNING BODIES
    MORE AUTHORITY IN SEVERAL AREAS, INCLUDING THE
  • ENVIRONMENT
  • EDUCATION
  • HEALTH
  • CONSUMER PROTECTION.

41
TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION
  • MANY PEOPLE WERE WORRIED ABOUT EMU
  • BRITAIN GAINED EXEMPTIONS CALLED OPT-OUTS
  • THESE INCLUDED NOT JOINING EMU
  • NOT PARTICIPATING IN THE SOCIAL CHAPTER
  • SOCIAL AND EMPLOYMENT POLICY, INCLUDING A COMMON
    CODE OF WORKERS RIGHTS

42
TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION
  • DANISH VOTERS TURNED DOWN RATIFICATION IN A
    REFERENDUM
  • FRENCH VOTERS FAVORED THE TREATY BY ONLY A SLIM
    MAJORITY
  • GERMANY A CHALLENGE TO THE TREATY WAS LODGED WITH
    THE COUNTRYS SUPREME COURT, SAYING THAT
    MEMBERSHIP IN THE EU VIOLATED GERMANYS
    CONSTITUTION

43
TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION
  • DENMARK GAINED SUBSTANTIAL CONCESSIONS AND
    EXEMPTIONS, INCLUDING THE RIGHT TO OPT OUT OF
    BOTH EMU AND ANY FUTURE COMMON DEFENSE POLICY
  • DANISH VOTERS THEN APPROVED THE TREATY IN A
    SUBSEQUENT REFERENDUM

44
Because of these problems, the EU was not
formally inaugurated until November 1st 1993
45
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46
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47
AMSTERDAM TREATY
48
AMSTERDAM TREATY
  • INTERGOVERNMENTAL CONFERENCE AMONG EU LEADERS
    THAT BEGAN IN MARCH 1996
  • THIS IGC PRODUCED THE AMSTERDAM TREATY
  • REVISED THE MAASTRICHT TREATY AND OTHER FOUNDING
    EU DOCUMENTS

49
AMSTERDAM TREATY
  • THE AMSTERDAM TREATY CALLED ON MEMBER NATIONS TO
    COOPERATE IN CREATING
  • JOBS THROUGHOUT EUROPE,
  • PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT,
  • IMPROVING PUBLIC HEALTH,
  • AND SAFEGUARDING CONSUMER RIGHTS

50
AMSTERDAM TREATY
  • TREATY PROVIDED FOR THE REMOVAL OF BARRIERS TO
    TRAVEL AND IMMIGRATION AMONG THE EU MEMBER STATES
  • EXCEPT FOR BRITAIN, IRELAND AND DENMARK
  • POTENTIAL FOR COOPERATION AND INTEGRATION WITH
    THE WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION (WEU)
  • ADMITTING EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES TO THE EU

51
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52
INSTITUTIONS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
  • EUROPEAN COMMISSION
  • COUNCILE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
  • COURT OF JUSTICE
  • COURT OF AUDITORS
  • EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK
  • ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE
  • COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS
  • EUROPEAN INVESTMENT BANK
  • EUROPEAN OMBUDSMAN

53
EUROPEAN COMMISSION
  • THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION IS THE HIGHEST
    ADMINISTRATIVE BODY IN THE EU.
  • IT INITIATES, IMPLEMENTS, AND SUPERVISES POLICY.
  • IT IS ALSO RESPONSIBLE FOR THE GENERAL FINANCIAL
    MANAGEMENT OF THE EU
  • FOR ENSURING THAT MEMBER STATES ADHERE TO EU
    DECISIONS

54
COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
  • THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (FORMERLY
    CALLED THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS) REPRESENTS
    NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS
  • IT IS THE PRIMARY DECISION-MAKING AUTHORITY OF
    THE EU
  • THE MOST IMPORTANT AND POWERFUL EU BODY

55
EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT (EP)
  • IT IS MADE UP OF 626 MEMBERS
  • IT WAS ORIGINALLY DESIGNED MERELY AS AN ADVISORY
    BODY
  • IT MUST BE CONSULTED ABOUT MATTERS RELATING TO
    THE EU BUDGET WHICH IT CAN REJECT
  • IT CAN REMOVE THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION AS A BODY
    THROUGH A VOTE OF NO CONFIDENCE
  • IT CAN VETO THE ACCESSION OF MEMBER STATES

56
EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE
  • THE EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE (ECJ) IS THE
    JUDICIAL ARM OF THE EU
  • EACH MEMBER COUNTRY APPOINTS ONE JUDGE TO THE
    COURT
  • THE ECJ IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE LAW THAT THE EU
    ESTABLISHES FOR ITSELF AND ITS MEMBER STATES

57
EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE
  • IT ALSO ENSURES THAT OTHER EU INSTITUTIONS AND
    THE MEMBER STATES CONFORM WITH THE PROVISIONS OF
    EU TREATIES AND LEGISLATION
  • THE COURT HAS NO DIRECT LINKS WITH NATIONAL
    COURTS
  • AND NO CONTROL OVER HOW THEY APPLY AND INTERPRET
    NATIONAL LAW
  • BUT IT HAS ESTABLISHED THAT EU LAW SUPERSEDES
    NATIONAL LAW

