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BUDDHISM

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Title: BUDDHISM


1
BUDDHISM
  • FOUNDER, CASTE PROBLEM, GEOGRAPHIC DISPERSMENT,
    SACRED SCRIPTURES, VOCABULARY, BUDDHIST SCHOOLS,
    BASIC TEACHINGS, SYMBOLS, AND DEITIES

2
FOUNDER
  • Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha, was born
    in the sixth century BC in what is now modern
    Nepal. His father, Suddhodana, was the ruler of
    the Sakya people and Siddhartha grew up living
    the extravagant life of a young prince.
  • According to custom, he married at the young age
    of sixteen to a girl named Yasodhara. His father
    had ordered that he live a life of total
    seclusion, but one day Siddhartha ventured out
    into the world and was confronted with the
    reality of the inevitable suffering of life.
  • The next day, at the age of twenty-nine, he left
    his kingdom and newborn son to lead an ascetic
    life and determine a way to relieve universal
    suffering.

3
FOUNDER
  • The birthplace of the Gautama Buddha, Lumbini, is
    the Mecca of every Buddhist, being one of the
    four holy places of Buddhism the sites of his
    birth, enlightenment, first discourse, and death.

4
FOUNDER
  • For six years, Siddhartha submitted himself to
    rigorous ascetic practices, studying and
    following different methods of meditation with
    various religious teachers. But he was never
    fully satisfied.
  • One day, however, he was offered a bowl of rice
    from a young girl and he accepted it. In that
    moment, he realized that physical austerities
    were not the means to achieve liberation.
  • From then on, he encouraged people to follow a
    path of balance rather than extremism. He called
    this The Middle Way.

5
FOUNDER
  • That night Siddhartha sat under the Bodhi tree,
    and meditated until dawn.
  • He purified his mind of all defilements and
    attained enlightenment at the age of thirty-five,
    thus earning the title Buddha, or "Enlightened
    One".
  • For the remainder of his eighty years, the Buddha
    preached the Dharma in an effort to help other
    sentient beings reach enlightenment.

6
FOUNDER
  • One happy morning, while he was deeply absorbed
    in meditation, unaided and unguided by any
    supernatural power and solely relying on his
    efforts and wisdom, he eradicated all
    defilements, purified himself, and, realizing
    things as they truly are, attained Enlightenment
    (Buddhahood) at the age of 35.
  • He was not born a Buddha (An Awakened or
    Enlightened One), but he became a Buddha by his
    own striving.
  • As the perfect embodiment of all the virtues he
    preached, endowed with deep wisdom commensurate
    with his boundless compassion.
  • He devoted the remainder of his precious life to
    serve humanity both by example and precept,
    dominated by no personal motive whatever.

7
FOUNDER
  • The Buddha was a human being. As a man he was
    born, as a man he lived, and as a man his life
    came to an end. Though a human being, he became
    an extraordinary man (acchariya manussa), but he
    never arrogated to himself divinity.
  • The Buddha is neither an incarnation of the Hindu
    God Vishnu, as is believed by some, nor is he a
    savior who freely saves others by his personal
    salvation. The Buddha exhorts his disciples to
    depend on themselves for their deliverance, for
    both purity and defilement depend on oneself.

8
FOUNDER
  • Furthermore, the Buddha does not claim the
    monopoly of Buddhahood which, as a matter of
    fact, is not the prerogative of any specially
    graced person. He reached the highest possible
    state of perfection any person could aspire to,
    and without the close-fist of a teacher he
    revealed the only straight path that leads
    thereto.
  • According to the Teaching of the Buddha anybody
    may aspire to that supreme state of perfection if
    he makes the necessary exertion. The Buddha does
    not condemn men by calling them wretched sinners,
    but, on the contrary, he gladdens them by saying
    that they are pure in heart at conception.

