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Infusing Diversity into the Curriculum March 11, 2011

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Title: Infusing Diversity into the Curriculum March 11, 2011


1
Infusing Diversity into the CurriculumMarch 11,
2011
Connie Schroeder Center for Instructional and
Professional Development Anj Petto Biological
Science
2
WHY INCLUSIVE UW System EXCELLENCE?
  • Inclusive Excellence represents a shift not in
    the essence of our work but how we approach it
    and carry it out. Above all, Inclusive Excellence
    asks us to actively manage diversity as a vital
    and necessary asset of collegiate life rather
    than as an external problem.

3
Success in IE will look like
  • Improved campus climates that provide a strong,
    abiding sense of belonging and community for all
    UW students
  • Better alignment and cohesiveness between
    diversity efforts and other institutional
    initiatives, particularly those that focus on
    excellence in undergraduate education
  • Greater numbers of UW students who possess the
    requisite multicultural competencies they need to
    navigate an increasingly diverse democracy

4
Our Session Part 1 10-1130
  • Assessment 30 minutes
  • What is meant by infusion, diversity, and
    curriculum?
  • What examples or models, both here at UWM and
    beyond, can help us understand and imagine
    infusion at a curricular or course level?

5
  • Visioning Exercise 60 minutes
  • What should UWM look like in 5 years?
  • Please brainstorm your visions/priorities.
  • Each session will have chart-size Post-it pads to
    use for this brainstorming exercise. To
    prioritize (as part of closing out this session),
    please post items on your brainstormed list on
    the wall using the chart-size Post-it wall pads,
    and then ask everyone to use the small Post-its
    (write numbers 1, 2, 3, etc. on them) to post on
    the wall by the brainstormed items of their
    choice.

6
Visioning Questions
  • What would infusion in the curriculum look like?
  • What types of strategies, new collaborations, and
    recommendations would help move forward UWM
    forward in infusing diversity into the curriculum
    in the next 5 years?
  • Why is infusion happening, or not, in the
    curriculum what are the real challenges and
    obstacles and what is working?
  • What would be the benchmarks or milestones that
    help us know we are getting there?

7
Part II -
  • Break, 15 minutes 1130 a.m. 1145 a.m.
  • Next Steps, 90 minutes 1145 a.m. -115 p.m.
  • How do you organize your visions into 3-4
    priority areas?
  • What strategic steps do we need to take to
    accomplish these visions/priorities?
  • Wrap-Up, 15 minutes 115-130 p.m.
  • finalize discussion and put outcomes of
    Visioning/Priorities and Next Steps on flip chart
    papers.

8
Our Output
Infusion Looks Like (5 yrs.) 60 minutes
Recommended Strategies
Benchmarks/milestones
Obstacles/challenges
9
Framing our dialogueDefinitions
  • What do we mean by
  • Infuse?
  • Curriculum?
  • Diversity?

10
Infuse vs. diffuse?
  • infuse
  • diffuse
  • to introduce, as if by pouring cause to
    penetrate instill (usually followed by into )
    The energetic new principal infused new life into
    the school.
  • 2. to imbue or inspire (usually followed by with
    ) The new coach infused the team with
    enthusiasm.
  • 3. to steep or soak (leaves, bark, roots, etc.)
    in a liquid so as to extract the soluble
    properties or ingredients.
  • 4. Obsolete . to pour in.
  • 1. to pour out and spread, as a fluid.
  • 2. to spread or scatter widely or thinly
    disseminate.
  • 3. Physics . to spread by diffusion.
  • verb (used without object) 4. to spread.
  • 5. Physics . to intermingle by diffusion.
  • adjective 6. characterized by great length or
    discursiveness in speech or writing wordy.
  • 7. widely spread or scattered dispersed.
  • 8. Botany . widely or loosely spreading.
  • 9. Optics . (of reflected light) scattered, as
    from a rough surface ( opposed to specular).

11
Diversity? UW System IE
  • DIVERSITY Individual differences (e.g.
    personality, learning styles, and life
    experiences) and group/social differences (e.g.
    race/ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation,
    country of origin, and ability as well as
    cultural, political, religious, or other
    affiliations) that can be engaged in the service
    of learning.

