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Differentiating Instruction: Universal Ways to Unlock Learning

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Differentiating Instruction: Universal Ways to Unlock Learning Tricia Bronger in collaboration with Michael Abell University of Louisville www.house.gov/list/press ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Differentiating Instruction: Universal Ways to Unlock Learning


1
Differentiating Instruction Universal Ways to
Unlock Learning
  • Tricia Bronger
  • in collaboration with
  • Michael Abell
  • University of Louisville

www.house.gov/list/press/fl20_schultz/Artcomp05.ht
ml
2
Objectives
  • Participants will listen to a process for
    differentiation in their classroom
  • Participants will engage in generalization for
    their classroom and individual student needs
  • Participants will relate to a novel that can be
    used to differentiate for individual student
    needs and then apply process with their own sound
    curriculum

3
Differentiating instruction means changing the
pace, level, or kind of instruction you provide
in response to individual learners needs,
styles, or interests.
4
Planning and Implementing Differentiated
Instruction
  • www.ed.gov

5
Differentiation of Instruction
Is a teachers response to learners needs guided
by general principles of differentiation
Respectful tasks
Flexible grouping
Continual assessment
Teachers Can Differentiate Through
Process
Product
Content
According to Students
Readiness
Interest
Learning Profile
www.wi-rsn.org
6
A Differentiated Classroom in Balance
Teacher-Student Partnerships
F L E X I B L E
Solid Curriculum
Shared Vision
Shared goals
Inviting
Shared responsibility
Focused
A Growth Orientation
Concept- based
Product Oriented
Sense Of Community
Resource
On-going assessment to determine need
Feedback and grading
Time
Groups
Respect For Group
ZPD Target
Approaches to teaching and learning
Safe
Respect for individual
Shared Challenge
Affirming
Tomlinson-oo
www.wi-rsn.org
7
Elements of Differentiation
  • The teacher focuses on the essentials
  • The teacher attends to student differences
  • Assessment and instruction are inseparable
  • The teacher modifies content, process and
    products
  • All students participate in respectful work
  • The teacher and the students collaborate in
    learning
  • The teacher balances group and individual norms
  • The teacher and students work together flexibly

8
Steps to Differentiation
  • Create a Climate for Learning
  • Know the Learner
  • Assess the Learner
  • Adjust Compacting and Grouping
  • Include Instructional Strategies for Student
    Success
  • Vary and Extend Curriculum Approaches

9
Tuesday, January 15, 2008
  •   Kentucky House Education Committee Approves
    Bill That Would Require Public Schools To Teach
    About Jewsish Holocaust
  • The House Education committee today approved a
    resolution that would require the state to
    develop curriculum on the Jewish Holocaust for
    use by Kentucky's public schools.House Joint
    Resolution 6, sponsored by Rep. Mary Lou Marzian,
    D-Louisville, now goes to the full House for
    consideration. If passed into law, the
    curriculum--developed by a state work
    group--would be available to teachers by the
    2009-2010 school year."It's not a mandate, but
    it would be offered as a curriculum," Marzian
    said.Several students from St. Francis of
    Assisi School in Louisville who have received
    Holocaust education testified to the committee
    about why the legislation is necessary. By
    remembering the Holocaust, student Bennett Heine
    said, Kentucky can honor its victims by "never
    letting it happen again.""Kentucky students can
    set a precedent for kids throughout the country
    and around the world that we can no longer leave
    it up to others to fight for the forgotten,"
    Heine said. "We must take a stand."Rep. Charlie
    Siler, R-Williamsburg, who visited the
    concentration camp of Auschwitz in Germany during
    his early days in the Army, thanked the students
    for their work on the resolution."They're doing
    something very important that will stick with
    them a long time," Siler said.

10
Universal Design for Learninghelps to engage all
learners by-
  • making curriculum content accessible and
    understandable to all students
  • allowing for multiple methods of content
    presentation, student expression, and engagement
    with ongoing relevant assessment

11
Universal Design for Learning Instruction
  • Universal Design for Learning
  • Challenges how we teach and to rethink the nature
    of curriculum so that one size Doesnt fit all.
  • Focus is on the limitation of the curriculum vs.
    presumed limitations of the student.

