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Chapter 5: Ecosystems and the Physical Environment

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Chapter 5: Ecosystems and the Physical Environment The Atmosphere The Atmosphere Hypothesis Gaea= Greek goddess of Earth or mother Earth. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 5: Ecosystems and the Physical Environment


1
Chapter 5 Ecosystems and the Physical Environment
2
The Atmosphere
http//mediatheek.thinkquest.nl/ll125/en/atmos.ht
m
3
The Atmosphere
4
Hypothesis
1970s This theory proposed global
self-regulation.
  • Gaea Greek goddess of Earth or mother Earth.

5
Hypothesis
Example Earths temperature has remained stable
due to organisms fixing CO2 into Calcium
Carbonate CaCO3 of shells. Corals, Crustacea
6
Planetary Temperature as a Negative Feedback loop?
Example A thermostat only turns on when the
temperature drops below the desirable temp. Once
it reaches the correct temperature the heat turns
off.
7
Energy and Matter
8
Do Now Biogeochemical cycles
  • Identify the five Biogeochemical cycles.
  • Identify some major reactions that occur for
    each.
  • Discuss their importance, be sure to include the
    interaction between biotic abiotic factors.

9
Biogeochemical cycles
  • Interaction between biotic abiotic.
  • Transpiration, decomposition, Photosynthesis and
    respiration
  • The recycling of materials to be used over over
    again.
  • 5 examples are
  • 1. Phosphorus cycle
  • 2. Nitrogen cycle
  • 3. Hydrologic cycle
  • 4. Carbon cycle
  • 5. Sulfur cycle

10
Do Now
  • Draw a simple carbon for your bioregion. Include
    all the relevant processes as well as the local /
    regional geographical features that are part of
    the cycle.

11
The Carbon-Cycle
  • Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are recycled through
    the environment by the processes of respiration
    and photosynthesis.
  • Carbon makes up0.038 of our atmosphere (CO2)
  • Oceanic Carbon
  • Carbonate (CO3 2- )
  • Bicarbonate HCO3 - )
  • Dissolved organics from decay
  • Sedimentary Rock
  • Limestone Calcium carbonate CaCO3

12
The Carbon-Cycle
  • Atmospheric Carbon
  • 0.038 of our atmosphere carbon dioxide CO2
  • Carbonic Acid (H2CO3)
  • Oceanic Carbon
  • Carbonate (CO3 2- )
  • Bicarbonate (HCO3 - )
  • Dissolved organics from decay
  • Sedimentary Rock
  • Limestone AKA Calcium carbonate (CaCO3)

13
The Carbon-Cycle
  • CO2 H20? Carbonic Acid (H2CO3)
  • (combines in rainwater)
  • 2. H2CO3- ? HCO3 - and H
  • (dissociates in soil)
  • 3. H (acidic) breaks down feldspar? Ca2
  • 4. H2CO3- Ca2 ? CaCO3
  • (in runoff combines) forming
  • 5. CaCO3 in runoff up taken and used by oceanic
    organisms
  • 6. Organisms die, sedimentation occurs forming
    Limestone

14
Carbon Cycle
15
The Carbon cycle
The Carbon-Cycle
16
The Carbon-Cycle
C6H12O6 6O2 6H2O ? 6CO2 12H2O 36ATPs
6CO2 12H2O light ? C6H12O6 6O2 6H2O
17
Remember Photosynthesis ??
18
Respiration
  • The transfer of stored energy in food molecules
    to a form usable by the organism.
  • Involves the exchange of gases between the
    organism and the environment.

19
Process
  • Through the process of respiration, the organism
    produces adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which will
    be used for energy.