12
  • At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the
    debate is not whether to do it, but how.
  • Although many terms over the years have been
    used, such as multiculturalism, multicultural
    education, and ethnic studies, the term diversity
    will be used here.
  • A more encompassing term, diversity is meant to
    represent all perspectives from groups that have
    traditionally been excluded from or
    insufficiently examined in the curriculum.
  • -ALMA R. CLAYTON-PEDERSEN CARYN MCTIGHE MUSIL

13
Levels of curriculum
  • A. Institutional
  • Shared values and learning outcomes
  • General education outcomes/Cultures and
    Communities
  • Course requirements for all students
  • Assessment
  • Policy (syllabus, religious holidays, behavior,
    access)
  • B. Departmental/Programs
  • Program outcomes
  • Assessments
  • C. Courses Multiple strategies, models and
    examples to follow

14
Rationale for Infusing Diversity
  • Calls for inclusion stem from the argument that a
    singular, Eurocentric perspective has had
    negative consequences for individual students and
    for the larger society.
  • Proponents of diversity in higher education argue
    that excluding diverse perspectives in the
    curriculum has truncated students' learning,
    leaving them ill-prepared to function in an
    increasingly diverse democracy.
  • The very purpose of higher educationto deepen
    students' understanding of what is known, how it
    has come to be known, and how to build on
    previous knowledge to create new knowledgeis
    thus undermined by eliminating the voices of
    those whose experiences differ from those
    traditionally represented.
  • http//www.education.com/reference/article/multicu
    lturalism-in-higher-education/

15
Mission of Higher Education?
  • If students graduate with the ability to think
    critically, act responsibly, and negotiate
    borders that might otherwise divide, then higher
    education will come closer to meeting its
    historic mission of not only advancing knowledge,
    but contributing to stable, more equitable
    democratic societies.

16
Value
  • Different diversity experiences appear to
    positively and significantly influence growth in
    critical thinking during college.
  • Students experienced growth in critical thinking
    if they participated in meaningful discussions
    with the potential to encounter challenging and
    new ideas about the perspectives and experiences
    of people culturally different from themselves.
  • Racially oriented diversity experiences were
    particularly important for enhancing critical
    thinking of white students.
  • (National Center on Postsecondary Teaching,
    Learning, and Assessment)

17
  • In a longitudinal study of 4,403 college students
    attending nine public universities it was
    reported that students who have an opportunity to
    take a
  • diversified curriculum by the second year of
    college scored higher on 19 of 25 outcomes of the
    study.
  • The strongest effects of diversity courses were
    evident on complex thinking skills, retention,
    cultural awareness, interest in social issues,
    the importance of creating social awareness, and
    support for institutional diversity initiatives.

18
The world our graduates face
  • In a survey conducted for the Association of
    American Colleges and Universities, more that 60
    percent of employers polled said recent graduates
    lacked the skills to succeed in a global economy
    (Fischer, 2007).
  • Committee for Economic Development, a nonprofit
    group of business and academic leaders, noted
    that demand for graduates with strong
    international skills was outstripping supply
    (Fischer, 2007).

19
Infusing through Learning Outcomes AACU
Learning OutcomesIntercultural Knowledge and
Competence
  • Intercultural Knowledge and Competence is
  • "a set of cognitive, affective, and behavioral
    skills and characteristics that support effective
    and appropriate interaction in a variety of
    cultural contexts.
  • (Bennett, J. M. 2008. Transformative training
    Designing programs for culture learning. In
    Contemporary leadership and intercultural
    competence Understanding and utilizing cultural
    diversity to build successful organizations, ed.
    M. A. Moodian, 95-110. Thousand Oaks, CA Sage.)
  • http//www.aacu.org/value/rubrics/InterculturalKno
    wledge.cfm

20
Institutional Curricular LevelAll students
one course
  • The most common model, surfacing at 68 percent of
    the AACU survey respondents, asks students to
    take one diversity course among many offerings.

