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Japan: Kamakura & Warring States

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Japan: Kamakura & Warring States 11 1185 -1600 CE Kamakura: A New, Less Gentle Japan Gempei Wars: Taira vs Minamoto clans 1158-1185 AD Kamakura: A New, Less Gentle ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Japan: Kamakura & Warring States


1
JapanKamakura Warring States
  • 11
  • 1185 -1600 CE

2
Kamakura A New, Less Gentle Japan
  • Gempei Wars Taira vs Minamoto clans 1158-1185
    AD

3
Kamakura A New, Less Gentle Japan
  • Shogun (pronounced show goon)
  • Minamoto Yoritomo Officially the Emperors
    Military Leader
  • In Reality the Emperors Military Overlord
  • New leadership rejects the effete culture of Heian

4
Kamakura Bakufu(tent government)
  • Military might and military virtues win the day
    for Kamakura
  • Focus on Military Virtue
  • New government center at Kamakura
  • Away from emperors court at Heian

Kamakura Period Samurai Warrior
5
Kamakura Bakufu GovernmentLord-Retainer System
Japans system fits the patron-client pattern
  • Patron provides leadership, resources, and
    membership in a protective group
  • Client reciprocates with loyalty, obedience and
    service
  • Example Godfather (the movie)

Except The Emperor-Shogun link is only a facade
6
Kamakura Bakufu GovernmentLord-Retainer System
  • Shoguns government structure
  • Classic Patron-client, or Lord-retainer system
  • Shogun accepts allegiance (oaths of loyalty) from
    lesser lords
  • Each lord supported by corps of samurai retainers
    who swear allegiance to him.
  • Lords provide leadership and resources
  • Retainers provide military service, loyalty, and
    obedience to their lord

7
Samurai CultureEmergence of Bushido
  • Bushido the way of the warrior
  • Japans chivalry code
  • Discipline
  • Loyalty
  • Self-cultivation
  • Martial arts, philosophy, and literary arts

Painting representing the Gempei Wars
8
Samurai CultureEmergence of Bushido
  • Loyalty is the core virtue of Bushido
  • During Kamakura period loyalty may not have been
    as absolute
  • Lords paid retainers with grants of land from
    their han (domain or fief)
  • Samurai became independent landowners with
    financial incentives separate from the interests
    of their lord
  • During times of severe stress the clash between
    ideological loyalty and financial interest
    becomes obvious

9
Samurai CultureEmergence of Bushido
Kamakura Samurai Armor
  • Bushido Japan's code of chivalry
  • Emphasis on loyalty and self cultivation
  • Different values system from European chivalry
  • Unlike European chivalry
  • No concept of special place for women
  • No gentlemanly respect for, protection of, or
    deference to the weaker sex

10
Bushido Culture
  • Strong sense of responsibility
  • Ritualistic and formal
  • Seppuku
  • Ritual suicide to accept responsibility for
    grievous error

11
Samurai
  • Weaponry
  • Swords
  • Bow and Arrow
  • Also Spears
  • For mounted samurai

12
Kamakura Japan under attack
  • Mongol invasions
  • 1274 1281
  • Divine Winds or Kamikaze save Japan at the last
    moment

13
Kamakura PeriodContinues 1281-1467
  • Remaining 200 years of Kamakura Japan relatively
    stable
  • 1467 Kamakura system collapses into Civil War
  • Major lords battle for dominance and power

14
Warring States Period1467-1568 CE
  • 100 years of civil war
  • Changes in Bushido and lord-retainer system
  • Dramatic changes in social structure
  • Change in economic structure

15
Changes in Lord-retainer System Bushido
  • Early on Samurai retainers rewarded with land
  • Creates incentive to protect personal property
  • To preserve property for heirs
  • Ideological commitment to LOYALTY conflicts with
    self interest
  • Self-interest often wins
  • Samurai not always loyal

16
Changes in Lord-retainer System Bushido
  • By the end of Warring States
  • Samurai paid with stipends not land
  • Stipends only paid so long as lord and lords
    estate remain intact
  • Samurais ideological loyalty reinforced by
    financial self interest
  • Loyalty becomes far more absolute

17
Changes in Lord-retainer System Bushido
  • 0nly 200 Daimyo (great names) remain
  • All surviving Daimyo swear allegiance to new
    Shogun
  • Daimyo Japans feudal Lords from 1600s forward
  • Han The autonomously governed fief or domain of
    a Daimyo

18
Social and Economic Change
  • War with Swords, Bows, and Spears
  • Siege tactics
  • Castles emerge
  • Castle towns
  • Japan Urbanizes

19
Castle Towns and Urbanization
  • New Castle towns
  • Produce markets
  • Merchants
  • Cash-crop agriculture

20
Castle Towns and Urbanization
  • Service sector develops
  • Craftsmen
  • Sword smiths
  • Blacksmiths
  • Artisans
  • Artists
  • Education
  • Entertainers
  • Geisha
  • Kabuki Theater
  • No Puppet Theater

21
Arts
  • Kabuki Theater
  • Wood block printing

No Puppet theater
22
Warring States Results
  • Japan as a nation of cities
  • Castle
  • Market Towns built around castles
  • Japan developing formal arts
  • Japans Bushido culture aligning ideas of loyalty
    with reality of financial self-interest
  • Strong military ethic dominates culture
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