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OGT Prep OGT 2006,15 Enlightenment philosophers such as John

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Title: OGT Prep OGT 2006,15 Enlightenment philosophers such as John


1
OGT Prep
2
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3
OGT 2005,25
  • Natural law was a fundamental idea of the
    Enlightenment.
  •  
  • Which concept is an application of natural law to
    the governments role in the economic lives of
    its citizens?
  •  
  • free markets based on supply and demand
  • government control to achieve a favorable balance
    of trade
  • agriculture based on tenant farming and serfdom
  • lower taxes on the most privileged groups in
    society

4
OGT 2005,43
  • During the Enlightenment, a number of writers
    explored the relationship between governments and
    the people they governed. For example, Rousseau
    wrote The Social Contract, in which he examined
    ideas about majority will and the common good.
  •  
  • How did these ideas influence the American and
    French Revolutions?
  •  
  • They encouraged loyalty to established
    governments.
  • They supported movements for social and political
    change.
  • They encouraged the formation of American and
    French constitutional monarchies.
  • They supported the efforts of governments to
    maintain control over their subjects.

5
OGT 2006,15
  • Enlightenment philosophers such as John Locke and
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau challenged the idea of the
    divine right of kings. They wrote about a
    governments obligations to uphold peoples
    rights and how the government should be based on
    the consent of the governed.
  • These new ideas encouraged people to
  • remain firm in their support of absolute
    monarchs.
  • look for leaders who would exercise dictatorial
    powers.
  • engage in revolutions to establish democratic
    governments.
  • call for church leaders to create theocracies and
    replace the monarchies.

6
OGT 2007,19
  • Many Latin American nations gained their
    independence early in the 19th century. The
    relationship between the people and their
    government changed. Slavery existed under
    colonial governments, but some of the new
    nations, such as Haiti, did not permit slavery.
    The abolition of slavery was based on
    Enlightenment ideas of
  • liberty as a natural right of man.
  • separation of governmental powers.
  • personal rights as less important than civil
    order.
  • the authority of absolute monarchs.

7
OGT 2008, 14
  • What action by the leaders of the French
    Revolution demonstrates that they were influenced
    by Enlightenment ideas?
  • They called for the fall of the absolute
    monarchy.
  • They encouraged the conquests of Napoleon.
  • They fought to maintain Frances colonial empire.
  • They supported the combination of church and
    state.

8
OGT 2008, 40
  • In exploring the relationship between governments
    and people, Thomas Hobbes argued that governments
    resulted from a social contract to maintain an
    orderly society. John Locke, another philosopher
    of the Enlightenment, inspired American
    revolutionaries by arguing that a new social
    contract could be instituted under what
    circumstance?
  • if a government failed to compel obedience
  • if a government violated peoples natural rights
  • if a government failed to protect people from
    economic inequality
  • if a government entered into alliances with
    foreign governments

9
Half Length 2007, 1
  • In 1789, the French National Assembly issued the
    Declaration of the Rights of Man, based in part
    on the concepts expressed in the U.S. Declaration
    of Independence in 1776. Both documents reflected
    the Enlightenment belief that governments exist
    to protect the natural rights of citizens. What
    developments in France and the United States
    attempted to assure the implementation of this
    concept of government?
  • drafting constitutional protections
  • restoring monarchical rule
  • gaining additional territory
  • expanding the slave trade

10
OGT 2005,3
  • The European Unions objectives include reducing
    tariffs, promoting a single market, and creating
    a common currency.
  • Based on these objectives, what type of world
    region does the European Union primarily
    represent?
  • cultural
  • physical
  • political
  • economic

11
OGT 2005,12
  • The Industrial Revolution brought about major
    changes not only in cities, but in rural America
    as well. Before machines were used, one farmer
    could harvest about 7.5 acres of wheat per year.
    With machines, he could harvest wheat on 135
    acres. Scientists also developed new kinds of
    wheat seeds that could survive northern winters.
    These developments were examples of what was
    happening in many areas of agriculture. Explain
    two additional ways farming changed as a result
    of the Industrial Revolution. Write your answer
    in the Answer Document. (2 points)