9
FOUNDER
  • One who aspires to become a Buddha is called a
    Bodhisatta, which, literally, means a
    wisdom-being.
  • According to Buddhism, this Bodhisatta ideal is
    the most beautiful and the most refined course of
    life that has ever been presented to this
    ego-centric world, for what is nobler than a life
    of service and purity?

10
CASTE PROBLEM
  • Caste, which was a matter of vital importance to
    the brahmins of India, was one of utter
    indifference to the Buddha, who strongly
    condemned the debasing caste system.
  • In his Order of Monks all castes unite as do the
    rivers in the sea. They lose their former names,
    castes, and clans, and become known as members of
    one community, the Sangha.
  • The Buddha freely admitted into the Order people
    from all castes and classes when he knew that
    they were fit to live the holy life, and some of
    them later distinguished themselves in the Order.
  • The Buddha was the only contemporary teacher who
    endeavored to blend in mutual tolerance and
    concord those who hitherto had been rent asunder
    by differences of caste and class.

11
GEOGRAPHIC DISPERSMENT
  • MAP AND STATISTICS

12
COMPARATIVE MAP
13
STATISTICS
14
STATISTICS
15
SACRED SCRIPTURES
  • THE PALI CANON

16
PALI CANON
  • The Tripitaka Sanskrit Pali Tipitaka is the
    Canon of the Buddhists, both Theravada and
    Mahayana.
  • Thus it is possible to speak of several Canons
    such as the Sthaviravada, Sarvastivada and
    Mahayana as well as in term of languages like
    Pali, Chinese and Tibetan.
  • The word is used basically to refer to the
    literature, the authorship of which is directly
    or indirectly ascribed to the Buddha himself.

17
PALI CANON
  • The Pali Canon is the only set of scriptures
    preserved in the language of its composition. It
    is called the Tipitaka or "Three Baskets" because
    it includes the Vinaya Pitaka or "Basket of
    Discipline," the Sutta Pitaka or "Basket of
    Discourses," and the Abhidhamma Pitaka or "Basket
    of Higher Teachings".

18
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19
VINAYA PITAKA
  • The Vinaya Pitaka which is regarded as the sheet
    anchor to the oldest historic celibate order
    the Sangha mainly deals with rules and
    regulations which the Buddha promulgated, as
    occasion arose, for the future discipline of the
    Order of monks (Bhikkhus) and nuns (Bhikkunis)
  • The Vinaya Pitaka consists of the five following
    books
  • (Vibhanga)
  • Parajika Pali Major Offenses
  • Pacittiya Pali Minor Offenses
  • (Khandaka)
  • Mahavagga Pali Greater Section
  • Cullavagga Pali Shorter Section
  • Parivara Pali Epitome of the Vinaya

20
SUTTA PITAKA
  • The Sutta Pitaka consists chiefly of discourses,
    delivered by the Buddha himself on various
    occasions.
  • This Pitaka is divided into five Nikayas or
    collections
  • Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses).
  • Majjhima Nikaya (Collection of Middle-Length
    Discourses).
  • Samyutta Nikaya (Collection of Kindred Sayings).
  • Anguttara Nikaya (Collection of Discourses
    arranged in accordance with numbers).
  • Khuddaka Nikaya (Smaller Collection).

21
SUTA PITAKA
  • The fifth is subdivided into fifteen books
  • Khuddaka Patha (Shorter texts)
  • Dhammapada (Way of Truth)
  • Udana (Paeans of Joy)
  • Iti Vuttaka ("Thus said" Discourses)
  • Sutta Nipata (Collected Discourses)
  • Vimana Vatthu (Stories of Celestial Mansions)
  • Peta Vatthu (Stories of Petas)
  • Theragatha (Psalms of the Brethren)
  • Therigatha (Psalms of the Sisters)
  • Jataka (Birth Stories)
  • Niddesa (Expositions)
  • Patisambhida Magga (Analytical Knowledge)
  • Apadana (Lives of Arahats)
  • Buddhavamsa (The History of the Buddha)
  • Cariya Pitaka (Modes of Conduct)

22
ABHIDHAMMA PITAKA
  • The Abhidhamma Pitaka is the most important and
    the most interesting of the three, containing as
    it does the profound philosophy of the Buddha's
    Teaching in contrast to the illuminating and
    simpler discourses in the Sutta Pitaka.
  • In the Sutta Pitaka is found the conventional
    teaching (vohara desana) while in the Abhidhamma
    Pitaka is found the ultimate teaching
    (paramattha-desana).