20
Respiration
  • Respiration- is an organisms ability to create
    energy. (ATP)

Respiration
Aerobic Respiration
Anaerobic Respiration
Alcoholic Fermentation
Lactic Acid Fermentation
21
1. Cellular Respiration
  • Involves a series of enzyme-controlled reactions
    in which energy in food is broken down into
    energy that the organism can use (ATP)

22
a) When ATP is broken down, energy is released
and ADP is formed
  • ADP adenosine diphosphate
  • H2O ATP ? ADP P energy
  • This is the energy used by the body to carry out
    the functions of life

23
Types of Respiration
  • Aerobic Respiration
  • -involves the use of oxygen
  • 2. Anaerobic Respiration
  • -oxygen is not used

24
Anaerobic Respiration
  • Also known as Fermentation
  • Does not require oxygen
  • Takes place in the cytoplasm of cell
  • Glucose is either broken down into lactic acid or
    alcohol and CO2
  • As a result of anaerobic respiration, there is a
    net gain of 2 ATPs

25
Equations for Anaerobic Respiration
  • glucose ? 2 lactic acids 2 ATPs
  • glucose ? 2 alcohol 2 CO2 2 ATPs
  • In each equation, enzymes are used and a net gain
    of 2 ATPs are produced

26
Aerobic Respiration
  • Requires oxygen
  • Takes place in the mitochondria
  • When we say that glucose is oxidized, we say that
    it is broken down with the help of oxygen
    molecules

http//www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/dcp/bio113a/ch91
0comp.html
27
Summary
  • Anaerobic Respiration 2 ATPs
  • Aerobic Respiration 36 ATPs
  • Therefore, Aerobic respiration is more efficient
    than anaerobic respiration

28
The Carbon-Cycle
29
Glycolysis
30
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31
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32
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33
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34
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35
Mitochondrion
  • An oval membrane enclosed organelle in which
    most of the reactions of cellular respiration
    occur.

36
  • Aerobic Respiration (Net gain of ATP)
  • Glycolysis (2 ATPs)
  • Krebs Cycle (2 ATPs)
  • Electron Transport Chain (ETC) (32 ATPs)

37
Nitrogen Cycle
http//www.biology.ualberta.ca/facilities/multimed
ia/index.php?Page280
  • Nitrogen is needed by all living things because
    it is part of the structure of amino acids and
    proteins.
  • The Nitrogen cycle includes the following
    reactions nitrogen-fixation, nitrification,
    ammonification, and denitrification.
  • Humans have increased fixed nitrogen levels
    (smog, and acid rain HNO3 Nitric acid)

38
Nitrogen Cycle
  • In this cycle, nitrogenous wastes and the remains
    of dead organisms are converted by decomposers
    and soil bacteria into compounds that can be used
    by autotrophs.
  • 5 steps
  • Nitrogen fixation N2?NH3
  • Nitrification NH3 ? NO2- ? NO3-
  • Assimilation N-based compounds into tissues
  • Ammonification waste ? NH3, NH4,
  • Denitrification (NH3, NO2-, NO3-) ? N2

39
The Nitrogen Cycle
N2
Urea
NH3,
(NO2-, NO3-)
40
Nitrogen Cycle
41
Nitrogen Cycle
42
  • Nitrogen fixation Occurs in Legumes Roots
    (clover) N2?NH3

Ammonification ? NH3, NH4, Ammonifying
bacteria use animal wastes (urea and uric acid)
Nitrification bacteria convert NH3 ? NO2- ?
NO3-
Denitrification Bacteria convert (Anaerobic
nitrifying Bacteria) NH3 ? N2
NO2- ? N2 NO3- ? N2
43
Nitrogen Cycle
  • The Nitrogen cycle includes the following
    reactions
  • 1. Nitrogen Fixation the conversion of N2 to
    NH3 (ammonia) by Nitrogen-fixing bacteria
    (Rhizobium in legume root nodules) as well as
    cyanobacteria (Anabaena heterocysts).
  • Nitrogen is fixed into a form that can be
    used. Bacteria use nitrogenase (shielded from
    O2) to split N2.
  • Also lightning volcanic activity.

44
Nitrogen Cycle
  • 2. Nitrification the conversion of ammonia NH3
    or ammonium NH4 to NO3-.(when water reacts with
    ammonia).
  • Soil bacteria such as Nitrosomonas Nitrococcus
    start NH3 or ammonium NH4 to NO2-
  • Then Nitrobacter oxidizes NO2- to NO3-.