12
OGT 2005,14
  • In the late 19th and early 20th centuries,
    improvements in steel technology allowed
    architects to design buildings taller than had
    previously been possible. As a result,
    skyscrapers began to be built in cities such as
    New York and Chicago.
  •  
  • What was the result of this new technology on
    population patterns in the United States in the
    first half of the 20th century?
  •  
  • decreased growth of suburban areas
  • migration from the West to the Midwest
  • greater population density in urban areas
  • increased migration from urban to rural areas

13
OGT 2005,27
  • One effect of industrialization in the United
    States in the late 19th century was
  •  
  • a decrease in child labor.
  • an increase in demand for handicraft goods.
  • a decrease in immigration to the United States.
  • an increase in urbanization

14
OGT 2005,39
  • Consider the following changes that occurred in
    the United States in the late 19th century
  •  
  • improvements in agricultural production
  • increases in immigration from Europe
  • advancements in networks of railroad and
    streetcar lines.
  •  
  • These changes led to the
  •  
  • rapid growth of urban areas.
  • acquisition of overseas territories.
  • elimination of large suburbs around many cities.
  • movement of people from the urban to the rural
    areas.

15
OGT 2006,2
  • A towns mayor believes that she can reduce crime
    by providing some police officers with bicycles.
  • Which statement would help support this thesis?
  • Sales tax revenues will be used to pay for the
    bicycles.
  • Bicycle police require several weeks of extra
    training.
  • Other towns with bicycle police have reduced
    crime rates.
  • Bicycle theft is the leading property crime in
    the town.

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17
OGT 2006,5
  • What effect of 19th-century industrialization in
    the United States is represented by the changes
    shown in the above graph?
  • increased regulation of child labor
  • modernization of agriculture
  • decreased demand for farm products
  • emigration from the United States

18
OGT 2006,33
  • Why was the formation of labor unions an effect
    of U.S. industrialization in the late 1800s?
  • Unions were needed to guarantee a steady supply
    of workers.
  • Union membership was required for employment in
    new industries.
  • Factory owners set up labor unions in order to
    control their large workforce.
  • Unions organized industrial workers to protest
    unsafe working conditions and long workdays.

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20
OGT 2007,3
  • The economic development of the United States
    between 1870 and 1950 helped produce the results
    shown in the graph above. The trend shown in the
    graph is associated with
  • increased urbanization.
  • decreased immigration.
  • advances in communication.
  • reduced population growth.

21
OGT 2007,17
  • People from the countries of Scandinavia,
    Finland, Denmark, Norway and Sweden immigrated to
    the United States mainly between the Civil War
    and World War I. In general, they settled in the
    American Midwest. Their reasons for leaving their
    homelands included overpopulation, poor farm
    production and dissatisfaction with their
    governments.
  • Based on your knowledge of immigration patterns
    to the United States, identify two factors that
    attracted immigrants such as these to the United
    States.
  • Write your answer in the Answer Document. (2
    points)

22
OGT 2007,24
  • A city council member believes that installing
    more trash cans along city streets will help
    reduce the citys litter problem.
  • This thesis could be supported by data showing
    that
  • the citys litter problem has gotten worse in
    recent years.
  • most city residents consider the litter problem
    to be serious.
  • people use trash cans if they are readily
    available.
  • there is enough money in the city budget to pay
    for the trash cans.

23
OGT 2008, 15
  • The appearance in many U.S. cities of department
    stores, organized sporting events, musical
    theaters and amusement parks in the last decades
    of the 19th century was evidence of what effect
    of industrialization?
  • improved living conditions on American farms
  • the growing power of unions to negotiate benefits
    for their members
  • government-sponsored programs to improve public
    health and education
  • an increase in the leisure time and disposable
    income of the urban middle class

24
OGT 2008, 18
  • What factor would help explain the changes in the
    rural population of Europe shown in the table
    above?
  • People have moved from rural to urban areas.
  • The overall population of Europe has decreased.
  • Birth rates have increased in both urban and
    rural areas.
  • People have immigrated to Europe from other
    regions of the world.

