A Review of Rapid Prompting Method and Prompt Therapy for Autism Treatments - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – A Review of Rapid Prompting Method and Prompt Therapy for Autism Treatments PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3c8b2d-NzBkO



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

A Review of Rapid Prompting Method and Prompt Therapy for Autism Treatments

Description:

Casi M. Healey, MA, BCBA Caldwell College * What is Prompt Therapy? History Video examples of PROMPT Therapy What Does PROMPT Therapy Claim To Do? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:510
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 60
Provided by: facultyCa8
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: A Review of Rapid Prompting Method and Prompt Therapy for Autism Treatments


1
A Review of Rapid Prompting Method and Prompt
Therapy for Autism Treatments
  • Casi M. Healey, MA, BCBA
  • Caldwell College

2
  • Rapid Prompting Method

3
Search Criteria
  • Psych Info ,ERIC, and Google Search Terms
  • Rapid Prompting Method
  • RPM
  • Rapid Prompting
  • Halo
  • Soma Mukhopadhyay
  • Soma and Tito
  • Dominant Learning Channel
  • Autism
  • Autism Interventions
  • Alternative Autism Interventions

4
Outline
  • What is Rapid Prompting Method (RPM)
  • History
  • Basic Components of RPM
  • RPM Materials
  • Video Examples of RPM
  • What does Rapid Prompting Method Claim To Do?
  • Does Research Support the Use of RPM?
  • Conclusions

5
What is Rapid Prompting Method (RPM)?History
  • Developed by Soma Mukhopadhyay when her
    three-year-old son, Tito, was diagnosed with
    autism.
  • Also known as Soma RPM
  • She taught him herself through the use textbooks
    and classics by having him point to letter and
    numbers.
  • According to Soma, when Tito was six-years-old he
    was able to write independently.
  • By age eleven he was diagnosed as gifted by the
    National Autistic Society in the UK.
  • Came to US by foundation of
  • Cure Autism Now (CAN).

6
What is Rapid Prompting Method (RPM)?History
  • Media attention began in 2000 by the BBC did a
    story called Titos Story.
  • Titos first book was published in 2001 titled
    Beyond the Silence.
  • 2003 television program Sixty Minutes II provided
    national attention for RPM.

7
What is Rapid Prompting Method (RPM)?History
  • Soma started HALO (Helping Autism through
    Learning and Outreach).
  • Started in January 2004 in
  • Burbank, CA.
  • Moved clinic in January 2005
  • to Austin, TX.
  • 11 sessions are conducted with
  • Soma.
  • Must be a member of HALO before the child can be
    seen by Soma.
  • Annual membership fee is 25.00

8
What is Rapid Prompting Method (RPM)?The Basic
Components
  • RPM is an empirical and rational teaching
    method, based upon how the brain works
  • 1. Teaching Choice
  • First step teaching the student to make choices
    from a field of two.
  • Second step The student is taught to spell words
    by pointing to letters in one row of 3-6 choices.
    Then to two rows and so on.
  • Third step The student uses a letter board with
    26 choices.
  • What are some questions we can derive from this?

9
What is Rapid Prompting Method (RPM)?The Basic
Components
  • 2. Build Self-Esteem, Interest and Success
  • Individualized instruction opens learning
    channels
  • The location of the dominant learning channel
    is based on the students primary stim.
  • Soma observes the students reactions to his
    environment as well as the student's primary
    stim, which can be the best indicator. Example
    How does the student respond to a book?.... Does
    he flip the pages? (kinesthetic/visual) Does he
    focus on a specific part? (visual) Does he bang
    the book against something? (auditory) Does he
    tear the pages? (auditory/tactile) Any of these
    behaviors would help point to open learning
    channels.
  • Questions? Concerns?

10
What is Rapid Prompting Method (RPM)?
  • Email question
  • Hi, I have a few questions.  How does Soma know
    which is the primary stim to locate the
    dominant learning channel?  Are data collected to
    make the decision because some learners with
    autism have different types of stereotypic
    behavior that all appear to occur at high rates?