12
Universally Designed Instructional components
should
  • Support diverse recognition networks
    (Recognition)
  •   Provide multiple examples
  •   Highlight critical features
  •   Provide multiple media and formats
  •   Support background context
  • Support diverse strategic networks (Expression)
  •   Provide flexible models of skilled performance
  •   Provide opportunities to practice with
    supports
  •   Provide ongoing, relevant feedback
  • Offer flexible opportunities for demonstrating
    skill
  • Support diverse affective networks (Engagement)
  •   Offer choices of content and tools
  •   Offer adjustable levels of challenge
  •   Offer choices of rewards
  •   Offer choices of learning context

13
Learning Styles Chart
Adapted from Colin Rose(1987). Accelerated
Learning.
http//www.internet4classrooms.com/di.htm
Adapted from Colin Rose(1987). Accelerated
Learning
14
Number the StarsActivity
  • Introduction Lois Lowry, author of "Number the
    Stars" begins her novel in Denmark in the year
    1943. World War II is now into its fourth year
    and the Nazi military has occupied Denmark for
    three of them. The Danish Jews are about to be
    arrested and the Danish Resistance is determined
    to smuggle their Jewish countrymen to the safety
    of Sweden. This passage covers the history behind
    these and other events Lowry mentions in her
    novel.

15
Support diverse recognition networks
(Recognition)
  • Provide multiple examples
  •   Highlight critical features
  •   Provide multiple media and formats
  •   Support background context

16
Support diverse strategic networks (Expression)
  • Provide flexible models of skilled performance
  •   Provide opportunities to practice with
    supports
  •   Provide ongoing, relevant feedback
  • Offer flexible opportunities for demonstrating
    skill

17
Alignment to Core Content
Novel Number the Stars by Lois Lowry Standards
Based Unit of Study (SBUS) Materials for
instruction and assessment activity
18
Alignment to Core Content
http//www.kimskorner4teachertalk.com
19
Organizer of Curriculum
20
Number the StarsChapter 1 Why Are You Running?
  • Ill race you to the corner, Ellen! Annemarie
    adjusted the thick leather pack on her back so
    that her schoolbooks balanced evenly. Ready?
    She looked at her best friend.
  • Ellen made a face. No, she said, 1aughing You
    know I cant beat you my legs arent as long.
    Cant we just walk, like civilized people? She
    was a stocky ten-year-old, unlike lanky
    Annemarie.
  • We have to practice for the athletic meet on
    Friday I know Im going to win the girls race
    this week. I was second last week, but Ive been
    practicing everyday. Come on, Ellen, Annemarie
    pleaded, eyeing the distance to the next corner
    of the Copenhagen street. Please?
  • Ellen hesitated, then nodded and shifted her own
    rucksack of books against her shoulders. Oh, all
    right. Ready, she said.
  • Go! shouted Annemarie, and the two girls were
    off, racing along - the residential sidewalk.
    Annemaries silvery blond hair flew behind her,
    and Ellens dark pigtails bounced against her
    shoulders.
  • Wait for me! wailed little Kirsti, left
    behind, but the two older girls werent
    listening.
  • Annemarie outdistanced her friend quickly, even
    though one of her shoes came untied as she sped
    along the street called Osterbrogade, past the
    small shops and cafés of her neighborhood here in
    northeast Copenhagen. Laughing, she skirted an
    elderly lady in black who carried a shopping bag
    made of string. A young woman pushing a baby in a
    carriage moved aside to make way. The corner was
    just ahead.
  • Annemarie looked up, panting, just as she
    reached the corner. Her laughter stopped. Her
    heart seemed to skip a beat.
  • Halte! the soldier ordered in a stern voice.

Play audio sounds
21
Questioning Techniques Number the Stars
What Kind of Questions Do We Ask
How To Ask Questions
Pausing
Prompting
Clarifying Refocusing
Synthesis Redirecting Affective Techniques
Knowledge Comprehension Application
Analysis Synthesis Evaluation
22
Support diverse affective networks
(Engagement)
  • Offer choices of content and tools
  •   Offer adjustable levels of challenge
  •   Offer choices of rewards
  •   Offer choices of learning context

23
Consider when planningDifferentiation by
Learning Styles, Student Interests and
Readiness levels
Content
Product
Process
24
Consider when planningDifferentiation by
Learning Styles, Student Interests and Readiness
levels
  • Learning Styles of Students
  • The Interests of the group and of individual
    students
  • Students readiness levels (reading, math, content
    and activity)
  • Unique needs of the individual student

Content
Product
Process
25
To Differentiate by Readiness
  • Add or remove the scaffolding
  • Vary difficulty level of text supplementary
    materials
  • Adjust task familiarity
  • Vary task instruction by small groups
  • Adjust proximity of ideas to student experiences
  • Adjust complexity, open-endedness to equalize
    understanding and access

26
To Differentiate by Interest
  • Encourage application of broad concepts and
    principles of student interest areas
  • Give choice of mode of expressing learning
  • Use interest based mentoring of adults and peer
    tutors
  • Give choice of tasks and products
  • Give broad access to varied materials
    and technologies