25
OGT 2008, 35
  • Identify one example of harsh working conditions
    for British factory workers in the 19th century.
    Explain how industrialization led to that
    condition. Write your answer in the Answer
    Document. (2 points)

26
OGT 2008, 39
  • Many people from the region of Southern and
    Eastern Europe, such as Italians and Russians,
    immigrated to the United States between the Civil
    War and World War I. Identify two factors in
    their home region that led them to move to the
    United States. Write your answer in the Answer
    Document. (2 points)

27
Half Length 2007,6
  • Explain four effects of industrialization on
    living and working conditions for the early
    industrial working class that moved to the new
    industrial towns of 19th-century Britain. Write
    your answer in the Answer Document. (4 points)

28
Half Length 2007,19
  • What factor contributed to the migration of large
    numbers of people from Europe to the United
    States in the late 19th century?
  • Industrialization in the United States attracted
    laborers from Europe.
  • Economic prosperity in Europe allowed people to
    purchase land in the United States.
  • European social reform movements wanted to spread
    their beliefs to the United States.
  • The United States needed people to colonize the
    overseas territories it had recently acquired.

29
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30
Half Length 2007, 27
  • What was one cause of the pattern of economic
    activity shown in the graph above?
  • improvements in technology
  • decreases in urbanization
  • advances in communication
  • reduced population growth

31
Half Length 2007, 28
  • The Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the
    18th century as a result of technological
    innovations in the production of cotton cloth.
    Which major change in the economies of Europe and
    the United States was set in motion by this
    development?
  • an increasing portion of the work force engaged
    in manufacturing
  • labor shortages resulting from a decreasing
    population
  • a shift from free market systems to command
    economies
  • a decreasing need for international trade
    agreements

32
Half Length 2007, 31
  • The economist Adam Smith was an Enlightenment
    thinker. In his writings, he described how market
    systems worked and expressed his belief in
    laissez-faire economics. His ideas influenced how
    people viewed their relationship with their
    government. Supporters of Smith wanted government
    to
  • end universal suffrage.
  • uphold the divine right of kings.
  • protect their freedoms and property.
  • provide strict economic regulations on business.

33
Half Length 2007, 32
  • In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many
    immigrants who came to the United States did not
    speak English as their native language. One way
    this resulted in the exchange of cultural
    practices was that
  • most people were able to speak several languages
    fluently.
  • people from other countries tended to remain
    culturally isolated.
  • people without knowledge of English were not
    allowed to immigrate.
  • words from other languages entered into the
    mainstream vocabulary.

34
OGT 2005,15
  • The data above support the thesis that between
    1990 and 2000
  • the price of newspapers decreased steadily.
  • information in newspapers became more reliable.
  • people became more informed about world events.
  • people decreasingly relied on newspapers as a
    source of information.

35
OGT 2005,38
  • One factor that motivated U.S. imperialism during
    the late 19th and early 20th centuries was the
  •  
  • development of closer political ties with
    European nations.
  • closing of China to all foreign trade.
  • support of international peacekeeping operations.
  • acquisition of new markets and sources of raw
    materials.

36
OGT 2006,9
  • In 1898, U.S. support for Cuban independence led
    to war with Spain and contributed to the United
    States becoming an imperial power.
  • What was a decisive factor in the decision to go
    to war?
  • the opportunity to annex Hawaii
  • the desire to acquire a naval base
  • the protection of U.S. commerce and trade
  • the need for a shorter route from the Atlantic to
    the Pacific

37
OGT 2006,27
  • In the 19th century, European countries claimed
    that the conquest of Africa would bring the
    benefits of Western civilization to that
    continent.
  • From the perspective of African peoples, the
    effect was
  • loss of political independence.
  • fewer agricultural products for foreign trade.
  • new national boundaries based on ethnic and
    cultural similarities.
  • global appreciation for African cultures and
    encouragement of their development.