11
What is Rapid Prompting Method (RPM)?
  • Email Response
  • Hello, In the FAQ's section of our website
    (Under Learning RPM) This question is addressed
    Soma observes the students reactions to his
    environment as well as the student's primary
    stim, which can be the best indicator. Example
    How does the student respond to a book?.... Does
    he flip the pages? (kinesthetic/visual) Does he
    focus on a specific part? (visual) Does he bang
    the book against something? (auditory) Does he
    tear the pages? (auditory/tactile) Any of these
    behaviors would help point to open learning
    channels.
  • The determination is found by observing
    the student from the moment they walk in and sit
    down to do a session. Will they sit or do they
    need to move around alot (kinesthetic) are they
    tactile defensive about sitting in a chair or how
    do or will they hold a pencil (tactile defensive)
    .

12
What is Rapid Prompting Method (RPM)?The Basic
Components
  • 2. Build Self-Esteem, Interest and Success
  • But when treated with confidence, ASD students
    (just like typical students) are more hopeful and
    sure about themselves and their potential
  • Exposure to varied academic topics such as
    science, social studies, and math.
  • Questions? Concerns?

13
What is Rapid Prompting Method (RPM)? The Basic
Components
  • 3. Patience and Practice for Development of
    Motor Skills
  • Teaching the student to point BUT understand that
    it involves a lot of muscles and joints as well
    as motor planning which children with autism have
    difficulty with.
  • Requires patience and caring to teach pointing
    skills.
  • Once they have mastered this skill they increase
    to pointing to 3 to 4 letters on a line and so on
    until they are able to use a QWERTY chart.
  • Questions? Concerns?

14
RPM Materials
15
Some Video Examples of RPM
  • Beginning session
  • http//www.halo-soma.org/learning_videos.php?sess_
    id20fb8fc6b6c0eecc35d245f786d2f167
  • Session using QWERTY board
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vm1OAqtAR_-E

16
Some Video Examples of RPM
  • High school student
  • http//www.mtv.com/videos/true-life-i-have-autis
    m/1554937/playlist.jhtml
  • Comments about these videos?

17
What Does RPM Claim To Do?
  • RPM activates the brain by using the Open
    Learning Channels
  • Uses a Teach/Ask Paradigm to teach individuals
    with autism academics and learn to communicate in
    the process.
  • Use of visual, auditory, verbal, and tactile
    prompts.
  • The use of these prompts compete with the
    students stereotypic behaviors.
  • Soma paces her instruction based on the rate of
    the students stereotypy.
  • This claims to keep student on-task.

18
What Does RPM Claim To Do?
  • Teaching begins with focus on a particular
    subject area that is age appropriate.
  • Soma adjusts teaching matter to stimulate the
    desired side of the brain.
  • Use of the open learning channel facilitates
    maximum learning and output by the student with
    autism.
  • As a students motor and cognitive skills
    improve, so does the sophistication of their
    responses.
  • Manual prompting helps the student to make
    independent responses.
  • Prompt dependency is preferred to no response.
  • Manual prompts are faded if and when an student
    no longer needs them.

19
What Does RPM Claim To Do?
  • What if a student engages in a tantrum and/or
    aggressive behaviors?
  • Soma converts students' right-brain emotional
    state by teaching specific subject matter (for
    example math and spelling) to activate
    left-brain reasoning.
  • Converts right-brain tantrum to left-brain
    reasoning

20
Does Research Support the Use of RPM?
  • According to Soma, RPM is the most direct and
    unlimited path to teaching learning and
    communicating.
  • HOWEVER, RPM has no scientific research to
    back-up its claims that is successful to teach
    academics and communication.
  • Research was allegedly conducted in 2003 at the
    Carousel School but was never published.
  • They claim research is currently being conducted
    at Cornell University.
  • In addition, there are no references to support
    this interventions methodology regarding how the
    brain works.

