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SOCIAL DIFFERENCE Race and Ethnicity

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SOCIAL DIFFERENCE Race and Ethnicity Anthropology of Social Difference What is the basis for the recognition of difference within and between social groups? what ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SOCIAL DIFFERENCE Race and Ethnicity


1
SOCIAL DIFFERENCERace and Ethnicity
2
Anthropology of Social Difference
  • What is the basis for the recognition of
    difference within and between social groups?
    what is the role of culture?
  • What is the relationship of recognized social
    differences to political power and inequality?
    what are the processes of society? (social
    stratification)

3
CULTURE SOCIETY
  • Geertz (1973) on culture -- "a historically
    transmitted pattern of meanings embodied in
    symbols, a system of inherited conceptions
    expressed in symbolic forms by means of which men
    communicate, perpetuate, and develop their
    knowledge about and attitudes toward life
  • Geertz on society the pattern of social
    interaction
  • Culture society capable of wide range of
    modes of integration

4
Geertz on Society and Culture Again
  • Culture logico-meaningful integration
  • A unity of style, of logical implication, of
    meaning and value
  • Fabric of meaning
  • Society causal-functional integration
  • Kind of integration one finds in an organism
  • All parts united in a single causal web
  • Keep the system going
  • Actually existing network of social relations

5
Social Differences Society
  • shift from homogeneous kin based societies
    (mechanic) to heterogeneous societies of
    associations (organic) involves increased social
    differentiation
  • Increased differentiation integration
    INCREASED SOCIAL STRATIFICATION (social
    differences)

6
Society Social Stratification
  • inequality in society
  • the unequal distribution of goods and services,
    rights and obligations, power and prestige
  • all attributes of positions in society, not
    attributes of individuals
  • Stratified society is
  • when a society exhibits stratification it means
    that there are significant breaks in the
    distribution of goods services, rights
    obligations power prestige
  • as a result of which are formed collectivities or
    groups we call strata

7
Stratification Society
  • Integration and equilibrium
  • Society is a system of action
  • stratification is a generalized aspect of the
    structure of all social systems
  • Social Strata emerge from the process of
    differentiation and evaluation in the form of
    social statuses, differences, and classes

8
Stratification Social Power
  • Power domination and the process of
    legitimization by which a dominant status group
    becomes accepted as dominant
  • pre-industrial society power based on
    traditional respect or allegiance to charismatic
    leaders
  • industrial society power based on legality,
    consensus on the rules and procedures concerning
    the selection and limits of power

9
3 TYPES OF SOCIETIES
  • egalitarian societies - no social groups having
    greater access to economic resources, power, or
    prestige - usually foragers
  • rank societies - do not have unequal access to
    economic resources or to power, but they do
    contain social groups having unequal access to
    prestige
  • class societies - unequal access to all 3
    advantages, economic resources, power, prestige
  • open closed class systems - the extent to which
    mobility occurs allowing people to pass through
    inequalities

10
Understanding Social Differences Status
  • status - ascribed achieved
  • ascribed status - social positions that people
    hold by virtue of birth
  • sex, age, family relationships, birth into class
    or caste
  • achieved status - social positions attained as a
    result of individual action
  • shift from homogenous kin based societies to
    heterogeneous society of associations involves
    growth in importance of achieved status

11
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12
Race Society
  • There are no biological human races
  • Racial social stratification is built upon idea
    that social differences are linked with
    hereditary characteristics which differ between
    races
  • As indicated by perceived physical differences
    and cloaked in the language of biology
  • social races groups assumed to have a
    biological basis but social constructed
  • Racism systematic social and political bias
    based on idea of race
  • Operates as a form of class

13
American Anthropological Assoc. statement on race
  • Evidence from the analysis of genetics (e.g.,
    DNA) indicates that most physical variation,
    about 94, lies within so-called racial groups.
  • Conventional geographic racial groupings differ
    from one another only in about 6 of their
    genes.
  • Race thus evolved as a world view, a body of
    prejudgments that distorts our ideas about human
    differences and group behavior.
  • The racial world view was invented to assign
    some groups to perpetual low status, while others
    were permitted access to privilege, power, and
    wealth