38
OGT 2006,31
  • In order to decide which writers opinions are
    most credible on a particular subject, a reader
    should look for writers who
  • have written on many different topics.
  • express conclusions consistent with information.
  • use stereotypes to support their claims.
  • write with simple words and short sentences.

39
OGT 2007,5
  • There was a connection between industrial
    expansion and European imperialism in the late
    19th and early 20th centuries.
  • Did imperialism increase or decrease as a
    result of industrialization?
  • Explain why this change occurred.
  • Write your answer in the Answer Document. (2
    points)

40
OGT 2007,40
  • How did the political systems in Africa change as
    a result of European colonialism in the 19th
    century?
  • Opportunities for self-rule increased.
  • Administrative units were set up along ethnic
    lines.
  • Traditional forms of tribal authority were
    weakened.
  • Administrative units became smaller for better
    control.

41
OGT 2008, 34
  • During the late 19th and early 20th centuries,
    U.S. foreign policy was closely tied to domestic
    economic concerns. The annexation of Hawaii, the
    Open Door Policy with China, and the construction
    of the Panama Canal in Latin America were all
    motivated by an interest in
  • breaking up monopolies and trusts.
  • extending land grants for railroad construction.
  • acquiring new markets and sources of raw
    materials.
  • limiting the power of labor unions to strike.

42
Half Length 2007,13
  • Ecuador is a major exporter of bananas, a product
    in high demand in the United States. How might
    the United States adjust its trade policy toward
    Ecuador to assure a supply?
  • eliminate the tariff on bananas from Ecuador
  • increase export taxes on U.S. products sold to
    Ecuador
  • increase tariffs on bananas from Ecuador
  • prohibit the import of any other products from
    Ecuador

43
Half Length 2007,16
  • A noticeable change in the conduct of global
    trade in the last few decades is that trade
    issues between countries are often replaced by
    trade issues between regions. What accounts for
    this change?
  • developing nations discouraging trade with
    developed nations
  • the United Nations having the final authority
    over trade disputes
  • the persistence of ethnic unrest, changing
    national boundaries, and widespread drought and
    disease
  • the formation of international trading blocs,
    such as the North American Free Trade Agreement
    and the European Union

44
OGT 2008, 36
  • The famous American writer Mark Twain expressed
    his opinion about U.S. actions in the Philippines
    after the Spanish-American War with the following
    words
  • I have seen that we do not intend to free, but
    to subjugate (place under control) the people of
    the Philippines. We have gone to conquer, not to
    redeem (save). I am opposed to having the
    American eagle put its talons on any other
    land.
  • This statement would be helpful in supporting the
    thesis that Mark Twain believed that
  • U.S. imperialism was wrong.
  • U.S. imperialism would bring stable government to
    the Philippines.
  • U.S. imperialism was necessary for the United
    States to become a world power.
  • U.S. imperialism civilized the people of the
    Philippines.

45
Half Length 2007, 23
  • One objective of 19th-century European
    imperialism was to
  • preserve native cultures and traditions.
  • expand peace and freedom.
  • protect the environment and conserve wildlife.
  • convert inhabitants of foreign territories to
    Christianity.

46
OGT 2005,9
  • A local politician believes that allowing
    graffiti artists to paint on a designated wall in
    a city park would reduce illegal graffiti in
    other parts of the city.
  •  
  • Which statement would help support this thesis?
  •  
  • Many people in the city do not approve of
    graffiti.
  • Graffiti has appeared on buildings in many parts
    of the city.
  • Illegal graffiti is not protected by the right to
    free speech.
  • Similar programs have reduced illegal graffiti in
    other cities.