21
Does Research Support the Use of RPM?
  • RPM only provides testimonials and case studies
    as any evidence to its effectiveness.
  • http//www.halo-soma.org/about_testimonials.php?se
    ss_id20fb8fc6b6c0eecc35d245f786d2f167
  • http//www.halo-soma.org/learning_case_studies.php
    ?sess_id20fb8fc6b6c0eecc35d245f786d2f167
  • Why is this not considered scientific evidence?

22
Does Research Support the Use of RPM?
  • Email question
  • I understand that research is being conducted
    at Cornell University. Could you tell me the
    specific areas that they are researching and an
    anticipated time frame when the research will be
    completed and available to the public? Is there a
    contact person at Cornell that can share some
    information? Thank you in advance.

23
Does Research Support the Use of RPM?
  • Email response
  • The Cornell study is on the effectiveness of
    RPM as an educational method. When complete it
    will be made available to the public.
  • Lets read Somas recent response to the lack of
    scientific research.
  • http//counteringageofautism.blogspot.com/2010/04
    /why-rapid-prompting-method-doesnt-pass.html

24
Does Research Support the Use of RPM?
  • There is one study about RPM
  • Titled The Rapid Prompting Method of
    Communicating with Severely Autistic Children a
    Language Socialization Study
  • By Olga Soloman Ph.D., University of Southern
    California.
  • The study looked at the use of RPM as it was
    being trained across users (Socialization)
  • Soma trained parents teachers (1st generation)
    to use RPM
  • Then 1st generation trained RPM to other parent
    teachers (2nd generation)
  • 200 hours of video footage were reviewed
    involving 16 children diagnosed with autism
    across to different cities (Los Angeles and
    Chicago).
  • According to the authors, the study showed that
    as parents and experts socialized RPM they
    constructed an empirically-based theoretical
    framework of autism.
  • Interestingly, the parents differed with Soma
    (via parent interviews) in that they used RPM as
    a conversational practice rather then
    educational.
  • Is this a scientific study? Why?

25
Does Research Support the Use of RPM?
  • There is mention of RPM in a case study titled
  • Language is more than speech A case study. By
    Morton Ann Gernbacher, Ph.D. in 2004.
  • Article follows a child with autism and his
    parents search for an appropriate intervention.
  • RPM is mentioned as the mother brought her son to
    meet with Soma.
  • Parents perspective was that she was unwilling
    to go the extreme measures that Soma used for her
    son, Tito, but wanted to possibly use some
    aspects of RPM to teach a gross style of
    handwriting.
  • Is this a scientific study? Why?

26
Conclusions
  • Based on the research provided the Rapid
    Prompting Method is not an empirically validated
    intervention for children with autism.
  • It lacks any evidence-based research to prove its
    effectiveness since its inception 10 years ago.
  • Only testimonials and case studies are provided
    for parents to make a decision of its efficacy
  • Only the rigor of scientific study will provide
    answers if RPM does what it says it does!

27
Conclusions
  • What are some of the warning signs of RPM as a
    pseudoscientific therapy?
  • Claim of high success rates Soma has helped
    hundreds of individuals with autism
  • Many different disorders and symptoms can be
    helped with this therapy It claims to be
    effective with Angelman Syndrome, Williams
    Syndrome, Prader-Willi Syndrome, and students
    with other Chromosomal abnormalities. Also
    students who are blind, deaf, Fragile X,
    Isodicentric 15, Down Syndrome.
  • Very little training is required and is easy to
    administer Claims to be a low-tech
    intervention that only requires a teacher,
    student, paper and pencil.