14
Race A Brief History
15
Distribution of Human Skin Color before 1400 A.D.
16
Race Age of Discovery
  • Race did not exist until the European expansion
    and exploration beginning 1500
  • ancient Greeks -- first among civilized nations
    around the Mediterranean
  • did not link physical appearance and cultural
    attainment.
  • Ancient Greeks granted civilized status to the
    Nile Valley Nubians who were among the darkest
    skinned people they knew
  • did not grant it to European barbarians to the
    north who were lighter skinned than they were
  • People were divided on the basis of religion,
    class or language or status

17
Europe Race before Age of Discovery
  • up until 14th cent. in Europe cultural social
    evolution based on the idea of progress from
    kinbased societies to civil society through
    governance law
  • after 16th cent. in Europe dispositions of blood
    distinguished the character of difference (racist
    notions of social cultural evolution)

18
After 1500
  • European exploration increased contact with
    other human societies
  • exploration turned to conquest and Ethnocentric
    feeling of European superiority

19
The Enlightenment 17th 18th Century Europe
  • race used interchangeably with type, variety,
    people, nation, generation species
  • race equated with breeding stock
  • 1700s Enlightenment science
  • social phenomena and the worlds peoples into
    natural schemes

20
Formal Human ClassificationLinneaus Systemae
Naturae, 1758
  • Europeaeus
  • White muscular hair long, flowing eyes blue
  • Americanus
  • Reddish erect hair black, straight, thick
    wide nostrils
  • Asiaticus
  • Sallow (yellow) hair black eyes dark
  • Africanus
  • Black hair black, frizzled skin silky nose
    flat lips tumid

21
1795 Johann Friedrich Blumenbach race
classifications
  • Malayan
  • Ethiopian
  • American
  • Mongolian
  • Caucasian
  • coined the term "Caucasian" because he believed
    that the Caucasus region of Asia Minor produced
    "the most beautiful race of men".

22
1830s Philadelphia doctor and polygenist Samuel
Morton
  • collected hundreds of human skulls of known races
  • measured them by filling the skulls with lead
    pellets and then pouring the pellets into a glass
    measuring cup
  • tables assign the highest brain capacity to
    Europeans (with the English highest of all)
  • Second rank goes to Chinese, third to Southeast
    Asians and Polynesians, fourth to American
    Indians, and last place to Africans and
    Australian aborigines.
  • work establish the scientific basis for
    physical anthropology but also the idea that race
    is inherently biological

23
Stephen Jay GouldThe Mis-measure of Man
(1981)
  • Re-analyzed Mortons data
  • Mortons racist bias -- prevented identification
    of fully overlapping measurements among the
    racial skull samples he used

24
Race Social Status
  • Operates as an ASCRIBED status
  • Race and racial differences as a state of nature
  • Sociobiological notion that racism derives from
    genes that cause groups to compete against those
    who are genetically different
  • Nature outside of culture
  • Phenotype blood quantum

25
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26
Social Status and Affects of Race
  • Life chances
  • Where you live
  • How you are treated
  • Access to wealth, power and prestige
  • Access to education, housing, and other valued
    resources
  • Life expectancy

27
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28
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29
Society First Nation Health
  • Compared with the Canadian population in 1996,
    the First Nations population (on and off
    reserves) rated lower on all educational
    attainment.
  • Among First Nations, the 1996 labour
    participation rate was 59 and the employment
    rate was 43.
  • Rates for Canada as a whole were 68 and 62,
    respectively.
  • First Nations unemployment rate was twice the
    Canadian rate in 1996.