58
COURT OF AUDITORS
  • IT IS MADE UP OF 15 MEMBERS
  • IT OVERSEES THE FINANCES OF EU
  • ENSURES ALL THAT ALL FINANCIAL TRANSACTION ARE
    CARRIED OUT ACCORDING TO THE EU BUDDGET AND LAWS

59
EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK (ECB)
  • THE EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK (ECB) BEGAN OPERATIONS
    IN 1998.
  • IT IS OVERSEEN BY A SIX-MEMBER EXECUTIVE BOARD
  • INCLUDES THE ECB PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT

60
EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK (ECB)
  • IT HAS EXCLUSIVE AUTHORITY FOR EUROPEAN UNION
    MONETARY POLICY, INCLUDING SUCH THINGS AS
  • SETTING INTEREST RATES AND
  • REGULATING THE MONEY SUPPLY
  • IT PLAYED AND CONTINUES TO PLAY A MAJOR ROLE IN
    OVERSEEING THE INAUGURATION AND CONSOLIDATION OF
    THE EURO AS THE SINGLE EU CURRENCY

61
EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE
  • THE COMMITTEE HAS TO BE CONSULTED ON MATTERS
    RELATING TO ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL POLICY
  • IT MAY ALSO ISSUE OPINIONS ON ITS OWN INITIATIVE
    ON OTHER MATTERS WHICH IT CONSIDERS TO BE
    IMPORTANT

62
COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS
  • IT HAS TO BE CONSULTED ON MATTERS CONCERNING
  • REGIONAL POLICY
  • ENVIRONMENT
  • EDUCATION
  • IT IS COMPOSED OF REPRESENTATIVES OF REGIONAL AND
    LOCAL AUTHORITIES

63
EUROPEAN INVESTMENT BANK
  • THE EUROPEAN INVESTMENT BANK (EIB) IS THE
    EUROPEAN UNION'S FINANCIAL INSTITUTION
  • IT FINANCES INVESTMENT PROJECTS WHICH CONTRIBUTE
    TO THE BALANCED DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNION

64
EUROPEAN OMBUDSMAN
  • ALL INDIVIDUALS OR ENTITIES (INSTITUTIONS OR
    BUSINESSES) RESIDENT IN THE UNION CAN APPLY TO
    THE EUROPEAN OMBUDSMAN
  • IF THEY CONSIDER THAT THEY HAVE BEEN HARMED BY AN
    ACT OF "MALADMINISTRATION" BY AN EU INSTITUTION
    OR BODY.

65
ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND THE SECURITY
ORIENTATION OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
66
SOCIAL IMPACT
  • APPROPRIATE ACTION TO COMBAT DISCRIMINATION
  • SEX
  • RACE
  • ETHNIC ORIGIN
  • RELIGION
  • BELIEF
  • DISABILITY
  • AGE
  • SEXUAL ORIENTATION

67
SOCIAL IMPACT
  • EUROPEAN CITIZEN
  • "CITIZENSHIP OF THE UNION IS HEREBY ESTABLISHED.
    EVERY PERSON HOLDING THE NATIONALITY OF A MEMBER
    STATE SHALL BE A CITIZEN OF THE UNION.
    CITIZENSHIP OF THE UNION SHALL COMPLEMENT AND NOT
    REPLACE NATIONAL CITIZENSHIP" (ARTICLE 17 OF THE
    TREATY ESTABLISHING THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY).

68
SOCIAL IMPACT
  • FOUR SPECIFIC RIGHTS ON ALL NATIONALS OF EU
    MEMBER STATES-
  • (a) THE RIGHT TO MOVE FREELY AND TO STAY IN THE
    TERRITORY OF MEMBER STATES
  • (b) THE RIGHT TO VOTE AND TO STAND AS A
    CANDIDATE IN LOCAL AND EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT
    ELECTIONS IN THE MEMBER STATE OF RESIDENCE

69
SOCIAL IMPACT
  • (C) ENTITLEMENT TO PROTECTION, IN A NON-EU
    COUNTRY IN WHICH A CITIZEN'S OWN MEMBER STATE IS
    NOT REPRESENTED, BY THE DIPLOMATIC OR CONSULAR
    AUTHORITIES OF ANY OTHER MEMBER STATE
  • (D) THE RIGHT TO PETITION THE EUROPEAN
    PARLIAMENT AND TO APPLY TO THE EUROPEAN OMBUDSMAN

70
SOCIAL REFORMS
  • (a) FIGHT AGAINST DRUGS
  • (b) FIGHT AGAINST FRAUD
  • (c) FIGHT AGAINST INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME
    AND MONEY-LAUNDERING
  • (d) FIGHT AGAINST RACISM AND XENOPHOBIA
  • (e) FIGHT AGAINST TERRORISM
  • (f) CIVIL PROTECTION, ENERGY AND TOURISM
  • (g) COMMON TRANSPORT POLICY

71
SOCIAL REFORMS
  • (h) CONSUMER PROTECTION
  • (I) CULTURE COOPERATION
  • (J) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
  • (K) HEALTH
  • (L) CONSUMER RIGHTS
  • (M) COMPETITION
  • (N) SAFETY IN THE TRANSPORT INDUSTRY
  • (O) EDUCATION
  • (P) CULTURE