45
Nitrogen Cycle
  • 3. Assimilation the conversion of inorganic N
    (NO3-, NH3, NH4) to organic molecules (amino
    acids proteins).

46
Nitrogen Cycle
  • 4. Ammonification the conversion of organic N
    (amino acids proteins) to NH3 NH4, performed
    by Ammonifying bacteria. (Creating ammonia or
    ammonium)
  • Conversion of Nitrogenous wastes

47
Nitrogen Cycle
48
Nitrogen Cycle
  • 5. Denitrification the conversion (reduction) of
    NO3- to N2 performed by denitrifying bacteria.

49
  • The nitrogen cycle.

50
Nitrogen Cycle
51
The Nitrogen-Cycle
52
Do Now answer
  • Explain the meaning of nitrogen fixation. Give
    a specific example of an organism capable of this
    process and discuss the relationship this
    organism has with plants.

53
Do Now answer
  • Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of gaseous
    nitrogen to ammonia (NH3) by bacteria, Rhizobium,
    that live inside special swellings, or nodules on
    the roots of legumes such as beans or peas. The
    relationship is mutualistic. The bacteria
    receive carbohydrates from the plant, and the
    plant receives nitrogen in a form it can use.

54
The Phosphorus-Cycle
  • Nongaseous phosphorus cycles from land to
    sediments in the ocean and then back to land.

Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for all
life forms. Phosphorus plays a role in
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid
(RNA), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine
triphosphate (ATP).
55
The Phosphorus-Cycle
56
The Phosphorus-Cycle
57
The Phosphorus-Cycle
  • In freshwater and marine systems exists in either
    a particulate phase or a dissolved phase.
  • Particulate matter includes living and dead
    plankton, precipitates of phosphorus, phosphorus
    adsorbed to particulates, and amorphous
    phosphorus.
  • Dissolved phase includes inorganic phosphorus
    (generally in the soluble orthophosphate form),
    organic phosphorus excreted by organisms, and
    macromolecular colloidal phosphorus.

58
The Phosphorus-Cycle
  • In freshwater and marine systems exists in either
    a particulate phase or a dissolved phase.
  • Particulate matter includes living and dead
    plankton precipitates of phosphorus.

59
The Phosphorus-Cycle
60
The Sulfur-Cycle
61
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62
Hydrologic Cycle
63
Hydrologic Cycle
64
Hydrologic Cycle
  • Here water moves between the earths surface and
    the atmosphere.
  • Evaporation, Condensation, aerobic respiration
    and transpiration in plants.
  • Estuaries are areas where fresh water meets
    marine areas.
  • Watersheds are large areas where runoff drains
    from the terrestrial to the marine environments.
    These areas filter the water as well.

65
Hydrologic Cycle
66
The Hydrologic-Cycle
The Effect of Aerosols?
67
DO NOW Pick any one cycle and describe it as
scientifically as possible.
68
DO NOW
  • Bacteria are key participants in the sulfur and
    nitrogen biogeochemical cycles. Briefly describe
    the role of oxygen in the various bacterias
    ability to process sulfur and nitrogen.

69
DO NOW answers
  • Bacteria drive both the sulfur and nitrogen
    cycles. In freshwater wetlands, tidal flats, and
    flooded soils, which are oxygen-deficient,
    bacteria convert sulfates to hydrogen sulfide
    gas, which is released into the atmosphere. Or
    the bacteria convert sulfates to metallic
    sulfides, which are deposited as rock. In the
    absence of oxygen, other bacteria perform an
    ancient type of photosynthesis that uses hydrogen
    sulfide instead of water. Where oxygen is
    present, different bacteria oxidize sulfur
    compounds to sulfates.
  • Bacteria that reside in the root nodules of
    legume plants have the ability to convert gaseous
    nitrogen to ammonia. These nitrogen-fixing
    bacteria, including cyanobacteria and Rhizobium,
    employ the enzyme nitrogenase to split diatomic
    atmospheric nitrogen (N2) and combine the
    resulting single nitrogen atoms with hydrogen.
    Nitrogenase functions only in the absence of
    oxygen.