21
UWM Current General Education Requirement
  • CULTURAL DIVERSITYThree credits in a course
    relating to the study of life experiences of
    African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans,
    American Indians or Asian Americans. Many, but
    not all, courses which satisfy Cultural Diversity
    also satisfy one of the required distribution
    areas. (You will need to satisfy this requirement
    if you started attending UWM in fall 1989 or
    thereafter.)
  • http//www4.uwm.edu/current_students/ger_informati
    on/index.cfm

22
UWM Cultures and Communities
  • Certificate Requirements
  • Students must complete 15 credits of Cultures and
    Communities courses in order to complete the
    certificate 3 credits in a section of the
    required CC core course in addition to 12 credits
    in CC approved courses. In addition to coursework
    students must engage in 15-20 hours of community
    engagement through a Service Learning experience.
  • The summary below outlines the five areas of the
    CC Certificate distribution requirements
  • Area 1 (core course) Multicultural America (3
    credits). Currently offered as English 150,
    History 150, or Women's Studies 150 (satisfies
    Humanities and Cultural Diversity GER
    requirements) Anthropology 150, Sociology 150,
    or Urban Studies 150 (satisfies Social Sciences
    and Cultural Diversity GER requirements) or Film
    150 or Art 150 (Peck School of the Arts
    satisfies Arts and Cultural Diversity GER
    requirements) Urban Planning 350 (School of
    Architecture and Urban Planning).
  • Area 2 Cultures and Communities of the United
    States (3 credits). Issues and methods in the
    comparative study of cultures and communities of
    the U.S. May be fulfilled by appropriate
    accredited GER or Cultural Diversity courses in
    any discipline, school, or college. Students may
    also opt to take a second MA 150 course in
    another discipline to satisfy their area 2
    requirement.
  • Area 3 Global Perspectives on Culture and
    Community (3 credits). Issues and methods in the
    comparative study of cultures and communities
    outside North America and Europe. May be
    fulfilled by appropriate accredited GER courses
    in any discipline, school, or college or through
    an appropriate study abroad experience.
  • Area 4 Art, Culture, and Community (3 credits).
    May be fulfilled by courses that relate the
    theory and production of art (dance, music,
    visual arts, film, and theater) to cultural and
    community contexts. Restricted to courses in the
    Peck School of the Arts except through special
    petition.
  • Area 5 Science, Culture, and Society (3
    credits). Includes courses that examine how
    scientific knowledge may be understood in
    relation to issues in culture and society. May be
    fulfilled by enrollment in classes with a Natural
    Sciences or Social Sciences accreditation.
  • http//www4.uwm.edu/cc/students/certificate.cfm

23
Reflection
  • Is this our vision?
  • What will the current infusion of diversity look
    like in 5 years given these efforts?

24
Infusing the curriculum through course
requirements
  • AACU's survey
  • 78 percent of colleges responding from the West
    had diversity requirements
  • 68 percent of those in the Middle States
    (Mid-Atlantic) region
  • 60 percent in the North Central region
  • By contrast, only
  • 45 percent of the institutions in the New England
    region had diversity requirements in 2000,
  • 36 percent of those in the South
  • 35 percent in the Northwest.

25
2000 Progress in U.S. according to AACU
  • Sixty-three percent of colleges and universities
    reported either having a diversity requirement in
    place or being in the process of developing one.
  • Fifty-four percent of survey respondents had
    diversity requirements in place
  • another 8 percent were in the process of
    establishing them.

26
General Courses Curricular Level
  • Of course, general education courses cannot carry
    the intellectual and moral weight of
    accomplishing all this in one required course, or
    even in a sequenced series of courses.
  • Each institution needs to take a holistic look at
    the entire curriculum, the interrelationship
    between general education and the major, the
    cumulative kinds of developmental experiences a
    student might have in progressing towards a
    degree, and the increasingly complex and
    demanding questions students are able to pose and
    answer as they are challenged to use their new
    knowledge and civic, intercultural capacities to
    address real-world problems.