72
THE POLITICAL IMPACT
73
THE POLITICAL IMPACT
  • SINGLE EUROPEAN ACT WAS SIGNED IN 1986
  • EUROPEAN POLITICAL COOPERATION (EPC) BETWEEN EC
    MEMBER STATES
  • FORUM FOR MUTUAL CONSULTATION AND COORDINATION AT
    INTERGOVERNMENTAL LEVEL
  • RESPONSIBILITY OF THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL AND THE
    FOREIGN MINISTERS

74
THE POLITICAL IMPACT
  • MEMBER STATES TO ADOPT A COMMON POSITION WITHIN
    INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, SUCH AS THE UNITED
    NATIONS
  • HAS PROVED USEFUL IN ENSURING A CONSISTENT
    APPROACH TO FOREIGN POLICY

75
THE POLITICAL IMPACT
  • COLLAPSE OF THE WARSAW PACT
  • THE UNIFICATION OF GERMANY
  • THE DISINTEGRATION OF THE SOVIET UNION
  • THE RESURGENCE OF NATIONALIST TENSIONS
  • CIVIL WAR
  • THE BREAK-UP OF YUGOSLAVIA
  • THE MEMBER STATES DECIDED TO MAKE A MAJOR MOVE ON
    POLITICAL COOPERATION

76
THE COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY
  • (CFSP)

77
THE COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY (CFSP)
  • THE OBJECTIVES
  • (a) TO SAFEGUARD THE COMMON VALUES, FUNDAMENTAL
    INTERESTS AND INDEPENDENCE OF THE UNION.
  • (b) TO STRENGTHEN THE SECURITY OF THE UNION AND
    ITS MEMBER STATES IN ALL WAYS.
  • (c) TO PRESERVE PEACE AND STRENGTHEN
    INTERNATIONAL SECURITY.

78
THE COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY (CFSP)
  • (d) TO PROMOTE INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION.
  • (e) TO DEVELOP AND CONSOLIDATE DEMOCRACY AND THE
    RULE OF LAW, AND RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS AND
    FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS.

79
THE COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY (CFSP)
  • 1. "COOPERATION BETWEEN THE MEMBER STATES IN
    CONDUCTING THEIR POLICY"
  • 2. "BY GRADUALLY IMPLEMENTING COMMON MEASURES
    IN AREAS WHERE THE MEMBER STATES SHARE COMMON
    INTERESTS
  • MEMBER STATES ARE MUTUALLY INFORMED AND CONSULTED
    ON ANY MATTER OF GENERAL INTEREST IN THE CFSP
    CONTEXT

80
THE COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY (CFSP)
  • MEMBER STATES' NATIONAL POLICIES AND THEIR
    POSITION IN INTERNATIONAL CIRCLES
  • THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL RETAINS ITS ULTIMATE
    AUTHORITY
  • JOINT ACTION BY 15
  • FOR IMPLEMENTING JOINT ACTION BY A QUALIFIED
    MAJORITY

81
THE COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY (CFSP)
  • AIM TO ALLIGN ACTIONS BY THE MEMBER STATE
  • INTERNATIONAL EVENTS IN JOINT STATEMENT
  • COMMUNITY AND ITERGOVERNMENTAL PROCEDURES EXIST
    SIDE BY SIDE

82
THE COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY (CFSP)
  • CFSP IS A PILLAR OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
  • ENCOMPASSES EVERY AREA OF FOREIGN POLICY,
    INCLUDING SECURITY
  • SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTIC OF DEFENSE AND SECURITY
    POLICY OF CERTAIN MEMBER

83
THE COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY (CFSP)
  • France and united kingdom specific defense policy
    as nuclear power
  • "Common strategies
  • Implemented by "joint action and common
    positions"

84
THE COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY (CFSP)
  • "POLICY PLANNING AND EARLY WARNING UNIT"
  • MONITOR AND ANALYSE DEVELOPMENTS IN CFSP
  • ASSESSMENTS AND EARLY WARNINGS
  • REPERCUSSIONS ON THE CFSP

85
ECONOMIC IMPACT
86
ECONOMIC IMPACT
  • TREATY OF ROME OF PROMOTING HARMONIOUS
    DEVELOPMENT
  • ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
  • CONTINUOUS
  • BALANCED EXPANSION
  • INCREASED STABILITY

87
ECONOMIC IMPACT
  • A RAPID RISE IN LIVING STANDARDS
  • CLOSER RELATIONS BETWEEN ITS MEMBER STATES
  • "BY ESTABLISHING A COMMON MARKET AND
    PROGRESSIVELY APPROXIMATING THE ECONOMIC POLICIES
    OF MEMBER STATES".