28
Conclusions
  • The therapys theory contradicts objective
    knowledge (and common sense) How does Soma
    convert learning from the right brain
    hemisphere to the left? What are open learning
    channels?
  • Therapy effectiveness is in the form of
    testimonials, anecdotes, or personal accounts, no
    objective evidence is provided. Only case
    studies and testimonials are available in lei of
    scientific research. Although there are claims
    that research is being conducted yet nothing has
    been published.

29
Conclusions
  • Objective evaluation and scrutiny of the therapy
    by others is resisted by its promoters According
    to Soma, she was waiting for the right
    opportunity to conduct research. She also had to
    prove results before research interest could be
    stimulated.
  • Promoters accuse critics and scientific
    investigators of persecuting them, being
    "close-minded," or having some ulterior motive
    for "debunking" the therapy www.counteringageofau
    tism.blogspot.com

30
  • Questions? Comments?

31
References
  • Gersbacher, M. A. (2004). Language is more than
    speech A case study. Journal of Developmental
    and Learning Disorder, 8, 81-98.
  • Solomon, O (2006 ). The Rapid Prompting Method of
    Communicating with Severely Autistic Children
    A Language Socialization Study. Submitted to
    National Academy of Education.
  • Wombles, K.(2010, April 12) http//counteringageo
    fautism.blogspot.com /2010/04/why-rapid- promptin
    g-method-doesnt-pass.html
  • www.halo-soma.org
  • http//www.asatonline.org/resources/articles/evalu
    ate.htm
  • (adapted from the American Arthritis
    Foundation)originally printed in Science in
    Autism Treatment, Spring 1999
  • www.youtube.com
  • www.mtv.com

32
  • PROMPT Therapy

33
Search Criteria
  • Psych Info, ERIC, and Google Search Terms
  • Prompt Therapy
  • Prompts for Restructuring Oral Muscular Phonetic
    Targets
  • Autism and Prompt Therapy
  • Research on the Use of Prompt for Children with
    Autism
  • Speech/Language Interventions for Children with
    Autism

34
Outline
  • What is Prompt Therapy?
  • History
  • Video examples of PROMPT Therapy
  • What Does PROMPT Therapy Claim To Do?
  • How is PROMPT different from traditional manual
    prompting techniques.
  • How to become certified in PROMPT.
  • Does Research Support the Use of PROMPT?
  • Example of PROMPT Recommendations from SLP
  • Conclusions

35
What is PROMPT Therapy?History
  • Deborah Hayden, MA, CCC-SLP developed PROMPT in
    the 1970s.
  • PROMPT stands for Prompts for Restructuring Oral
    Muscular Phonetic Targets
  • First used with children who presented with
    severe motor impairment.
  • In 1984, the first manual was published
    describing the PROMPT technique.
  • In the 1990s PROMPT was refined as standardized
    assessment protocols were developed.

36
What is PROMPT Therapy?History
  • They looked at how the interaction of all motor
    systems directly affect speech-motor systems
    control.
  • Also looked at the influence on speech-motor
    development if motor systems were damaged or
    pathways disrupted.
  • The PROMPT Institute has clinics in Santé Fe and
    Espanola, New Mexico.

37
What is PROMPT Therapy?
  • PROMPT method applies external tactile-sensory
    information in order to create new and more
    intact motor pathways.
  • The PROMPT instructor places his/her hand on the
    students face around the mouth area in order to
    facilitate correct articulation of words.

38
Videos of PROMPT Therapy
  • Deborah Hayden speaking about PROMPT
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?voa9KOMtY-N0NR1
  • Demonstration of PROMPT with a student
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vPbul2YP8pL4
  • Demonstration of PROMPT technique
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vosSBtHV0JZYfeature
    related
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vWOIizoHp43Qfeature
    related
  • Questions? Comments?