27
Course level infusion of diversity
  • Models and examples

Inclusive Excellence represents a shift not in
the essence of our work but how we approach it
and carry it out.
28
Course Levels of Infusion-Visioninghttp//www.asj
mc.org/resources/diversity_booklet/5_curriculum.pd
f
  • 1. Stand-alone diversity courses. While offering
    such courses certainly emphasizes the importance
    we place on understanding the role of diversity
    in modern society, there is a tendency to see
    diversity in this context as a special topic
    lying somewhere outside the core principles of
    journalism.
  • 2. Dedicated class sessions on diversity or tied
    to a textbook chapter on diversity.
  • Again, such special treatment can create a sense
    that this subject matter is an isolated topic,
    marginalized, taken up in an obligatory bow to
    political correctness.
  • 3. Finding natural points of entry for diversity
    to be discussed across the curriculum. It
    potentially is the more effective approach to
    doing diversity in the classroom. Diversity is
    introduced to students in an organic, less
    self-conscious way that encourages them to cross
    their own boundaries in search of that untold
    story.

29
Common misconceptions
  • All too often, the common assumption is that only
    certain classes lend themselves to infusing
    diversity.
  • This stems, in part, from limiting the
    understanding infusion to the choice of
    authors of content.

30
Overemphasis on content strategies
  • Carr (2007) in her article, Diversity and
    Disciplinary Practices,
  • argues that much of the revision work done by
    faculty has been limited to revising and adding
    content in courses rather than attending to all
    four factors. In addition, Carr noted that the
    diversity agenda has been primarily articulated
    by experts in humanities and social sciences
    womens studies, black and ethnic studies,
    sociology of education, and feminist psychology.

31
Four Dynamics of Diversity in Teaching and
Learning
A framework
Students
Course Content
Teaching Methods
Instructor
(Marchesani Adams)
32
Visioning Course Level InfusionDiversity
Infusion Rubric In Use
  • Course description and objectives that reflect
    diversityHow does my discipline help prepare
    students to live and work in todays
    multicultural democracy and interdependent world?
  • Content integration that includes
    multiculturalismWhat issues of diversity, social
    justice, and civic engagement are infused in my
    course curriculum and how?
  • Instructional resources and materialsHow
    inclusive are my selected materials?
  • Faculty and student worldviews and learning
    stylesHow do student and faculty worldviews,
    learning styles, and teaching strategies match,
    and how are my students learning styles
    accommodated?
  • Instructional strategiesHow diversified are my
    strategies for facilitating instruction and
    classroom dynamics?
  • Assessment diversificationHow do assessment
    activities accommodate my students learning
    styles?

33
  • The Faculty dimension includes knowing oneself,
    being aware of one?s past socialization, and
    examining one?s beliefs, attitudes, and
    assumptions.
  • Teaching Methods looks at how we teach,
    broadening teaching strategies to address
    multiple learning styles, and developing
    classroom norms that emphasize respect, fairness
    and equity.
  • The Course Content includes what we teach in a
    curriculum of inclusion that represents diverse
    perspectives.
  • The fourth dimension represents the Students and
    understanding who they are, being sensitive to
    their various social and cultural backgrounds and
    the different ways in which they experience the
    classroom environment.

34
Learning criteria from others According to Cohn
and Mullenix (2007), a diversity rich curriculum
  • 1) Includes other voices the focus is on the
    inclusion of writings, speeches, dialogues,
    films, etc. that originate from people of
    different social identities, cultural
    backgrounds, gender, and disabilities
  • 2) Communicates interconnectedness - the
    development of a sense that we are connected to
    others beyond our immediate experience and
    geographic area
  • 3) Values diversity and equity embeds
    information and techniques designed to impart a
    sense of why diversity and equity are important
    and
  • 4) Promotes transformative thinking challenges
    traditional views and assumptions encourages new
    ways of thinking and re-conceptualizes the field
    in light of new knowledge, scholarship, and new
    ways of knowing (p.13).
  •  

35
Infusing diversity need not require special
knowledge/training
  • Include diverse images as examples in PowerPoint
    slides
  • Example in social psychology, photo of African
    American physician on slide covering helping
    behavior
  • Highlight research by members of groups that are
    underrepresented in your field
  • Example in research methods, select article by
    female scientist whenever possible usually
    include photo of the researcher on slide
  • Use diverse names/themes on test questions
  • Example Alex and Tom feel passion and intimacy
    toward each other but they cannot foresee
    themselves committing to each other because both
    believe that commitment means marriage and their
    state does not recognize same-sex marriages.
    Sternbergs triangular theory would characterize
    their love as a.romantic.
  • b. fatuous.
  • c. companionate.
  • d. empty.
  • Leslie Ashburn-Nardo, Department of Psychology
    IUPUI