88
ECONOMIC IMPACT
  • FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT FOR INDIVIDUALS, GOODS,
    SERVICES AND CAPITAL
  • TO MONITOR THE BEHAVIOR OF FIRMS AND PROTECT THE
    INTERESTS OF CONSUMERS
  • MANAGED AND FINANCED BY COMMUNITY
  • STRONGER ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COHESION WAS A SINE
    QUA NON FOR SOLIDARITY BETWEEN THE MEMBER STATES

89
REGIONALPOLICY
  • SOCIAL POLICY

90
REGIONAL POLICY
  • FEBRUARY 1988
  • 14 BILLION A YEAR
  • NEW ACTIVITIES IN INDUSTRIAL AREA
  • LONG TERM UNEMPLOYMENT
  • EASIER FOR YOUNG PEOPLE TO FIND JOBS
  • MODERNIZING AGRICULTURE
  • ASSISTING RURAL AREAS

91
REGIONAL POLICY
  • THE EUROPEAN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT FUND (ERDF)
  • THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND (ESF)
  • THE EUROPEAN AGRICULTURAL GUIDANCE AND GUARANTEE
    FUND (EAGGF)
  • THE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENT FOR FISHERIES GUIDANCE
    (FIFG)
  • AND IS INTENDED TO SUPPLEMENT OR STIMULATE
    EFFORTS BY GOVERNMENTS, REGIONS OR PRIVATE
    INVESTORS

92
REGIONAL POLICY
  • 1993-1999 FUNDS OF 200 BILLION
  • STRUCTURAL AND COHESION
  • EUROPEAN FUNDS KEY INSTRUMENT OF ECONOMIC AND
    SOCIAL POLICY
  • INTRA-COMMUNITY SOLIDARITY

93
SOCIAL POLICY
  • THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL FEDERATION WAS SET UP IN 1961
  • TO HELP CREATE JOBS AND PROMOTE VOCATIONAL AND
    GEOGRAPHICAL MOBILITY IN INDUSTRIES
  • MAASTRICHT DECEMBER 1991
  • CHARTER OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

94
SOCIAL POLICY
  • THE RIGHTS TO BE ENJOYED BY WORKERS THROUGHOUT
    THE COMMUNITY
  • FREE MOVEMENT
  • FAIR PAY
  • BETTER WORKING CONDITIONS
  • SOCIAL SECURITY PROTECTION
  • FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION AND COLLECTIVE BARGAINING

95
SOCIAL POLICY
  • VOCATIONAL TRAINING
  • EQUAL TREATMENT FOR MEN AND WOMEN
  • INFORMATION
  • INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY
  • HEALTH PROTECTION
  • SAFETY AT THE WORKPLACE
  • PROTECTION OF CHILDREN, THE ELDERLY AND THE
    DISABLED

96
EMPLOYMENT POLICY
  • MORE ACTIVE POLICY ON JOBS
  • FIFTEEN HAVE STRUCTURAL UNEMPLOYMENT WHICH IN
    1997 AFFECTED 17.9 MILLION PEOPLE
  • AMSTERDAM TREATY A NEW CHAPTER ON EMPLOYMENT
  • PRIORITY IN UNIONS ECONOMIC POLICY

97
EMPLOYMENT POLICY
  • LUXEMBOURG ON 20 AND 21 NOVEMBER 1997
  • VOCATIONAL TRAINING
  • ASSISTANCE IN SETTING UP BUSINESSES
  • IMPROVING SOCIAL DIALOGUE
  • GUIDE LINES FOR JOBS WERE SET
  • EVALUATING RESULTS

98
FINANCING THE COMMON POLICIES
  • 12 DECEMBER 1992 EDINBURGH EUROPEAN COUNCIL
    ADOPTED THE FINANCIAL PERSPECTIVE FOR 1993-99
  • INCREASES THE COMMUNITY BUDGET FROM 69 BILLION IN
    1993 TO 84 BILLION IN 1999
  • THREE KEY OBJECTIVES

99
FINANCING THE COMMON POLICIES
  • EXPANDING EXTERNAL ACTION IN LINE WITH THE
    COMMUNITY'S NEW RESPONSIBILITIES IN WORLD AFFAIRS
  • STRENGTHENING ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COHESION
  • IMPROVING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF EUROPEAN
    BUSINESS

100
FINANCING THE COMMON POLICIES
  • DECISION OF MAASTRICHT INTO PRACTICE
  • COHESION FUND TO HELP
  • GREECE
  • IRELAND
  • PORTUGAL
  • SPAIN
  • PROMOTION OF RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGICAL
    DEVELOPMENT

101
FINANCING THE COMMON POLICIES
  • STEPS TO STRENGTHEN SOCIAL POLICY
  • PROMOTE VOCATIONAL TRAINING
  • DEVELOPMENTS OF INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORKS

102
FINANCING THE COMMON POLICIES
  • BUDGET OF 2000-2006 ANY INCREASE BEYOUND 1.27
    CELLING OF THE GNP
  • PRIME OBJECTIVES
  • OBJECTIVE 1 WILL AFFECT DEVELOPMENT AID FOR
    REGIONS WHERE THE GNP PER INHABITANT IS LESS THAN
    75 OF THE COMMUNITY AVERAGE, AND WILL HAVE A
    GRANT AMOUNTING TO 2/3 OF ALL LOANS

103
FINANCING THE COMMON POLICIES
  • OBJECTIVE 2 WHICH AFFECT THE OTHER REGIONS PREY
    TO STRUCTURAL PROBLEMS
  • OBJECTIVE 3 IS FOCUSED ON DEVELOPING HUMAN
    RESOURCES AND FIGHTING UNEMPLOYMENT