23
ABHIDHAMMA PITAKA
  • To the wise, Abhidhamma is an indispensable
    guide to the spiritually evolved, an
    intellectual treat and to research scholars,
    food for thought. Consciousness is defined.
  • Thoughts are analyzed and classified chiefly from
    an ethical standpoint.
  • Mental states are enumerated.
  • The composition of each type of consciousness is
    set forth in detail.
  • How thoughts arise, is minutely described.

24
ABHIDHAMMA PITAKA
  • The Abhidhamma investigates mind and matter, the
    two composite factors of the so-called being, to
    help the understanding of things as they truly
    are, and a philosophy has been developed on those
    lines.
  • Based on that philosophy, an ethical system has
    been evolved, to realize the ultimate goal,
    Nibbana.

25
ABHIDHAMMA PITAKA
  • The Abhidhamma Pitaka consists of seven books
  • Dhammasangani (Classification of Dhammas)
  • Vibhanga (The book of Divisions)
  • Katha-Vatthu (Points of Controversy)
  • Puggala-Paññatti (Descriptions of Individuals)
  • Dhatu-Katha (Discussion with reference to
    elements)
  • Yamaka (The Book of Pairs)
  • Patthana (The Book of Relations)

26
VOCABULARY
27
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28
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29
BUDDHIST SCHOOLS
  • MAHAYANA, THERAVADA, TIBETAN AND ZEN

30
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31
MAHAYANA SCHOOL (200 BCE)
  • The Mahayana is more of an umbrella body for a
    great variety of schools, from the Tantra school
    (the secret teaching of Yoga) well represented in
    Tibet and Nepal to the Pure Land sect, whose
    essential teaching is that salvation can be
    attained only through absolute trust in the
    saving power of Amitabha, longing to be reborn in
    his paradise through his grace, which are found
    in China, Korea and Japan.
  • Ch'an and Zen Buddhism, of China and Japan, are
    meditation schools.

32
MAHAYANA SCHOOL
  • It is generally accepted, that what we know today
    as the Mahayana arose from the Mahasanghikas who
    took up the cause of their new sect with zeal and
    enthusiasm and soon grew in power and popularity.
  • They adapted the existing monastic rules and thus
    revolutionized the Buddhist Order of Monks and
    made alterations in the arrangements and
    interpretation of the Sutra (Discourses) and the
    Vinaya (Rules) texts.
  • And they rejected certain portions of the canon,
    which had been accepted in the First Council.

33
MAHAYANA SCHOOL
  • According to it, the Buddhas are lokottara
    (supramundane) and are connected only externally
    with the worldly life.
  • This conception of the Buddha contributed much to
    the growth of the Mahayana philosophy.
  • The ideal of the Mahayana school is that of the
    Bodhisattva, a person who delays his or her own
    enlightenment in order to compassionately assist
    all other beings and ultimately attains to the
    highest Bodhi.

34
THERAVADA SCHOOL (100 BCE)
  • The earliest available teachings of the Buddha
    are to be found in Pali literature and belongs to
    the school of the Theravadins, who may be called
    the most orthodox school of Buddhism.
  • This school admits the human characteristics of
    the Buddha, and is characterized by a
    psychological understanding of human nature and
    emphasizes a meditative approach to the
    transformation of consciousness.
  • The teaching of the Buddha according to this
    school is very plain. He asks us to 'abstain from
    all kinds of evil, to accumulate all that is good
    and to purify our mind'.
  • These can be accomplished by The Three Trainings
    the development of ethical conduct, meditation
    and insight-wisdom.