47
OGT 2005,10
  • In the United States, a citizens exercise of
    speech and expression may be legally restricted
    when that individual
  •  
  • threatens public safety.
  • opposes public opinion.
  • criticizes public officials.
  • condemns public institutions.

48
OGT 2005,16
  • The League of Nations was created after World War
    I as a forum for resolving international
    conflicts. However, the League was unable to
    resolve tensions that led to World War II.
  •  
  • One factor that contributed to the
    ineffectiveness of the League was the
  • breakup of colonial empires in Africa and Asia.
  • decision of the United States not to join the
    League.
  • opposition of League members to the Treaty of
    Versailles.
  • rise of the Cold War between the United States
    and the Soviet Union.

49
OGT 2006,41
  • A school superintendent believes that physical
    education (PE) classes improve student academic
    performance.
  • This thesis could be supported or refuted by
  • data from schools on the cost of PE equipment.
  • data from a survey of student opinions about PE
    classes.
  • data comparing student physical fitness before
    and after PE.
  • data comparing student test scores in schools
    with and without PE.

50
OGT 2006,44
  • In the United States, freedom of the press to
    report on certain matters may be restricted
    during wartime because
  • reporting military secrets may threaten national
    security.
  • laws against libel and slander are strictly
    enforced during wartime.
  • materials used to print newspapers must be
    conserved during wartime.
  • the government has a compelling interest in
    suppressing opposing views.

51
OGT 2007,29
  • During World War I, conscientious objectors to
    military service were often accused of
    disloyalty, and some conscientious objectors were
    sentenced to prison. However, an attempt was made
    to balance individual rights and the common good
    by assigning other conscientious objectors to
    noncombatant service.
  • How did assigning conscientious objectors to
    noncombatant service help maintain individual
    rights?
  • How did assigning conscientious objectors to
    noncombatant service help serve the common good?
  • Write your answer in the Answer Document. (4
    points)

52
OGT 2008, 4
  • During World War I, conscientious objectors to
    military service were often accused of
    disloyalty, and some conscientious objectors were
    sentenced to prison. However, other conscientious
    objectors were willing to accept noncombatant
    service.
  • The assignment of conscientious objectors to
    noncombatant service was an attempt by the
    government to
  • promote ethnic diversity within the military.
  • educate people about their constitutional rights.
  • balance individual rights and the common good.
  • encourage people to apply forconscientious
    objector status.

53
OGT 2008, 43
  • Which source has the appropriate qualifications
    to be a credible source of information about the
    city streets with the most car-pedestrian
    accidents?
  • data collected on a personal blog
  • a conversation with a personal injury lawyer
  • a letter to the editor by an injured pedestrian
  • data collected by the local police department

54
OGT 2008, 44
  • During World War I, two revolutions took place in
    Russia while Russia was at war with Germany.
    Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Bolshevik
    Revolution, said
  • There can be no doubt that our army is
    absolutely in no condition ... to beat back a
    German offensive successfully. ...
  • The excerpt above could be used to support the
    thesis that
  • Lenin had few skills as a military leader.
  • Russia shared in the responsibility for World War
    I.
  • Lenin believed that Russia should withdraw from
    World War I.
  • The Bolshevik Revolution had the support of the
    Russian army.

55
Half Length 2007,4
  • Freedom of speech and freedom of the press are
    limited by
  • the 14th Amendment.
  • laws against slander and libel.
  • checks and balances of state governments.
  • the governments power of eminent domain.

56
Half Length 2007,11
  • Charles Schenck was found guilty of violating the
    1917 Espionage Act by distributing leaflets
    through the mail urging men to resist induction
    under the military draft for World War I. On
    appeal, Schencks attorneys argued the
    distribution of the leaflets was protected by the
    First Amendment. The Supreme Court upheld his
    conviction. This case illustrates how individual
    rights can be balanced against
  • the rights of other individuals.
  • the security of the nation in a time of war.
  • the opportunities for people to enlist in the
    military.
  • the interest of the government in keeping courts
    open to provide justice.

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