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The Elements of Poetry

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Title: The Elements of Poetry


1
The Elements of Poetry
  • Prepared by
  • Paula F. Landreneau, Reading Facilitator

2
What is poetry? How do we know?
  • Lets begin a Circle Map to define poetry in
    context as we go through this workshop.

3
What do poets have to say about poetry?
  • Poetry by Eleanor Farjeon
  • A Word by Emily Dickinson

4
Poetryby Eleanor Farjeon
  • What is Poetry? Who knows?
  • Not a rose, but the scent of the rose
  • Not the sky, but the light in the sky
  • Not the fly, but the gleam of the fly
  • Not the sea, but the sound of the sea
  • Not myself, but what makes me
  • See, hear, and feel something that prose
  • Cannot and what it is, who knows?

5
A Word By Emily Dickinson A word is dead When it
is said, Some say. I say it just Begins to
live that day.
6
What is Poetry?
  • Poetry is a type of literature in which the
    sound and meaning of language are combined to
    create ideas and feelings.

7
There are three broad categories of poetry.
  • 1. Narrative
  • 2. Dramatic
  • 3. Lyric

8
Poetry
  • Lyric poems paint a picture and include most
    short poems.
  • Narrative poems tell a story. Epics (long poems)
    and ballads are two types of narrative poetry.
  • In dramatic poetry the storys characters act out
    the story. Many plays are written as dramatic
    poetry.

9
The Reason for the PelicanJohn Ciardi
  • The reason for the pelican
  • Is difficult to see
  • His beak is clearly larger
  • Than there's any need to be.
  • It's not to bail a boat with-
  • He doesn't own a boat.
  • Yet everywhere he takes himself
  • He has that beak to tote.

10
  • It's not to keep his wife in-
  • His wife has got one, too.
  • It's not a scoop for eating soup.
  • It's not an extra shoe.
  • It isn't quite for anything.
  • And yet you realize
  • It's really quite a splendid beak
  • In quite a splendid size.

11
  • Haiku
  • Pelicans at sea
  • Giant cups with wings
  • Fish peek out each side

12
Humorous Poetry
  • Humorous poetry is sometimes put in a separate
    category, however, poems that make us laugh can
    be classified as narrative, lyric, or dramatic
    poetry.
  • Listen to Jack Prelutsky read one of his poems.

13
Narrative Poems
  • The Night Before Christmas by Clement Moore
  • Rip Van Winkle by Washington Irving
  • Casey at the Bat by Ernest Lawrence Thayer
  • There Was an Old Woman Who Swallowed a Fly
    Anonymous

14
Narrative Poems
  • Paul Reveres Ride by Henry Wadsworth
    Longfellow
  • The Creation by James Weldon Johnson
  • Sick by Shel Silverstein

15
The Song of Hiawatha by Henry Wadsworth
Longfellow
  • From Part III Hiawathas Childhood
  • By the shores of Gitche Gumee,
  • By the shining Big-Sea-Water,
  • Stood the wigwam of Nokomis,
  • Daughter of the Moon, Nokomis.

16
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17
Common Elements of Poetry
  • Rhythm in poetry means the flow of sound. This
    pattern of rhythm in a poem is called meter.
  • Poets often use the sounds of words to create
    effects. The most common method is to use words
    that rhyme. Rhyme commonly refers to end-rhyme.

18
Rhythm and Rhyme in an excerpt from ALICE by
Shel Silverstein
  • She drank from a bottle called DRINK ME
  • And up she grew so tall,
  • She ate from a plate called TASTE ME
  • And down she shrank so small.
  • And so she changed, while other folks
  • Never tried nothin at all.

19
Free verse doesnt rhyme or necessarily have
rhythm.
  • Zebra
  • By Judith Thurman
  • white sun
  • black
  • fire escape
  • morning
  • grazing like a zebra
  • outside my window.
  • Crickets by Valerie Worth
  • I Dreamd in a Dream by Walt Whitman

20
Common Elements of Poetry
  • Poets also achieve effects by using words that
    have similar sounds but do not rhyme.
  • Repetition of the same first sounds in words is
    called alliteration.
  • Consonance occurs when the same consonant sound
    is repeated.
  • The repetition of an internal vowel sound is
    called assonance.