104
REFORM OF THE COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY
  • JUNE 1992 REFORM OF THE COMMON AGRICULTURAL
    POLICY
  • REDUCE COST WHILE MAINTAINING COMPETITIVENESS
  • OBJECTIVES ASSIGNED BY ARTICLE 33 OF EUROPEAN
    COMMUNITY TREATY HAS BEEN ACHIEVED

105
REFORM OF THE COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY
  • TO ENSURE FAIR STANDARD OF LIVING FOR THE
    AGRICULTURAL COMMUNITY
  • TO STABILIZE MARKETS
  • TO ENSURE REASONABLE PRICES FOR CONSUMERS
  • TO MODERNIZE AGRICULTURAL STRUCTURE

106
SECURITY PROVIDED BY EU
107
WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION
  • BRUSSELS TREATY
  • A COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT MADE IN 1948 BETWEEN THE
  • UNITED KINGDOM
  • FRANCE
  • BELGIUM
  • THE NETHERLANDS
  • LUXEMBOURG

108
WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION
  • AMENDED AND MODIFIED IN 1954 CREATING THE WEU
  • ITALY AND WEST GERMANY JOINED THE ORGANIZATION
  • PORTUGAL AND SPAIN ADMITTED IN 1988
  • GREECE IN 1995

109
WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION
  • ORIGINAL AIMS OF THE UNION AS ESTABLISHED IN THE
    BRUSSELS TREATY WERE COLLABORATION IN
  • ECONOMIC
  • SOCIAL
  • CULTURAL MATTERS
  • COLLECTIVE SELF-DEFENSE
  • ITS MILITARY AND DEFENSE OPERATIONS WERE
    INCORPORATED INTO THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY
    ORGANIZATION (NATO)

110
WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION
  • MOST OF THE WEUS ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES ARE NOW
    HANDLED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION (EU)
  • CULTURAL AND SOCIAL ACTIVITIES WERE TRANSFERRED
    TO THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE IN 1960
  • FROM THAT POINT TILL 1980 THE ORGANIZATION WAS
    ESSENTIALLY IN ACTIVE

111
WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION
  • 1980S IT BEGAN TO CREATE A NEW ROLE
  • HARMONIZE MEMBERS' VIEWS ON DEFENSE AND
    DISARMAMENT
  • EAST-WEST RELATIONS
  • ATLANTIC ALLIANCE
  • ITS ROLE WAS FURTHER ENLARGED IN 1992 BY THE
    TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION (THE MAASTRICHT TREATY)

112
WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION
  • THE MAASTRICHT TREATY INCORPORATED THE WEU AS THE
    SECURITY ARM OF THE EUROPEAN UNION
  • THE WEU HAS STRENGTHENED ITS RELATIONS WITH NATO
  • EU AND HAS BEGUN TO TAKE BACK FROM NATO SOME
    RESPONSIBILITY FOR EUROPEAN DEFENSE PLANNING

113
WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION
  • WITH NATO ASSISTANCE, THE WEU HAS CONDUCTED
    MILITARY EXERCISES
  • INCREASED ITS OPERATIONAL CAPABILITY AND
    READINESS
  • TO PERFORM AS THE DEFENSE ARM OF THE EU
  • THE WEU HAS ITS HEADQUARTERS IN BRUSSELS, BELGIUM

114
WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION
  • MAJOR EUROPEAN DEFENSE LIES WITH NATO
  • END OF COLD WAR IN 1989-1990
  • 65000 TROOPS AT AN ANNUAL COST OF AMERICAN TAX
    PAYERS OF NEARLY 90 BILLION
  • UNITED STATES CONTINUE TO ACT AS SECURITY GURANTOR

115
WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION
  • SIZE OF EUROPEAN ECONOMY AND POPULATION
  • AMERICAN EUROPEAN DIFFERENCES ON THE RISE
  • DIFFICULT TO MAKE A POINT IN NATO DUE TO AMERICAN
    INFLUENCE
  • WEU AS NATOS SUCCESSOR

116
EUROPEAN UNION-AMERICAN TRADE
  • HALF THE ENTIRE WORLD ECONOMY
  • TRANSATLANTIC FLOWS OF TRADE AND INVESTMENT
    AMOUNT TO AROUND 1 BILLION A DAY
  • JOINTLY, GLOBAL TRADE ACCOUNTS FOR ALMOST 40 OF
    WORLD TRADE
  • UNITED STATES EUROPE AS AN ALLY
  • A COMMERCIAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL RIVAL
  • THE ONLY ONE WITH WHOM IT HAS BALANCED RELATIONS

