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Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach

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Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach G. Tyler Miller s Living in the Environment MATES Chapter 23 Key Concepts Land Use in the World Land Use ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach


1
Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity The
Ecosystem Approach
G. Tyler Millers Living in the
Environment MATES Chapter 23
2
Key Concepts
  • Human land use
  • Types and uses of US public lands
  • Forests and forest management
  • Implications of deforestation
  • Management of parks
  • Establishment and management of nature preserves
  • Importance of ecological restoration

3
Land Use in the World
Fig. 23-2 p. 595
4
Land Use in the United States
Fig. 23-3 p. 595
5
Types of US Public Lands
  • Multiple-use lands National Forests National
    Resource Lands
  • Moderately-restricted use lands National
    Wildlife Refuges
  • Restricted-use lands National Park System
    National Wilderness Preservation System

6
US Public Lands
Fig. 23-4 p. 596
7
Managing US Public Land
  • Biodiversity and ecological function
  • No subsidies or tax breaks for use
  • Public should get fair compensation
  • Users held responsible for actions
  • Takings and property rights

8
Managing and Sustaining Forests
Ecological Importance of Forests
  • Food webs and energy flow
  • Water regulation
  • Local and regional climate
  • Numerous habitats and niches
  • Air purification

9
Managing and Sustaining Forests
Economic Importance of Forests
  • Fuelwood (50 of global forest use)
  • Industrial timber and lumber
  • Pulp and paper
  • Medicines
  • Mineral extraction and recreation

10
Forest Structure
Fig. 23-9 p. 601
11
Types of Forests
  • Old-growth (frontier) forests
  • Second-growth forests
  • Tree farms/plantation

Fig. 23-18 p. 609
12
Forest Management
  • Rotation cycle
  • Even-aged management
  • Industrial forestry
  • Uneven-aged management
  • Improved diversity
  • Sustainable production
  • Multiple-use

13
Management Strategies
Fig. 23-11 p. 601
Fig. 23-12 p. 602
14
Logging Roads
  • Increased erosion and runoff
  • Habitat fragmentation
  • Pathways for exotic species
  • Accessibility to humans

Fig. 23-13 p. 602
15
Harvesting Trees
  • Selective cutting
  • High-grading
  • Shelterwood cutting
  • Seed-tree cutting
  • Clearcutting
  • Strip cutting

Fig. 23-14 p. 603
16
Sustainable Forestry
  • Longer rotations
  • Selective or strip cutting
  • Minimize fragmentation
  • Improved road building techniques
  • Certified sustainable grown(See Solutions p. 598)

17
Pathogens
Fungal Diseases
  • Chestnut blight
  • Dutch elm disease

Insect Pests
  • Bark beetles
  • Gypsy moth

18
Fire
  • Surface fires
  • Crown fires

19
Forest Resources and Management in the United
States
  • Habitat for threatened and endangered species
  • Water purification services
  • Recreation
  • 3 of timber harvest
  • Sustainable yield and multiple use
  • Substitutes for tree products

20
Tropical Deforestation
  • Rapid and increasing
  • Loss of biodiversity
  • Cultural extinction
  • Unsustainable agriculture and ranching
  • Clearing for cash crop plantations
  • Commercial logging
  • Fuelwood

21
Degradation of Tropical Forests
Fig. 23-22 p. 615
22
Reducing Tropical Deforestation
  • Identification of critical ecosystems
  • Reducing poverty and population growth
  • Sustainable tropical agriculture
  • Encourage protection of large tracts
  • Debt-for-nature swaps
  • Less destructive harvesting methods

23
The Fuelwood Crisis
  • Planting fast-growing fuelwood plants
  • Burning wood more efficiently
  • Switching to other fuels

Fig. 23-25 p. 618
24
Managing and Sustaining National Parks
  • Most parks are too small to maintain biodiversity
  • Invasion by exotic species
  • Popularity a major problem
  • Traffic jams and air pollution
  • Visitor impact (noise)
  • Natural regulation
  • Better pay for park staff

25
Establishing, Designing, and Managing Nature
Reserves
  • Include some moderate disturbance
  • Sustain natural ecological processes
  • Protect most important areas
  • Buffer zones
  • Gap analysis

See Solutions p. 625
  • Wilderness areas

26
Ecological Restoration
  • Ecological restoration
  • Restoration ecology
  • Rehabilitation

See Individuals Matter p. 630
  • Replacement
  • Creating artificial ecosystems
  • Natural restoration
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