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Lifespan Development

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Title: Lifespan Development


1
Lifespan Development
  • Chapter 7
  • Socioemotional Development in Infancy

2
  • Emotionaland
  • Personality Development

3
Emotional and Personality Development
  • Emotions feelings occurring when in a state or
    interaction with something that is important to
    the person stronger if well-being is involved
  • Emotions vary in intensity from subtle to
    dramatic
  • Darwin human facial expressions are innate
  • Emotions linked to early development of
  • Nervous system
  • Limbic system
  • Brain stem
  • Neurobiological systems can exert more control
    over limbic system as childs self-control
    develops

4
  • Caregivers influence infants neurological
    development and regulation of emotions
  • Emotions are first form of communication between
    infants and caregivers.
  • Infants react to others facial expressions, tone
    of voice, emotions
  • First form of attachment is emotion-linked
  • Two broad types of emotions develop
  • Primary appear in first 6 months of life
  • Self-conscious appear from about age 1.5 years
    to about 2.5 years

5
The First Appearance of Different Emotions
Fig. 7.1
6
  • Most important ways of communicating in the
    youngest infants are crying and smiling
  • Basic cry, anger cry and pain cry
  • Reflexive smile and social smile
  • Stranger anxiety involving fear
  • First appears about 6 months of age
  • Intensifies about 9 months of age, escalating
    past the 1st birthday
  • Intensity of anxiety depends on
  • Proximity of mother
  • Where stranger meeting occurs
  • Strangers behavior

7
  • Separation anxiety distress shown when caregiver
    leaves peaks at about 15 months of age when
    separation protest occurs.
  • Social referencing reading emotional cues from
    others before acting in a situation improves as
    infants age
  • During 1st year of life, infant begins to develop
    ability to control intensity and duration of
    emotional reactions
  • Thumb sucking and soothing by caregiver replaced
    in 2nd year by language as emotional release

8
Separation Anxiety in Four Cultures
Bushman Africa
100
Antiguan Guatemala
80
Indians in Guatemala
60
Israeli Kibbutz
40
Percentage of children who cried when mothers left
20
15
0
5
20
25
30
35
10
Age (in months)
Fig. 7.3
9
  • Varying behaviors and moods among infants are
    usually due to differences in temperament
  • Types of temperament
  • Chess and Thomas found 3 basic types
  • Easy generally positive mood and regular
    routines, adapts easily to new experiences.
  • Difficult reacts negatively and cries
    frequently, irregular routines slow to accept
    change.
  • Slow-to-warm child low activity level, somewhat
    negative, low intensity of mood.
  • Researchers have found that the 3 types
    (clusters) are moderately stable across the
    childhood years
  • Kagans behavioral inhibition classifies child as
    shy, subdued, timid, (inhibition to the
    unfamiliar) or sociableextraverted

10
  • Temperament types of Rothbart and Bates
  • Positive affect and approach Kagans uninhibited
    fits here
  • Negative affectivity fear, frustration, sadness,
    discomfort Kagans inhibited fits here
  • Effortful control
  • Children high on effortful control how an ability
    to keep their arousal from getting too high and
    have strategies for soothing themselves .
  • Children low on effortful control are unable to
    control their arousal, easily agitated, and
    intensely emotional

11
Biological Foundations of Emotion
  • Kagan suggest that children inherit a physiology
    that biases them to be naturally fearful and
    inhibited
  • Inhibited children are more likely to a high and
    stable heart rate, high cortisol levels and high
    activity in the right frontal lobe.
  • Low levels of serotonin may increase
    vulnerability to fear and frustration.
  • Twin and adoption studies suggest that the
    heritability of temperament is .5 to .6.
    However, this genetic influence declines with age
    as the environment exerts an influence.
  • However, Kagan also suggests that through
    experience children can learn to modify their
    temperament to some degree.