117
  EU US
Population (million) 376 273
Area (1000 km2) 3.236 9.809
Population density (inhabitants per km2) 115 29
GDP (billion Euro) 7.809 8.729
GDP per capita (Euro) 20.800 31.987
Trade in goods and services (billion Euro) Trade in goods and services (billion Euro) Trade in goods and services (billion Euro)
Total exports 988 862
Total imports 952 1.132
Balance 36 270
Exports as share of total world exports 20 18
Imports as share of total world imports 19 22
118
  Partner of total EU-exports
1 USA 24,1
2 Switzerland 8,2
3 Japan 4,7
4 Poland 3,8
5 Norway 3,1
6 Turkey 2,7
7 China 2,5
8 Hungary 2,5
9 Czech Rep. 2,4
10 Canada 2,20
119
  Partner of total EU-imports
1 USA 20,5
2 Japan 9,1
3 Switzerland 6,8
4 China 6,4
5 Norway 3,8
6 Russia 3,4
7 Taiwan 2,6
8 South Korea 2,3
9 Poland 2,3
10 Hungary 2,2
120
  1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
EU exports to the US EU exports to the US EU exports to the US EU exports to the US EU exports to the US EU exports to the US EU exports to the US
Value 103 114 141 161 183 232
change year on year 0,4 10,7 23,5 14 13,6 26,5
EU imports from the US EU imports from the US EU imports from the US EU imports from the US EU imports from the US EU imports from the US EU imports from the US
Value 104 113 138 152 161 196
change year on year 3,6 8,9 21,6 10,3 5,6 22,1
Trade balance Trade balance Trade balance Trade balance Trade balance Trade balance Trade balance
Value 1 1 3 9 22 36
121
EUROPEAN UNION-AMERICAN TRADE
  • WHY US DOLLAR() BUSINESSMAN'S CHOICE?
  • AMERICA IS UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
  • EUROPEAN UNION IS UNIFICATION OF 15 DIFFERENT
    COUNTRIES
  • PETRO MONEY

122
EUROPEAN UNION-AMERICAN TRADE
  • HOW EUROPEAN UNION IS TRYING TO BALANCE THE
    INFLUENCE OVER WORLD MARKET?
  • EURO
  • SINGLE CURRENCY FOR THE EUROPE

123
EUROPEAN UNION-AMERICAN TRADE
  • EURO PLANNED 10 DECEMBER 1991
  • 1 JANUARY 1999 BANKS AND BUSINESS TRANSFER TO
    EURO
  • 1 JANUARY 2002 EURO COINS AND NOTES GO INTO
    CIRCULATION
  • 1JULY 2002 STATES OF NATIONAL COINS AND NOTES AS
    LEGAL CURRENCY WAS ABOLISHED

124
EUROPEAN UNION-AMERICAN TRADE
  • ALL THE 15 COUNTRIES DID NOT JOIN EURO
  • TOTAL OF 12 COUNTRIES WHO JOINED EURO
  • UK DIDNT WANT TO JOIN THE EURO
  • COUNTRIES LIKE COULD NOT MEET THE
    CRITERIA FOR EURO

125
EUROPEAN UNION-AMERICAN TRADE
  • WORLD A RESERVE CURRENCY
  • MAY BE THE BUSINESS MEN OF THE WORLD WOULD LIKE
    TO CHANGE SOME OF THEIR DOLLARS WITH EURO
  • IRAQ DEALING HER OIL IN EURO INSTEAD OF DOLLAR
  • CONTINUED AMERICAN HATTERED BY THE MUSLIM WORLD

126
EUROPEAN UNION-AMERICAN TRADE
  • INITIAL SUCCESS OF EURO
  • ALL THE ARAB OIL WAS NO SOONER GOING TO DUPLICATE
    FOR EURO
  • AMERICAN INVASION OVER IRAQ HAS CHANGED THE SCENE
  • TILL DATE EURO IS A SUCCESS
  • WITH AMERICAN PRESENCE IN IRAQ AND ACCESSION OF
    10 NEW COUNTRIES
  • UNPREDICTABLE

127
EU AND THE WORLD AT LARGE
128
11 September
  • EUROPEAN UNION RESPONDED SWIFTLY TO THE ATTACKS
    ON 11 SEPTEMBER 2001
  • PLAN OF ACTION ADOPTED BY A SPECIAL EUROPEAN
    COUNCIL ON THE 21ST SEPTEMBER
  • ALL EU EFFORTS ARE GUIDED BY-
  • (A) CONTINUED SOLIDARITY WITH THE US
  • (B) DETERMINATION IN THE FIGHT AGAINST TERRORISM

129
EU AND THE WORL AT LARGE
  • (C) COMMITMENT TO THE SECURITY OF ALL CITIZENS
    IN THE EU.
  • (D) EFFORTS TO TACKLE ROOT CAUSES OF TERRORISM.
  • (E) CONTRIBUTIONS TO BETTER UNDERSTANDING
    BETWEEN CIVILIZATIONS

130
11 SEPTEMBER
  • Police and judicial co-operation
  • Joint investigation teams of police and
    magistrates from throughout the EU
  • Routine exchange of information about terrorism
    between the Member States and Europol
  • The creation of a specialist anti-terrorist unit
    within Europol
  • The establishment of Eurojust, a co-ordination
    body composed of magistrates, prosecutors and
    police officers
  • Political agreement of the Council on a framework
    directive on the mutual recognition between EU
    Member States judicial authorities on orders for
    the freezing of assets and the preservation of
    evidence

131
CLOSER TRANSATLANTIC CO-OPERATION
  • A CO-OPERATION AGREEMENT BETWEEN EUROPOL AND THE
    RELEVANT US AUTHORITIES WAS SIGNED ON 6 DECEMBER
    2001
  • THE EU IS ALSO ENGAGED IN TALKS WITH THE UNITED
    STATES TO ESTABLISH CLOSER CO-OPERATION WITH
    EUROJUST AND THE RELEVANT US AUTHORITIES
  • EFFORTS ARE UNDERWAY TO INTENSIFY CO-OPERATION IN
    PRACTICAL WAYS ON BORDER CONTROL AND MIGRATION
    MANAGEMENT.