70
DO NOW List and briefly explain three ways in
which human activities are impacting the
biogeochemical cycles
71
Some Human Effects on Biochemical Cycles
  • The burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and
    natural gas release CO2 into the atmosphere at a
    rate greater than the carbon cycle can handle.
    This increase of carbon dioxide may contribute to
    global warming which could result in a rise in
    sea level, changes in precipitation patterns,
    death of forests, extinction of organisms and
    problems for agriculture.
  • In addition, humans more than doubled the amount
    of fixed nitrogen entering the global nitrogen
    cycle in the 20th century through the use of
    chemical fertilizers.
  • Precipitation washes nitrogen fertilizer into
    rivers, lakes and coastal waters stimulating the
    growth of algae. These algae die and their
    decomposition by bacteria robs the water of
    dissolved oxygen contributing to fish kills. The
    nitrates from fertilizer can also leach through
    the soil and contaminate groundwater used by many
    for drinking water.
  • Humans affect the phosphorus cycle by
    accelerating the long-term loss of phosphorus
    from the land. For example, corn grown in Iowa
    (which contains phosphate absorbed from the
    soil), fattens cattle in Illinois (some phosphate
    ends up in feedlot wastes), which are eaten by
    humans in Texas (more phosphate in human wastes
    ending up in sewer systems). Sewage treatment
    rarely removes phosphorus and thus phosphorus
    washes into the ocean where it remains for
    millions of years.

72
II. Solar Radiation
  • Most of the energy produced by the sun never
    reaches the Earth.
  • 30 reflected into outerspace.
  • 47 is absorbed by the atmoshpere.
  • 23 runs the hydrologic cycle.
  • Less than 1 drives the wind and the ocean
    currents.
  • 0.02 is captured for photosynthesis.
  • Energy then is lost as infrared radiation
    (reradiation).

73
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74
The Sun
Albedo The reflective property of the Earths
surface. Caption and image courtesy of the
Snowball Earth Web site Ice albedo is a critical
variable in snowball earth climate models
snow-covered ice has a high albedo (0.9),
bubble-free (mature) marine ice has relatively
low albedo (0.4) and bubble-rich glacial ice
(compacted snow) has intermediate albedo (0.65).
75
  • Glaciers and ice sheets reflect 80 to 90
  • of the sunlight that hits their surfaces.
  • Asphalt and buildings have low Albedos and
    reflect 10 15.
  • Oceans and forests reflect only about 5.

76
IIa. Temperature changes with latitude Due to
intensity
77
IIb. Temperature changes with seasons (23.5
degrees)
78
Layers of the Atmosphere
  • Troposhere
  • extends up to a height of approximately 10km
    (6.2mi).
  • For every in the temperature-6C
  • Weather occurs here
  • Stratosphere
  • Mesosphere
  • Thermosphere
  • Exosphere

79
III. The Atmosphere
  • Layers of the Atmosphere
  • Atmospheric Circulation
  • Surface winds
  • Coriolis Effect
  • Prevailing winds
  • Polar easterlies
  • North pole blow Northeast, South pole southwest
  • Westerlies and trade wins
  • Patterns of Circulation in the ocean
  • Gyres and Currents
  • Vertical Mixing of Ocean Water (density)
  • Ocean Interactions width the Atmosphere
  • EL NIÑO, LA NIÑA

80
Atmospheric Circulation
Winds complex horizontal movements of the
atmosphere.
81
Atmospheric Circulation
82
Atmospheric Oceanic Circulation
  • Coriolis Effect Earths rotation from West to
    East causes air/currents to swerve to the right
    of the direction in which its traveling in the
    northern hemisphere and to the left in the
    southern hemisphere.