30
Society First Nation health
  • 56.9 of homes were considered adequate in
    1999--00.
  • 33.6 of First Nations communities had at least
    90 of their homes connected to a community
    sewage disposal system.
  • In 1999, 65 First Nations and Inuit communities
    were under a boil water advisory for varying
    lengths of time
  • Many communicable diseases can be traced to poor
    water quality

31
Variation in recognized racial types
  • US
  • Bi-racial society
  • Japan
  • a nation whose population is greater than 99
    born in Japan
  • racism in Japan is often not directed so much
    against people of a particular race or ethnic
    group but rather against those who are
    non-Japanese
  • purity
  • Brazil
  • long history with slavery and as a recipient of
    emigrants from all over the world
  • racial paradise image
  • process of whitening -- racial and cultural means
    through which outsiders became "Brazilian"
  • While racial divisions in Brazil are not clearly
    defined, class lines are
  • Canada
  • Vertical mosaic

32
Social Races
  • Geertz (1973) on culture -- "a historically
    transmitted pattern of meanings embodied in
    symbols, a system of inherited conceptions
    expressed in symbolic forms by means of which men
    communicate, perpetuate, and develop their
    knowledge about and attitudes toward life
  • Geertz on society the pattern of social
    interaction
  • Culture society capable of wide range of
    modes of integration

33
Ethnicity A Cultural Logic of Race?
  • ethnicity forged in the process of historical
    time
  • subject to shifts in meaning
  • shifts in referents or markers of ethnic identity
  • subject to political manipulations
  • ethnic identity is not a function of primordial
    ties, although it may be described as such
  • always the genesis of specific historical forces
    that are simultaneously structural cultural

34
Building Blocks of Ethnicity/Ethnic Identity
  • associated with distinctions between language,
    religion, historical experience, geographic
    isolation, kinship, notions of race (phenotype)
  • may include collective name, belief in common
    descent, sense of solidarity, association with a
    specific territory, clothing, house types,
    personal adornment, food, technology, economic
    activities, general lifestyle

35
cultural markers of difference must be visible to
members and non-members
  • valued markers of difference by insiders may
    become comic or derided by outsiders
  • caricature and exaggeration frequently mark
    outsider depictions of boundary mechanisms
  • stereotype is one form

36
ethnicity and boundaries
  • where there is a group there is some sort of
    boundary
  • where there are boundaries there are mechanisms
    for maintaining boundaries
  • cultural markers of difference that must be
    visible to members and non-members
  • Code switching
  • Marked and unmarked categories

37
Boundary maintenance
  • The ethnic boundary canalizes social life
  • Boundaries may also be territorial
  • Distinctions between us and them criteria for
    judgment of value and performance and
    restrictions on interactions
  • Allows for the persistence of cultural
    differences
  • Identities are signaled as well as embraced
  • All ethnic groups in a poly-ethnic society act to
    maintain dichotomies and differences

38
ethnogenesis
  • fluidity of ethnic identity
  • ethnic groups vanish, people move between ethnic
    groups, new ethnic groups come into existence
  • ethnogenesis
  • emergence of new ethnic group, part of existing
    group splits forms new ethnic group, members of
    two or more groups fuse

39
Ethnicity, Culture, and Society
  • ethnicity is founded upon structural inequities
    among dissimilar groups into a single political
    entity -- society
  • based on cultural differences similarities
    perceived as shared -- culture

40
Ethnicity and class
  • Many poly-ethnic societies are ranked according
    to ethnic membership
  • May be a high correlation between ethnicity and
    class

41
Ethnicity as identity formation and political
organization
  • Ethnic groups those human groups that entertain
    a SUBJECTIVE belief in their common descent
    because of similarities of physical type or of
    customs or of both
  • feelings of ethnicity associated behavior vary
    in intensity within groups ( persons) over time
    space
  • Belief in group affinity can have important
    consequences for the formation of a political
    community

42
Ethnic Groups
  • Geertz (1973) on culture -- "a historically
    transmitted pattern of meanings embodied in
    symbols, a system of inherited conceptions
    expressed in symbolic forms by means of which men
    communicate, perpetuate, and develop their
    knowledge about and attitudes toward life
  • Geertz on society the pattern of social
    interaction
  • Culture society capable of wide range of
    modes of integration
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