36
Infusing diversity need not take time away from
standard curriculum
  • Use clips, examples that highlight diversity even
    when the topic does not involve diversity per se
  • Examples
  • A Girl Like Me (see http//www.youtube.com/watch
    ?v17fEy0q6yqc) to teach about cultural
    influences on attraction in social psychology
    course
  • Madera, J.M., Hebl, M.R., Martin, R. C. (2009).
    Gender and letters of recommendation for
    academia Agentic and communal differences.
    Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 1591-1599, to
    teach about structure of empirical articles in
    research methods course
  • Leslie Ashburn-Nardo, Department of Psychology
    IUPUI

37
Natural Points of Entry Strategies
  • Interaction with individuals of various
    backgrounds in the community. This can be done
    in several ways, simple observation, reaching out
    to the community, involvement in cultural
    activities in the area (Greekfests, visiting a
    Senior Center or Nursing Home, attending a
    religious service of a faith different than
    yours, helping feed the homeless, doing a good
    deed without telling the person you did it, and
    so on).
  • Small group activities or discussions with
    results being brought back to the entire group.

38
Natural Points of Entry Assignment Strategies of
Infusion
  • Student research into diverse people who have
    made important contribution to a particular
    field, for example, women or people of color who
    have made a significant impact on a science
    discipline such as chemistry, physics, biology,
    math, etc.
  • Student research into how a discipline is taught
    in different countries. For example, how is math
    taught in India, or in Japan?
  • Research papers on various topics related to
    diversity.
  • -Dr. Bonnie A. Gray Dr. Paul N. Grocoff 7
    September 2007 University of York, United Kingdom

39
Natural Points of Entry Examples
  • The basic broadcasting course discusses the rise
    of ethnic channels such as the Black
    Entertainment Network and Telemundo for Hispanic
    audiences.
  • Students in an advertising sales course discuss
    ads that target minors, minorities and other
    special audiences.
  • Students in a media writing course do articles on
    diversity issues such as physical access for
    disabled persons on campus and the views of
    female Islamic students regarding womens issues.
  • An advanced reporting course is paired with a
    Spanish Conversation and Translation course to
    interview and write articles for the local
    Hispanic community.
  • Corporate communication students learn that
    increased sales and market share are enhanced by
    implementing diversity plans throughout an
    organization.

40
Natural Points of Entry StrategiesContent and
Activities/pedagogy
  • Readings about topics in diversity or readings by
    diverse authors, followed by class discussion or
    a paper.
  • Guest speakers always followed by an
    opportunity for questions and answers. Make sure
    you set guidelines for having guest speakers.
  • Using newspapers or TV news to bring up diversity
    issues within current events.
  • Class activities. There are a whole host of
    activities you can have students do which teaches
    them different aspects of diversity. There are
    workbooks available that provide lots of
    different options that you can use directly or
    modify for your classroom.
  • Dr. Bonnie A. Gray Dr. Paul N. Grocoff 7
    September 2007 University of York, United Kingdom

41
Assigment Strategies of Infusion
  • Group (or individual) class presentations on
    particular diversity topics can be done in
    various formats debates (where students need to
    take opposite viewpoints on a particular topic),
    panel presentations, student PowerPoint
    presentations, and so forth.
  • Exploring diversity on the Internet (both the
    positive and the negative aspects of diversity).
  • Diversity portfolios, where students build a
    portfolio over the module of a semester on a
    particular topic, or on several topics related to
    diversity and the subject matter

42
MARICOPY COURSE INFUSION EXAMPLES
  • Humanities
  • Legal Studies
  • Mathematics
  • Nursing
  • Performing Arts
  • Philosophy
  • Physical Education
  • Political Science
  • Psychology
  • Reading
  • Religion
  • Science
  • Sociology
  • http//www.maricopa.edu/diversityinfusion/COUR.HTM
  • Anthropology
  • Art Business
  • Communication
  • Counseling
  • Economics
  • Education
  • Engineering
  • English
  • Health Science
  • History