Human change of Earths rotation?
83
Patterns of Circulation in the ocean
Surface Ocean Currents
  • Prevailing winds generate gyres (circular ocean
    patterns)
  • Caused largely by winds and partly the coriolis
    effect.
  • Main ocean currents flow
  • Northern Hemisphere- clockwise
  • Southern Hemisphere counter clock wise

84
Landmasses affect ocean circulation. Which is
most unimpeded?
Southern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
85
Vertical Mixing of Ocean Water.
  • Ocean Conveyor Belt
  • (Cold is denser then hot)
  • Coriolis effect more pronounced at greater depths
  • What happened 11000-12,000 years ago?
  • Heat transfer issue???
  • Unintentional link between global warming and
    ocean conveyor belt

86
Vertical Mixing of Ocean Water.
  • Ocean Conveyor Belt

87
Do Now
  • What is an ENSO event and what causes it to
    occur? (provide more then a decrease in trade
    winds) Please include in your discussion
  • Define ENSO?
  • What is oscillating?
  • What effects does an ENSO event have on marine
    life?
  • How does an ENSO even manage to have such
    far-reaching impact?

88
Do Now Answer
  • El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a
    periodic, large-scale warming of surface waters
    of the eastern Pacific Ocean. This warming
    temporarily alters both ocean and atmospheric
    circulation patterns.
  • Normally, westward-blowing trade winds confine
    the warmest waters to the western Pacific (near
    Australia). Every 3-7 years, however, these
    trade winds weaken allowing the warm mass of
    water to expand eastward to South America.
  • The increasing surface temperatures in the East
    Pacific cause ocean currents, which normally flow
    westward in this area, to slow down, stop
    altogether, or even reverse and go eastward. The
    warmer surface ocean temperatures prevent
    upwelling of the nutrient-rich deep water.
  • The lack of nutrients in the water results in a
    severe decrease in the populations of marine
    fish.
  • ENSO has such a far-reaching impact because it
    alters global air currents, directing unusual
    weather to areas far from the tropical Pacific.
    ENSO have been responsible for torrential rains,
    droughts, wildfires, heavy snows, deaths and
    property damage.

89
EL NIÑO (ENSO)
  • EL NIÑO Southern Oscillation event is a periodic
    warming of surface waters of the tropical East
    Pacific that alters both ocean atmospheric
    circulation.
  • Upwelling?
  • LA NIÑA surface water in the eastern Pacific
    becomes unusually cool.

90
EL NIÑO
91
Climate associated with ENSO
92
Coastal upwelling weakens during ENSO events.
93
Do Now
  • How does ENSO affect local fisheries?

94
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95
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96
  • Animation Of An Idealized El Niño/La Niña Cycle
    in the Pacific showing anomalies of sea-surface
    height (the grid in the animation) and anomalies
    of sea-surface temperature (the color of the
    grid). The weakening of trades in the western
    equatorial Pacific causes warm water in the upper
    layer of the equatorial region to move eastward,
    leading to higher sea level and warmer water in
    the eastern equatorial Pacific. The wave of
    higher sea level (called a Kelvin wave) reflects
    off South America, and returns to the west at
    latitudes north and south of the equator.

97
Do Now answers
  • Normally Colder deep water is 40m (130ft) below
    surface causes upwelling in response to trade
    winds.
  • ENSO 152m (500ft) below surface
  • The warmer surface temperatures and weak trade
    winds produce nutrient POOR waters devastating
    anchovies and other marine fisheries.
  • Who now's who might be looking for food?????

98
ENSO flooding?
99
Climate average weather conditions
100
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101
DO NOW
  • Explain what is a rain shadow and how does it
    affect the local climate?

102
DO NOW ANSWER
  • The dry land on the side of a mountain, away from
    the prevailing wind, is a rain shadow. Rain
    shadows are formed because mountains force air to
    rise and remove moisture from humid air. The air
    cools as it rises, clouds form, and precipitation
    occurs.
  • As the air mass moves down the other side of the
    mountain, it is warmed, thereby lessening the
    chance of precipitation of any remaining
    moisture. Deserts, characterized by lesser
    precipitation, tend form in this rain shadow of
    mountains.

103
Westcoast of America Rainshadow
104
Westcoast of America Rainshadow
105
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106
Earths Core
107
Divergent Movement apart
108
The Richter Scale
109
Transform/Plate boundary
Mt. Pinatubo
Hotspot
110
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111
Convergent/subduction
112
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113
Transform Plate Boundary horizontally in opposite
but // directions.
114
Transform Plate Boundary horizontally in opposite
but // directions. Ex San Andreas fault
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