39
What Does PROMPT Claim To Do?
  • Described as a multidimensional.
  • Physical-sensory aspects of motor planning.
  • Social-emotional aspects.
  • Cognitive-linguistic aspects.
  • Uses touch as prime sensory modality.
  • Touch helps to provide sensory input regarding
    placement of mouth, jaw, head, torso, lips etc

40
What Does PROMPT Claim To Do?
  • The surface tactile prompts provide
  • The student with input about place of
    articulation.
  • The amount and type of muscular contraction.
  • Movement transition.
  • Timing needed to produce speech sounds.
  • Enhances social-emotional interactions with child
    and therapist.
  • Helps to re-establish or develop motor control of
    speech production.

41
How is PROMPT Different From Traditional Manual
Prompting?
  • There are two major differences that PROMPT is
    different.
  • PROMPT claims to provide a tactile prompt at the
    point of muscle constriction to activate the
    specific muscles to produce sound.
  • PROMPT does not require a vocal response from the
    student when applying the tactile prompt. They
    claim they are mapping the response. There are no
    criteria when to require a vocal response.
  • Questions? Concerns?

42
How To Become Trained in PROMPT
  • Must be a certified SLP in order to take course
    work.
  • Introduction to PROMPT technique
  • Three day workshop for 700.00
  • On-Line Course PROMPT Treatment Planning
  • One-day online course for 150.00
  • PROMPT technique practicum (self-study)
  • 30 days to complete video recorded sessions of
    person using PROMPT with a child. First video
    should be 3 min showing pre-PROMPT intervention.
    Followed by a 7 min videos showing use of PROMPT
    during two interactive therapy activities. Videos
    are then sent to a PROMPT certified clinician for
    review and feedback. 175.00

43
How To Become Trained in PROMPT
  • Bridging PROMPT to intervention
  • A three-day workshop for 700.00
  • PROMPT certification project
  • Write a detailed assessment of a clients
    abilities across domains and write a holistic
    intervention approach as well as development of
    parent goals. Provide plan that was developed
    over a four month time treatment time frame to
    the PROMPT Institute for review. 350.00
  • One can also hire a PROMPT mentor to assist
    and review your skills for 100.00 per session.

44
Does Research Support the Use of PROMPT?
  • There are unpublished studies involving the use
    of PROMPT with children with autism. They are not
    available for review
  • According to the website www.promptinstitute.com
  • a case study conducted by Chumpelik Hayden
    Sherman,(1980) looked at an eight-year-old girl
    with autism who was non-verbal and displayed
    cognitive impairment. PROMPT was used and she
    reportedly learned 30 functional words.

45
Does Research Support the Use of PROMPT?
  • Book Chapter PROMPT A Tactually Grounded
    Treatment Approach to Speech Disorders Movement
    and Action in Learning and Development Clinical
    Implications for Pervasive Developmental
    Disorder. (2004) p. 255-297.
  • Edited by Ida Stockman
  • Provides a detailed history of PROMPT and its
    techniques
  • Only provides case studies for children with
    autism.
  • Reports there is a disconnect between the brain
    and tactile-kinesthetic senses

46
Does Research Support the Use of PROMPT?
  • Pilot study conducted by Rogers et al. (2006)
    compared the Denver Model and PROMPT to teach
    vocal speech to children with autism who are
    non-verbal.
  • Subjects 10 participants age range from 20-65
    months old who received an independent diagnosis
    of autism.
  • Participants were randomly selected to
    participant in the either the Denver Model or
    PROMPT Therapy.
  • Both groups received intervention for 1 hour per
    week for 12 weeks
  • Participants allowed to be enrolled in other
    interventions during study.

47
Does Research Support the Use of PROMPT?
  • Design Single subject using a reversal design
    (A-B-A)
  • Three baseline probes were conducted
  • During intervention sessions, parents observed
    either in vivo or video camera. They were asked
    to practice the new skills at home.
  • Treatment fidelity was assessed for 25 of the
    sessions at achieved a rate of 85 or better
    across those sessions.