35
THERAVADA SCHOOL
  • The philosophy of this school is that all worldly
    phenomena are subject to three characteristics -
    they are impermanent and transient
    unsatisfactory and that there is nothing in them
    which can be called one's own, nothing
    substantial, nothing permanent.
  • All compounded things are made up of two elements
    - the non-material part and the material part.

36
THERAVADA SCHOOL
  • They are further described as consisting of
    nothing but five constituent groups, namely the
    material quality, and the four non-material
    qualities - sensations, perception, mental
    formatives and consciousness.
  • When that perfected state of insight is reached,
    i.e. Nibanna, that person is a 'worthy person' an
    Arhat.
  • The life of the Arhat is the ideal of the
    followers of this school, a life where all
    (future) birth is at an end, where the holy life
    is fully achieved, where all that has to be done
    has been done, and there is no more returning to
    the worldly life'.

37
TIBETAN SCHOOL
  • This is the kind of Buddhism predominant in the
    Himalayan nations of Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, and
    also Mongolia. It is known as Vajrayana because
    of the ritual use of the vajra, a symbol of
    imperishable diamond, of thunder and lightning.
    At the center of Tibetan Buddhism is the
    religious figure called the lama, Tibetan for
    "guru"," source of another of its names, Lamaism.

38
TIBETAN SCHOOL
  • His Holiness the 14th the Dalai Lama Tenzin
    Gyatso, is the head of state and spiritual leader
    of the Tibetan people. He was born 6 July 1935 in
    a small village in northeastern Tibet to a
    peasant family.
  • His Holiness was recognized at the age of two, in
    accordance with Tibetan tradition, as the
    reincarnation of his predecessor the 13th Dalai
    Lama, and thus an incarnation Avalokitesvara, the
    Buddha of Compassion.

39
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41
ZEN BUDDHISM
  • Bodhidharma, an Indian monk who settled in China
    in the 6th century A.D., is the founder of Ch'an
    (Chinese Zen Buddhism). It is said when he first
    came to the Shaolin monastery in China, he
    practiced zazen (sitting meditation) facing a
    wall for several years.
  • Zen is a mere word, symbol... an illusion.
  • There is an old story of a man who sought
    enlightenment and traveled great distances to
    find a particular Zen master. Upon finding this
    Zen master, he kindly asked if he would "teach
    him the path to enlightenment."  The Zen master
    replied "I have nothing to teach."

42
ZAZEN
43
ZEN BUDDHISM
  • Zen practice involves letting go of
    preconceptions, dualistic thinking, religious
    abstractions and any other false categories of
    thought.
  • It is a way of simply seeing life without
    abstractions and preconceptions, and thus can
    enhance and clarify any religious faith.  
  • There is no doctrine, no system of beliefs in
    Zen. Zen is spontaneity in living. A
    transformation of our consciousness. To transform
    the way we experience right now...   right here.
  • Zen might be defined as waking up in the
    present.  It's an experience that defies
    abstractions, an awakening to just this, what is
    here, now, and seeing it as for the first time in
    every moment. 

44
BASIC TEACHINGS
  • THE DHAMMA, THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS, THE PATH TO
    NIBANNA (PALI) NIRVANA (SANSKRIT), KAMMA (PALI)
    KARMA (SANSKRIT)

45
THE DHAMMA
  • The non-aggressive, moral and philosophical
    system expounded by the Buddha, which demands no
    blind faith from its adherents, expounds no
    dogmatic creeds, encourages no superstitious
    rites and ceremonies, but advocates a golden mean
    that guides a disciple through pure living and
    pure thinking to the gain of supreme wisdom and
    deliverance from all evil, is called the Dhamma
    and is popularly known as Buddhism.