43
UWM Anj Pett0
44
Maricopa Intermediate Algebra INFUSION (MAT120
MAT122)
  • ABSTRACT OF DIVERSITY INFUSION WITHIN COURSEI
    implemented a mathematics project at the
    intermediate/college algebra level that infuses
    diversity of world views.
  • This project asked students to model world
    population growth, density of population in terms
    of arable surface area, and depletion of
    non-renewable resources, using exponential and
    logarithmic functions. A total of 50 students in
    three different classes were assigned this
    project during the Fall semester of 2002.
  • Students were asked to analyze geographical data
    for 8 different countries of the world with
    widely varying physical geographies, cultures,
    and political, socio-economic, and technological
    conditions. The eight countries were Bangledesh,
    Brazil, China, Germany, Indonesia, Mexico,
    Nigeria, and the United States. For each country
    students computed values

45
Natural Points of Entry-example
  • A media ethics professor wrote in a self-study
    about incorporating a discussion of
  • racist hoaxes into a broader discussion about
    manipulations of media. He wrote,
  • My students dont know were covering diversity.
    We do not cover diversity from a political view.
    We approach it through journalism as an aspect
    of our jobs.Embrace diversity as an aspect of
    good journalism. Our goal is sharpening
    perceptions and deepening consciences.

46
BIOLOGY INFUSIONABSTRACT OF DIVERSITY INFUSION
WITHIN COURSE
  • BIO 160 Introduction to Anatomy and
    PhysiologySince this course deals with
    anatomical structures and their functions, we
    focused on the prevalence of diseases common to
    different racial, ethnic, cultural and religious
    groups.
  • Each student evaluated his/her own family
    background and medical history to determine if
    there was a common illness or practice among
    family members. They chose a topic based on that
    or a different topic that was appealing to them.
  • Throughout the semester, the topics were
    presented during the appropriate body system to
    promote awareness and cohesion of the course
    competencies. Students submitted a written report
    at the time of their oral presentation.

47
  • On the first day of class, the topic of diversity
    was introduced and discussed in a lecture form.
    After explaining to the students that diversity
    issues would be discussed throughout the
    semester, the students were asked to offer their
    opinions and thoughts relating to diversity. An
    interactive discussion was conducted until it was
    clear to all students the purpose of the
    diversity project.

48
CHEMISTRY ABSTRACT OF DIVERSITY INFUSION WITHIN
COURSE
  • Women are poorly represented in Chemistry.
  • For students, 52 of undergraduates in 1997 were
    women but only 37 of undergraduates in chemistry
    were female (Royal Society of Chemistry report).
    If this trend continues, there won' t be parity
    for men and women till 2070.
  • Infusing diversity into the CHM 130 curriculum
    helps achieve a better balance between males and
    females in CHM 130.
  • infusing two aspects of diversity, gender, and
    geographical region into the curriculum, wherein
    students participated in gathering information on
    the biographies and contributions of European
    women to the field of chemistry.
  • Students presented their work in the form of
    Power points. This was followed by written
    reports on the reasons for the underrepresentation
    of women in chemistry.

49
Engineering
  • We began the engineering workshop by asking
    faculty members to think about engineering's
    potential and limits in addressing social
    problems. A primary focus was the issue of
    technology's unintended consequences.
  • After introducing the concepts of power and
    privilege, we discussed the example of the Toyota
    Prius. Engineers designed the Prius to be
    extremely quiet--so quiet that it poses a danger
    to vision-impaired people, who cannot hear it.
    Vision-impaired people are now asking the
    automotive industry to design automobiles that
    have minimum noise levels.
  • Other unintended consequences include the
    impingement on Native American fishing rights
    caused by hydroelectric dams and the rampant
    consumerism driven by engineering's focus on
    creating new products. We also examined two case
    studies that faculty members can utilize to
    explore the complex issues of privilege, power,
    and difference in relation to engineering the
    Manhattan Project and Hurricane Katrina.