12
  • Temperament may be influenced by
  • Parents who react differently to a boy or girl,
    based on culture
  • Mothers may respond more readily to irritable
    girls than irritable boys (pp. 207).
  • Environment and goodness of fit match
    between a childs temperament and the demands of
    the childs environment.
  • Genetics, as shown by differences observed among
    very young children even those in the same
    family
  • Labeling a child can become a self-fulfilling
    prophecy

13
  • Three characteristics central to personality
    development
  • Trust Erikson believed a child learns to trust
    or mistrust in the 1st year of life in a way that
    affects later developmental stages
  • Development of self through environmental
    experiences and ability to see self as others see
    it
  • Independence, as child explores new situations
    and environments, take risks, and learns muscle
    control

14
100
Amsterdam study
The Development of Self-Recognition in
Infancy (two studies)
Lewis and Brooks-Gunn study
80
60
Percentage of infants and children recognizing
themselves in a mirror
40
20
0
21-24
9-12
15-18
Age (in months)
Fig. 7.4
15
  • Attachment close emotional bond
  • Theories of attachment
  • Freud infants attached by oral satisfaction
  • Harlow comfort preferred over food
  • Erikson trust arises from physical comfort
  • Bowlby newborn is biologically equipped to
    elicit attachment behavior from caregiver

16
Infant monkey fed on cloth mother
24
.
Infant monkey fed on wire mother
.
.
.
.
.
18
.
Hours per day spent with cloth mother
.
Contact Time with Wire and Cloth Surrogate
Mothers
12
.
Mean hours per day
.
6
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Hours per day spent with wire mother
0
21-25
1-5
11-10
6-10
16-20
Age (in days)
Fig. 7.5
17
Bowlbys 4 phases of attachment
  • Phase 1 Birth to 2 months instinctively direct
    their attachment to caregivers.
  • Phase 2 2 to 7 months attachment becomes
    focused on one person and the baby learns to
    distinguish familiar from unfamiliar people.
  • Phase 3 7 to 24 months actively seek contact
    with their regular caregivers.
  • Phase 4 24 months begin to consider others
    feelings, goals and plans in forming their own
    actions.

18
  • Strange Situation tests strength of infant
    attachment
  • Securely attached explores environment, displays
    little emotion when caregiver leaves
  • Insecure avoidant avoids caregiver but shows
    distress/crying when caregiver leaves
  • Insecure resistant clings to caregiver and
    protests loudly and actively if caregiver leaves
  • Insecure disorganized disorientation extreme
    fearfulness may be shown even with caregiver
  • Ainsworths research criticized as lab
    experiments not real-life

19
Avoidant
Secure
70
Resistant
60
Cross-Cultural Comparison of Attachment
Ainsworths Strange Situation applied to infants
in three countries in 1988
50
40
30
20
10
Percentage of infants
0
Japan
U.S.
Germany
Fig. 7.7
20
  • Attachment between infant and caregiver
  • In 1st year of life, is foundation for later
    psychological development
  • Helps child to survive while incapable of
    self-care
  • Is not the only path to success, because children
    are resilient and adaptive
  • Is affected by genetics and temperament
  • Varies among different cultures of the world
  • Despite criticism, research does suggest that
    securen attachment in infancy does reflect a
    positive parent-child relationship which provides
    a foundation for healthy socioemotional
    development.

21
  • Social contexts in which infant emotional and
    personality development occur
  • Family
  • Adjustment of parents during infants 1st years
  • Infant care competes with parents other
    interests
  • Marital satisfaction and relationship may change
  • Reciprocal socialization 2-way interaction
    process
  • Scaffolding parent supports childs efforts
  • Family is a unit with assigned roles, shared
    attachments, containing subsystems of
    relationships

22
Interaction Between Children and Their Parents
Direct and Indirect Effects
Fig. 7.8
23
  • Fathers can be as competent as mothers in
    caregiving
  • Maternal interactions center on child-care
    activities
  • Paternal interactions tend to be play-centered
  • In stressful situations, infants tend to prefer
    comfort from mother over that from father
  • One study explored effects of parental roles in
    Sweden
  • Father was primary caregiver
  • Mother was full-time wage earner
  • Mothers were more likely to discipline, hold,
    soother, kiss, and talk to their infants than
    fathers.
  • Does biology or socialization shape caregiving?

24
  • Children in child care
  • More in child care now than ever before
  • Parents worry about effects on the child
  • Parental leave policies enacted over a century
    ago but vary across cultures where they exist
  • There is increasing interest in child-care roles
    among ethnic minority families
  • Questions about quality of child care high
    quality, subsidized centers, licensed/unlicensed
  • SES linked to amount and type of child care

25
  • Quality of child care affected by
  • Group size, childadult ratio, physical
    environment, caregiver characteristics
  • High-quality care results in child having better
    language and cognitive skills, being more
    cooperative and positive in interactions
  • Quantity of child care affected by
  • More time in child care during first 3 years of
    life led to fewer positive interactions with
    mother
  • The more time spent in childcare, the higher the
    rates of illness
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