46
THE DHAMMA
  • The Dhamma he taught is not merely to be
    preserved in books, nor is it a subject to be
    studied from an historical or literary
    standpoint. On the contrary it is to be learnt
    and put into practice in the course of one's
    daily life, for without practice one cannot
    appreciate the truth.
  • The Dhamma is to be studied, and more to be
    practiced, and above all to be realized
    immediate realization is its ultimate goal.
  • As such the Dhamma is compared to a raft which is
    meant for the sole purpose of escaping from the
    ocean of birth and death (samsara).

47
THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS
  • The foundations of Buddhism are the four Noble
    Truths namely, Suffering (the raison d'etre of
    Buddhism), its cause (i.e., Craving), its end
    (i.e., Nibbana, the Summum Bonum of Buddhism),
    and the Middle Way.
  • The first three truths represent the philosophy
    of Buddhism the fourth represents the ethics of
    Buddhism, based on that philosophy.

48
FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS
  • Buddhism rests on the pivot of sorrow. But it
    does not thereby follow that Buddhism is
    pessimistic.
  • It is neither totally pessimistic nor totally
    optimistic, but, on the contrary, it teaches a
    truth that lies midway between them.
  • One would be justified in calling the Buddha a
    pessimist if he had only enunciated the truth of
    suffering without suggesting a means to put an
    end to it.
  • The Buddha perceived the universality of sorrow
    and did prescribe a panacea for this universal
    sickness of humanity.
  • The highest conceivable happiness, according to
    the Buddha, is Nibbana, which is the total
    extinction of suffering.

49
THE PATH TO NIBANNA
  • It is by following the Noble Eightfold Path which
    consists of
  • Right Understanding (samma-ditthi),
  • Right Thoughts (samma-sankappa),
  • Right Speech (samma-vaca),
  • Right Actions (samma-kammanta),
  • Right Livelihood (samma-ajiva),
  • Right Effort (samma-vayama),
  • Right Mindfulness (samma-sati), and
  • Right Concentration (samma-samadhi).

50
KAMMA
  • There is nothing in this world that happens by
    blind chance or accident. To say that anything
    happens by chance, is no more true than that this
    book has come here of itself. Strictly speaking,
    nothing happens to man that he does not deserve
    for some reason or another.
  • From a Buddhist standpoint, our present mental,
    intellectual, moral and temperamental differences
    are mainly due to our own actions and tendencies,
    both past the present.
  • We reap what we have sown. What we sow we reap
    somewhere or some when.

51
KAMMA
  • Kamma is, therefore, only one of the five orders
    that prevail in the universe. It is a law in
    itself, but it does not thereby follow that there
    should be a law-giver.
  • Ordinary laws of nature, like gravitation, need
    no law-giver. It operates in its own field
    without the intervention of an external
    independent ruling agency.
  • A Buddhist who is fully convinced of the doctrine
    of kamma does not pray to another to be saved but
    confidently relies on himself for his
    purification because it teaches individual
    responsibility.

52
KAMMA
  • It is this doctrine of kamma that gives him
    consolation, hope, self reliance and moral
    courage.
  • It is this belief in kamma "that validates his
    effort, kindles his enthusiasm," makes him ever
    kind, tolerant and considerate.
  • It is also this firm belief in kamma that prompts
    him to refrain from evil, do good and be good
    without being frightened of any punishment or
    tempted by any reward.

53
SYMBOLS
  • TIBETAN PRAYER WHEEL, STUPA, MALAS (BEADS),
    DHARMA WHEEL (LAW), TIBETAN WHEEL OF LIFE

54
TIBETAN PRAYER WHEEL
  • This is an exclusively Tibetan Buddhist praying
    instrument which always bears the mystical word
    'OM MANI PADME HUM' Om the Jewel in the Lotus
    Hum numbering six syllables in the mantra of
    Avalokitesvara.

55
STUPA
  • Stupas are monuments for peace in the world.
  • Through their perfect form, these structures
    express the clear nature of the mind -
    enlightenment.
  • People who venerate them, who participate in
    their construction, or those who live near them,
    find them to be a source of peacefulness,
    happiness, and prosperity.
  • The stupa represents the Mind of the Buddha.
    Furthermore, it signifies the community of
    practitioners, the sangha.