132
CLOSER TRANSATLANTIC CO-OPERATION
  • EU JUSTICE MINISTERS AGREED IN APRIL 2002 TO
    BEGIN NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE US ON CLOSER
    CO-OPERATION ON MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE
  • EFFORTS ARE BEING MADE TO STRENGTHEN CO-OPERATION
    BETWEEN RELEVANT LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITIES IN
    THE US AND IN EACH OF THE EU MEMBER STATES

133
EUROPEAN UNION IN AFGHANISTAN
  • EU IS THE MAIN DONOR HELPING TO REBUILD
    AFGHANISTAN
  • EUROPEAN COMMISSION AND INDIVIDUAL MEMBER STATES
    MAKES EU THE MOST GENEROUS DONOR
  • IN 2002 EU GRANTED 205 MILLION EURO TO HELP
  • FUND THE OPERATION OF 450 PRIMARY SCHOOLS
  • 291 HEALTH CENTERS

134
EUROPEAN UNION IN AFGHANISTAN
  • PROVIDE OVER 3 MILLION PERSON DAYS OF WORK
    THROUGH RURAL RECOVERY AND URBAN REHABILITATION
    PROGRAMMES
  • CO-FINANCE MASSIVE MINES CLEARING OPERATIONS
  • PROVIDE SUBSTANTIAL SUPPORT TO THE GOVERNMENT
    RECURRENT BUDGET. THIS IS ESSENTIAL TO ENSURE KEY
    WORKERS (SUCH AS TEACHERS AND NURSES) ARE PAID

135
EUROPEAN UNION IN AFGHANISTAN
  • CLEAN UP SEVEN CITIES AROUND AFGHANISTAN
  • PREVENTING DISEASES LIKE CHOLERA
  • CREATING JOBS AND HELPING MUNICIPALITIES AND
    COMMUNITIES TO START DELIVERING BASIC SERVICES
  • HERAT, MAZAR, KABUL, KANDAHAR, JALALABAD, BAMYAN
    AND GHAZNI

136
EUROPEAN UNION IN AFGHANISTAN
  • LOOKING AHEAD TO 2003-2004 EU HAS EARMARKED OVER
    400 MILLION EURO
  • CONTINUED RECONSTRUCTION AND RECOVERY ASSISTANCE
  • EU IS ALSO EXPLORING TRADE RELATED TECHNICAL
    ASSISTANCE

137
EU LAUNCHES POLICE MISSION IN BOSNIA AND
HERZEGOVINA
  • ON JANUARY 15TH 2003, THE EUROPEAN UNION POLICE
    MISSION (EUPM) WAS OFFICIALLY INAUGURATED
  • EUS FIRST CIVILIAN CRISES MANAGEMENT OPERATION
  • EU IS SPENDING 47.4M UP TO 2004 TO THE JUSTICE
    AND PROSECUTION REFORMS

138
EU LAUNCHES POLICE MISSION IN BOSNIA AND
HERZEGOVINA
  • 14.89m UP TO 2003 IN TRAINING, TECHNICAL
    ASSISTANCE, RESTRUCTURING AND SOME SUPPLY OF
    EQUIPMENT TO THE POLICE FORCE
  • 9m 2002-2004 ASYLUM AND MIGRATION
  • 71.65 UP TO 2004 IN ASSISTANCE TO ADMINISTRATIVE
    CAPACITY BUILDING TO HELP THE FIGHT AGAINST
    FRAUD, CORRUPTION AND ORGANIZED CRIME

139
ARAB ISRAEIL CONFLICT
  • POLITICAL SUPPORT
  • FREQUENT COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY
    (CFSP) STATEMENTS BY THE EU PRESIDENCY
  • CFSP JOINT ACTION
  • MONITORING OF THE PALESTINIAN ELECTIONS OF EARLY
    1996
  • TRAINING OF PALESTINIAN POLICEMEN

140
ARAB ISRAEIL CONFLICT
  • TRANSATLANTIC DIALOGUE AND COOPERATION ON MEPP
    (MIDDLE EAST PEACE PROCESS)
  • EURO-MEDITERRANEAN CHARTER FOR PEACE AND
    STABILITY
  • SENIOR OFFICIALS OF THE 27 PARTNERS DEALING WITH
    POLITICAL AND SECURITY MATTERS, WILL CONTRIBUTE
    TO MAINTAIN PEACE AND ENSURE STABILITY IN THE
    REGION

141
ARAB ISRAEIL CONFLICT
  • ECONOMIC SUPPORT
  • LARGEST DONOR OF NON-MILITARY AID TO THE MEPP,
    179 MILLION EURO A YEAR
  • IN DIRECT SUPPORT OF THE PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY
  • REFUGEES
  • REGIONAL PEACE

142
ARAB ISRAEIL CONFLICT
  • 50 OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY'S FINANCE FOR
    THE WEST BANK AND GAZA STRIP BETWEEN 1994 AND
    1998
  • TOTAL AID TO THE PALESTINIANS FOR THE PERIOD
    1994-1998 ACCOUNTS FOR 2 BILLION EURO.
  • BILETERAL ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL COOPERATION WITH
    ALL PARTIES INVOLED IN MIDDLE PEACE PROCESS
  • EXCEPT ISRAEL