27
To Differentiate by Learning Profile
  • Create an environment with flexible learning
    spaces
  • Allow working alone or working with peers
  • Use part to whole and whole to part learning
    approaches
  • Vary teacher mode of presentation (visual,
    auditory, kinesthetic, concrete, abstract)
  • Adjust for gender, culture, language differences

28
Scaffolded Instruction
  • Scaffolding is the systematic sequencing of
    prompted content, materials, tasks and teacher
    and peer support to optimize learning. Students
    are given supports until they can apply new
    skills and strategies independently. The
    responsibility of learning moves from the
    teacher to the learner.

UDL Example would be making text reader software
available for student to use or video clips
(Hitler speaking) to explain concepts.
29
Scaffolding Guidelines
  • Pre-engagement with the student and the
    curriculum
  • Establish a shared goal
  • Actively diagnose student needs and understanding
  • Provide tailored assistance
  • Maintain pursuit of the goal
  • Give feedback
  • Control for frustration and risk
  • Assist internalization, independence, and
    generalization in other context

30
Support Systems for Instruction
http//remember.org/then-and-now/
  • Use reading materials at varying readability
    levels
  • Audio and video recordings
  • Peer and adult mentors
  • Keyed concepts and highlighted vocabulary
  • Present ideas through both auditory and visual
    means (graphic organizers, flip chart)
  • Use of varied manipulatives and resources

31
Technology Supports Scaffolding
  • Text readers (Read and Write Gold)
  • Alpha Smarts
  • Talking or graphing calculators
  • Talking dictionaries
  • Touch screens
  • Smart boards
  • Laptops software
  • Internet 2.0 websites

32
Consider when planningDifferentiation by
Learning Styles, Student Interests and Readiness
levels
Content
Product
  • Choices of expression
  • Multi-media
  • Personalized
  • Alternative
  • Multiple intelligence
  • Talent or passion-driven

Process

33
Vary the Product
  • Choices of expression
  • Multi-media
  • Personalized
  • Alternative
  • Multiple intelligence
  • Talent or passion-driven
  • Examples
  • Oral reports and demonstrations
  • Experiments, three dimensional projects, art
  • Dance, role playing, debates
  • Continuous assessment options

http//remember.org/then-and-now/
34
Number the Stars Instructional Examples
35
In a Differentiated Program/Classroom
Not Differentiated Reactive Fixed Closed
  • Fully Differentiated
  • Proactive
  • Fluid
  • Open
  • Use of computers/Programs
  • Assessment Diagnosis
  • Adjusting Questions
  • Learning Contracts
  • Flexible Grouping
  • Tiered Activities
  • Anchor Activities
  • Independent Study
  • Differentiated Centers
  • Curriculum Compacting
  • Use of the Internet/Learning centers
  • Graduated Task- Product-Rubrics
  • Use of Multiple Texts and Supplementary Materials

MONTGOMERY COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS Instructional
and Management Practices

www.mcps.k12.md.us/departments/eii
36
Two Views of Assessment --
  • Assessment is for
  • Gatekeeping
  • Judging
  • Right Answers
  • Control
  • Comparison to others
  • Use with single activities
  • Assessment is for
  • Nurturing
  • Guiding
  • Self-Reflection
  • Information
  • Comparison to task
  • Use over multiple activities

www.wi-rsn.org
37
THINKING ABOUT ON-GOING ASSESSMENT
  • STUDENT DATA SOURCES
  • Journal entry
  • Short answer test
  • Open response test
  • Home learning
  • Notebook
  • Oral response
  • Portfolio entry
  • Exhibition
  • Culminating product
  • Question writing
  • Problem solving
  • TEACHER DATA MECHANISMS
  • Anecdotal records
  • Observation by checklist
  • Skills checklist
  • Class discussion
  • Small group interaction
  • Teacher student conference
  • Assessment stations
  • Exit cards
  • Problem posing
  • Performance tasks and rubrics

www.wi-rsn.org
38
Smart Board
Inboxes
Elmo Camera
LCD Projector
Wireless Tablet
Manipulative station
http//www.k8accesscenter.org/
39
Begin Slowly Just Begin!
www.wi-rsn.org
40
Tomlinson/UVa/2000
41
Differentiated Instruction Points to Remember
  • Start slow but START!
  • Make learning fun and interesting.
  • Think about what excites you about learning.
  • Learn some new type of technology for your
    classroom.
  • Remember, we are all life long learners who learn
    differently.
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