56
STUPA
  • "The Stupa is truly the image, or rather the
    epiphany, of the Buddha, of his Law that rules
    the universe, and is moreover a psycho-cosmogram.
  • The form, suggested by the apparent aspect of the
    vault of the sky, implies in its turn the total
    presence and intangibility of the Buddha, who in
    this way is seen not as a human teacher but as
    the essence of the Universe."

57
The Great Stupa at Sanchi, India
58
MALAS (BEADS)
  • Beads are mainly used to count mantras, which can
    be recited for four different purposes
  • To appease,
  • To increase,
  • To overcome, or
  • Tame by forceful means.

59
DHARMA WHEEL
  • The wheel symbolize the Wheel of Buddhist Law,
    the endless cycle of birth and rebirth.
  • Modern versions of Dharma Wheels often have four
    spokes, symbolizing the Four Jinas or the four
    'moments' in the life of the Buddha or with
    eight spokes, or octagonal, symbolizing the Noble
    Eightfold Path.

60
TIBETAN WHEEL OF LIFE
  • An amazing collection of contrasting imagery,
    each aspect of this composition is packed with
    rich symbolism and direct, hard-hitting
    metaphors.
  • Essentially a construction made up of four
    concentric circles, it is an attempt to convey
    spiritual insights behind our 'physical
    existence' in purely visual terms.

61
TIBETAN WHEEL
  • Each of these animals represents a particular
    human failing or weakness, which stands as an
    obstacle to spiritual accomplishment.

62
TIBETAN WHEEL
  • Next to the central circle is a concentric band
    divided along two halves. One is colored softly
    and radiantly, while the other is black.
  • The darker portion shows individuals who have
    chosen the path of darkness and thus descend into
    gloomy depths.
  • The glowing path, however, is the one taken by
    those following the righteous way, attaining
    spiritual ascension. Hence it shows mortals
    rising towards greater spiritual heights.

63
TIBETAN WHEEL
  • Beyond this band is a wider area divided into six
    units, each depicting a different level of
    conditioned existence.
  • These states of existence are termed conditioned
    because they are brought about as a result of our
    own actions or karma.

64
TIBETAN WHEEL
  • The first such realm is the world of hell.
  • Flames engulf the entire realm which is
    unbearably hot, though there are regions of ice
    also, which yield the painful experience of cold.
  • The depiction of this hell is an objectification
    of hatred, rather a visual depiction of what may
    await us if we fill out hearts with hatred
    instead of compassionate understanding.

65
TIBETAN WHEEL
  • Next to the realm of hell are groups of ungainly
    creatures huddled together.
  • No matter what they possess, they always feel
    that there is something missing.
  • Thus this realm is the personification of the
    mind in which craving predominates.

66
TIBETAN WHEEL
  • In the realm of the animals, life is the life of
    the body. All endeavor is directed to the
    satisfaction of physical desires and the business
    of self-preservation.
  • This depiction is a visual representation of the
    ignorant refusal to see beyond the needs of the
    body.

67
TIBETAN WHEEL
  • The titans know only warfare. Not content with
    what they possess these giants rush upon the gods
    of the sensuous realm and try to grab from them
    their happiness and delight.
  • The success of others leaves them with a feeling
    of inadequacy and belittled.
  • Indeed it is said that man is not content with he
    does have but discontent with what others have.

68
TIBETAN WHEEL
  • The human realm is the world of everyday
    experience.
  • Human life, containing both pleasure and pain,
    makes us aware of both these aspects of life,
    striking a harmonious balance.
  • Thus since human life gives us such rare
    opportunities for spiritual realization, Buddhism
    teaches that it is very precious indeed.