143
EU AND PAKISTAN
  • EU-RUSSIA SUMMIT ON 29TH MAY 2002
  • TESTS OF MEDIUM AND SMALL RANGE MISSILES
  • EU AND RUSSIA URGED BOTH PAKISTAN AND INDIA TO
    PEACEFULLY RESOLVE THE KASHMIR CRISES
  • CHRIS PATTEN, VISITED PAKISTAN AND INDIA ON
    22ND-24TH MAY 2002 AND SIGNED 50 MILLION EURO
    FINANCING AGREEMENT

144
EU AND PAKISTAN
  • THE PAKISTANI ROADMAP FOR DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS IN
    OCTOBER
  • EU'S ASSISTANCE TO PAKISTAN UP TO 100 MILLION
    IN 2001/2002
  • THE COMMISSION PRESENTED A PACKAGE OF TRADE
    MEASURES DESIGNED TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE ACCESS
    FOR PAKISTANI EXPORTS TO THE EU

145
EU AND PAKISTAN
  • ALSO IT REMOVED ALL TARIFFS ON CLOTHING
  • INCREASE QUOTAS FOR PAKISTANI TEXTILE AND
    CLOTHING BY 15
  • IN RETURN PAKISTAN WILL IMPROVE ACCESS TO ITS
    MARKETS FOR EU CLOTHING AND TEXTILE

146
EU AND IRAQ
  • (a) UNSCR 661 of 6 August 1990, sanctions regime.
  • (b) UNSCR 687 of 3 April 1991, UNSCOM inspection
    and monitoring instrument
  • (c) UNSCR 968 of 14 April 1995, the first
    oil-for-food facility allowing oil sale for up to
    US 2 billion/180 days
  • (d) UNSCR 1284 of 17.12.1999, suspending economic
    sanctions on condition that Iraq complies with
    the new monitoring system (UNMOVIC)
  • (e) UNSCR 1330 of 3.12.2000, the latest renewal
    of oil-for-food facility/180 days providing more
    flexibility in spending oil revenues and without
    any ceiling

147
EU AND IRAQ
  • GULF WAR 1991 EU MAJOR DONOR OF HUMANITARIAN AID
    TO IRAQ, WITH 258.6 MILLION EURO
  • FULL IMPLEMENTATION OF OIL FOR FOOD DEAL WOULD
    STOP OUT SIDE ASSISTANCE
  • US 24 BILLION IN DECEMBER 1996, ONLY 28 (US
    6.9 BILLION) HAS REACHED THE IRAQI POPULATION

148
EU AND IRAQ
  • US 2.6 BILLION HAVE BEEN PUT ON HOLD
  • CONTINUED HUMANITARIAN AID AS A COMPLEMENT TO OIL
    FOR FOOD PROGRAMME
  • EU ALLOCATION HAS BEEN IN THE ORDER OF EURO 8- 10
    MILLION PER YEAR, IN 2001 AN AMOUNT OF UP TO 12
    MILLION WAS GRANTED

149
EU STANCE OVER IRAQ CRISES
  • EU MEMBERS MET WITH KOFI ANNAN
  • EU OBJECTIVE FULL AND EFFECTIVE DISARMAMENT
  • UNSC RESOLUTION 1441
  • ENCOURAGE ARAB LEADERS TO COMPELL SADDAM HUSSAIN
    TO COMPLY WITH UNSC RESOLUTION 1441

150
EU STANCE OVER IRAQ CRISES
  • 12 MARCH, 2003 AT STRASBOURG, FRANCE
  • EU UNWILLING TO FUND IRAQ RECONSTRUCTION
  • MILLITARY ACTION WITHOUT UN BACKING IS GOING TO
    DO A GREAT HARM TO
  • UNITED NATIONS
  • NATO
  • TRANSATLANTIC RELATIONS

151
EU STANCE OVER IRAQ CRISES
  • WARNED WASHINGTON THAT DEMOCRACY COULD NOT BE
    IMPOSED ON THE BARREL OF A GUN
  • IRAQ WAR IS LIKELY TO FAN TERRORISM
  • UNITED STATES FAILED TO WORK HARDER FOR ISRAELI
    PALESTINE PEACE

152
EU STANCE OVER IRAQ CRISES
  • IT WILL BE THAT MUCH MORE DIFFICULT FOR THE EU
    TO COOPERATE FULLY AND ON THE LARGE SCALEALSO IN
    LONG TERM RECONSTRUCTION PROCESSIF EVENTS UNFOLD
    WITHOUT UN COVER AND IF THE EU MEMBER STATES
    REMAIN DIVIDED

153
FUTURE DEVELOPMENT
  • EU HAS ACCEPTED 10 NEW STATES NAMELY ESTONIA,
    LATVIA, LITHUANIA, POLAND, CZECH REPUBLIC,
    SLOVAKIA, HUNGARY, SLOVENIA, MALTA AND CYPRUS
  • BUT THE FUTURE OF THIS BIGGER UNION STILL REMAINS
    A BIG QUESTION MARK.

154
CONCLUSION
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