21
Four SeasonsAnonymous
  • Spring is showery, flowery, bowery,
  • Summer hoppy, choppy, poppy.
  • Autumn wheesy, sneezy, freezy.
  • Winter slippy, drippy, nippy.

22
The Hippopotamusby Jack Prelutsky
  • The huge hippopotamus hasnt a hair
  • on the back of his wrinkly hide
  • He carries the bulk of his prominent hulk
  • rather loosely assembled inside.
  • The huge hippopotamus lives without care
  • at a slow philosophical pace,
  • as he wades in the mud with a thump and a thud
  • and a permanent grin on his face.

23
Lets look at the way poets use sound devices in
more poems
  • Sea Shell by Amy Lowell
  • Waters Edge by Lillian Morrison
  • The Muddy Puddle by Dennis Lee

24
Common Elements of Poetry
  • Imagery refers to the sensations that the poets
    language creates. These sensations, or images,
    are often thought of as being like pictures.
  • Imagery appeals to the senses of sight, hearing,
    smell, touch, taste. Poets also employ images of
    motion and heat and cold.

25
Imagery of Color
26
Figures of Speech
  • It is raining cats and dogs.
  • The young boy must be 15 feet tall.
  • The trees whispered their secrets to the wind.
  • After the brisk run, she was as limp as a rag
    doll.
  • Her angry eyes were darts waiting to be thrown.

27
Common Elements of Poetry
  • Poets also create images by comparing things that
    ordinarily have little in common through the use
    of simile and metaphor.
  • Metaphors and similes, along with idioms, are
    called figures of speech. In a figure of speech,
    the meaning is different from the literal meaning
    of the words.

28
Common Elements of Poetry
  • When a poet gives an inanimate object or an
    abstraction the characteristics of a human, he is
    using a type of figurative language called
    personification.
  • To make a point a poet may exaggerate. When this
    exaggeration is beyond belief it is called
    hyperbole.

29
Common Elements of Poetry
  • Poets use words that imitate the sounds that they
    describe. This poetic device is called
    onomatopoeia.
  • Repetition of words, phrases, or sentences are
    used to produce a cumulative effect. Frequently,
    the structure of the phrases rather than the
    phrases themselves are repeated.

30
I Love the Look of Words by Maya Angelou
  • Popcorn leaps, popping from the floor
  • of a hot black skillet
  • and into my mouth.
  • Black words leap,
  • snapping from the white
  • page. Rushing into my eyes. Sliding
  • into my brain which gobbles them
  • the way my tongue and teeth
  • chomp the buttered popcorn.

31
  • When I have stopped reading,
  • ideas from the words stay stuck
  • in my mind, like the sweet
  • smell of butter perfuming my
  • fingers long after the popcorn
  • is finished.
  • I love the book and the look of words
  • the weight of ideas that popped into my mind
  • I love the tracks
  • of new thinking in my mind.

32
Types of Poems
  • Certain types of poems, for example, the
    acrostic, cinquain, couplet, diamante, haiku, and
    limerick, have a set structure.
  • An acrostic presents a word spelled out
    vertically.
  • A cinquain has five lines with 2, 4, 6, 8, and 2
    syllables.

33
Types of Poems
  • A couplet is simply two lines with end-rhyme.
  • Diamante is a diamond shaped poem using nouns,
    adjectives, and gerunds to describe a topic or
    opposing topics.

34
Types of Poems
  • Haiku is a Japanese form of three unrhymed lines
    of 5, 7, and 5 syllables usually expressing
    images of nature.
  • A limerick has five lines with an aabba rhyme
    scheme, with 8 or 9 syllables in lines 1, 2, and
    5 and 5 or 6 syllables in lines 3 and 4. Often
    limericks are humorous.

35
Types of Poems
  • Concrete poems, sometimes called shape or pattern
    poems, form a picture or visual image.

36
Making Meaning
  • Consider
  • 1. Point of view (the narrative perspective
    who is telling the story or expressing the
    feeling)
  • 2. Voice (authors style or expression of
    self)
  • 3. Mood (authors attitude toward the subject)
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