69
TIBETAN WHEEL
  • It is significant to note here that the gods are
    shown partaking of similar sensuous experiences
    as the humans, albeit at a more rarified level.
  • The import being that the gods are not so far
    removed from the human dimension and mortal
    humans too can attain godhood following the path
    of virtuous karma.

70
TIBETAN WHEEL
  • These six realms constitute all possible states
    of existence in the universe and all beings cycle
    between these states, dependent on their karma,
    none of these states being permanent or
    everlasting.
  • Thus, virtuous persons are said to be born in
    heaven virtuous beings dominated by negative
    emotions of jealousy are born in the realm of the
    titans persons dominated by attachment are born
    in the ghostly realms those afflicted with
    hatred and anger are born in hell and those
    dominated by dullness are born in the world of
    animals.

71
TIBETAN WHEEL
  • The outermost concentric ring of the Wheel of
    Life is divided into twelve units, each depicting
    a phase of the peculiar cycle of cause and effect
    which keeps one trapped in the six realms of
    cyclic existence mentioned above.

72
TIBETAN WHEEL
  • The complete Wheel of Life is gripped tightly in
    the talons of the Lord of Death, whose horrific
    face, projecting fangs and the forehead wreathed
    in the macabre five-skull crown is visible above
    the diagram.
  • We are all clutched in the fear of death. But
    death is not the end. According to Buddhist
    thought death is the beginning of a new
    existence.
  • The process of death is evidenced everywhere in
    the natural rhythms of the earth, sea, and sky. A
    death occurs each night as the sun sets, each
    month as the moon wanes, each year as the earth
    shuts down for the winter, and each time the
    ocean waters recede with the tide. Thus the
    concept of death in nature is a promise of hope.
  • With each death there is a resurrection. Nature
    has the capacity for renewal. The new, renewed
    state is of course dependent upon our previous
    karma.

73
DEITIES
  • MAITREYA, BODHISATTVAS OF COMPASSION, THE CHINESE
    PANTHEON, LOHANS

74
MAITREYA THE FUTURE BUDDHA
  • According to some Buddhist traditions, the period
    of the Buddhist Law is divided into three stages
    a first period of 500 years, of the turning the
    Wheel of the Law a second period of 1,000 years,
    of the deterioration of the Law, and a third
    period of 3,000 years (called Mappo in Japan)
    during which no one practises the Law.
  • After this, Buddhism having disappeared, a new
    Buddha will appear who will again turn the Wheel
    of the Law.
  • This future Buddha is still in the Tusita heaven,
    in the state of a Bodhisattva.
  • Gautama Buddha himself will enthrone him as his
    successor.
  • The name means 'benevolence' or 'friendship'. He
    is now living his last existence as a Bodhisattva.

75
BODHISATTVAS OF COMPASSION
  • The term Bodhisattva refers to someone on the
    path to Awakening.
  • The Mahayana has conceived them as having
    renounced the ultimate state out of pure
    compassion towards all beings, and can therefore
    refer to anyone en route.
  • In non-Mahayana Buddhism, it usually refers
    either to Maitreya, the Buddha of the Future, or
    to the historical Buddha Gautama prior to his
    enlightenment either during the life in which
    he became enlightened or in one of the
    innumerable lives before that in which he was
    developing the requisite virtues for
    enlightenment, such as generosity.
  • The stories of these lives are called the
    Jatakas, or 'birth stories', and they are a very
    frequent subject of Buddhist art.

76
CHINESE PANTHEON
  • Amitabha the Buddha of Boundless Light.
  • Yao Shih Fwo, Bhaisajyaguru the Medicine Buddha.
  • Kuan Ti - Protector of the Buddhist religion

77
THE LOHANS PLACE IN BUDDHISM
  • Lohans are well-known for their great wisdom,
    courage and supernatural power.
  • Due to their abilities to ward off the evil,
    Lohans have became guardian angels of the
    Buddhist temple and there in the main hall
    standing guard are the ever-present,
    indomitable-looking 18 Lohan figures, sometimes
    accompanied by 500 or more lesser Lohans.
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