48
Does Research Support the Use of PROMPT?
  • Results
  • 8 out of the 10 participants learned at least
    five functional spontaneous words by the end of
    the 12 weeks.
  • These participants demonstrated generalization of
    language skills in the home setting.
  • Two of the participants (one in each model) did
    not acquire any functional language.
  • Discussion
  • Both interventions produced similar results.
  • Parental involvement probably played a
    significant role.
  • Another study needs to be conducted for
    replication.

49
What are some SLPs recommending for Children
with Autism
  • The following document is an actual formal list
    of recommendations for a seven-year-old learner
    with autism from a speech-language pathologist
    after a one-day in-office evaluation.

50
(No Transcript)
51
Discussion about SLP Recommendations
  • According to the American Speech and Hearing
    Association (ASHA) Roles and Responsibility
    (2006)
  • Speech-language pathologists should recognize
    the guidelines and active components of
    effective, evidence-based practice for
    individuals with ASD. They should draw on
    empirically supported approaches to meet specific
    needs of children with ASD and their families,
    thereby incorporating family preferences,
    cultural differences, and learning styles.
  • Questions? Comments?

52
Conclusions
  • Based on the research provided there are no
    scientifically validated research studies to show
    that PROMPT is an effective treatments for
    children with autism.
  • Only one study (a pilot study) was published in a
    peer-reviewed journal, Journal of Autism and
    Developmental Disabilities. The results indicated
    that when PROMPT was compared to the Denver Model
    both methods produced similar results.

53
Conclusions
  • Other claimed areas of research included case
    studies which do not demonstrate evidence of a
    treatments efficacy.
  • Cites research studies that have never been
    published and lists them on the website as
    references.
  • PROMPT Therapy has neither been proven nor
    disproven as an effective therapy for children
    with autism.
  • More research needs to be conducted using
    scientific research methodology.

54
What are some of the warning signs of PROMPT as
a pseudoscientific therapy?
  • There is financial benefit from promoters or
    otherwise from adoption of the therapy Total
    cost of 2,075 to be PROMPT certified.
  • Therapy effectiveness is in the form of
    testimonials, anecdotes, or personal accounts, no
    objective evidence is provided. Only case
    studies and unpublished research are available in
    lei of scientific research.

55
What are some of the warning signs of PROMPT as a
pseudoscientific therapy?
  • Slogans are catchy and are used in marketing the
    therapy. The name PROMPT elicits a connection to
    ABA.
  • Many different disorders and symptoms can be
    helped with this therapy. PROMPT has been
    reported to be effective with individuals with
    apraxia, aphasia, autism, persistent sound system
    disorders, severe articulation disorders,
    cerebral palsy

56
  • Questions? Comments?

57
References
  • American Speech and Hearing Association
    http//www.asha.org/docs/html/PS2006-00105.html
  • Chumpelik Hayden, D. Sherman, J. (1980).
    Using a tactile approach in the acquisition of
    functional oral communication in a non-verbal,
    eight year old autistic child a case study.
    Unpublished research.
  • Hayden, D.A. (2004). PROMPT A tactually grounded
    treatment approach to speech production
    disorders. In I. Stockman (Ed.), Movement and
    action in learning and development Clinical
    implications for pervasive developmental
    disorders (pp. 255297). San Diego, CA
    ElsevierAcademic Press.
  • Rogers, S. J., Hayden, D. Hepburn, S.,
    Charlifue-Smith, R., Hall, T., Hayes, A.
    (2006). Teaching young nonverbal children with
    autism useful speech A pilot study of the
    Denver Model and PROMPT interventions. Journal
    of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(8),
    10071024.

58
References
  • www.promptinstitute.com
  • http//www.asatonline.org/resources/articles/evalu
    ate.htm
  • (adapted from the American Arthritis
    Foundation)originally printed in Science in
    Autism Treatment, Spring 1999
  • www.youtube.com

59
  • Thank You!!
  • Science first, workshops second. Publication
    now, claims later
  • -James
  • Counteringageofautism.com
  • April 12, 2010
About PowerShow.com