50
CHEMISTRY INFUSION ASSIGNMENT
  • A. The first project involved student Power point
    presentations (oral) of the biographies and
    contributions of women chemists. To name a few
  • Marie Curie
  • Eva Curie
  • Irene-Joliot Curie 1, 2, 3. The Curies'
    struggles and valuable contributions to nuclear
    chemistry was highlighted .
  • Lise Meitner, the woman whom Einstein called 'The
    German Madame Curie' (a high honour indeed both
    to be praised by Einstein, and to be compared to
    Curie) was always unassuming. Students find out
    that In 1992, Element 109 was named "Meitnerium"
    (Mt) in her honour. Her work led directly to the
    possibility of nuclear weapons, but Meitner would
    have no part in building a weapon of such
    destructive force. She went to great lengths to
    distance herself from the negative possibilities
    her discoveries created.
  • Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin determined the structure
    of insulin in 1969. Students are amazed to learn
    that this culminated a study pursued over three
    decades. The details of the structure provided
    insight into the function of this vital hormone.
  • Rosalind Franklin The students learn that
    Rosalind Franklin obtained excellent X-ray
    diffraction photographs of DNA. They found that
    Franklin died of ovarian cancer which was quite
    possibly caused by exposure to radiation in the
    course of her research.

51
CHEMISTRY INFUSION ASSIGNMENT
  • B. Reading Assignments
  • (i) Brush, Stephen G. 1991. "Women in Science
    and Engineering". American Scientist, 79,
    404-419(ii) "A Celebration of Women in Science"
    (cover story) 1991. Discover. 128, 10-33
  • C. A 2-page report on why women are
    under-represented in Chemistry (information
    obtained from a report published by the Royal
    Society of Chemistry)
  • D. A 1-page report on the European country the
    chemist belonged to, its culture, language,
    climate, customs and traditions, science museums
    of interest, etc.

52
CHEMISTRY INFUSION ASSIGNMENT
  • SUCCESSES AND DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED The
    students thoroughly enjoyed the project. A lot of
    them felt that the project had great
    inspirational ability. It helped in the
    facilitation of peer-to-peer dialogues and
    iteractions.The impact of including this
    activity was dramatic after every group made its
    presentation in the form of Microsoft Power
    Point. Animated discussions resulted by having
    each group voice its opinion on the factors that
    it felt were responsible for promoting or
    hindering the progress of women in Chemistry.
    Giving pupils opportunity to voice opinions about
    Science helps in the creation of an environment
    conducive to learning.
  • Students had the opportunities to have
    discussions among themselves, including
    constructive dialogue, and this motivated them to
    learn and become effective communicators.

53
LAS131, Legal Writing Example Legal Writing
  • ABSTRACT OF DIVERSITY INFUSION WITHIN
    COURSEThis course teaches legal writing skills
    to Legal Assisting and Tribal Court Advocacy
    students. Writing assignments in past semesters
    have addressed a variety of law-related tasks and
    topics not necessarily related to diversity.
  • My project infused diversity into this course,
    and thereby into these two occupational programs,
    by developing lesson plans and writing
    assignments based on diversity topics.
  • Tasks included, for example, writing letters and
    articles and preparing legal analyses summarizing
    the law on particular diversity topics.
  • Subjects included disability access, age
    discrimination, racial segregation, and
    diversity-related topics of the students choice.
    No modification of official competencies or
    course outline was necessary.

54
Course Level Examples
  • a microbiology course, Disease and Society,
    examines the movement of disease at the microbial
    level in relation to issues of race, gender, and
    social class.
  • A course in exercise and sport science, Power and
    Privilege in Sport, examines how the unequal
    distribution of resources across gender, race,
    social class, sexual identity, ability, and age
    plays out in sports.
  • Social Ethics in Engineering asks students to
    apply concepts of systems of oppression as they
    consider their professional development as
    engineers.
  • A geosciences course, Environmental Justice,
    explores the impact of environmental racism on
    people of color,
  • and a fisheries and wildlife course,
    Multicultural Perspectives on Natural Resources,
    considers how diverse social values affect
    changes in the physical landscape and
    biodiversity in the American West.
  • http//www.diversityweb.org/DiversityDemocracy/vol
    12no3/shaw.cfm

55
In the veterinary medicine workshop
  • We began by discussing climate issues related to
    the discipline's changing demographics (women now
    outnumber men in veterinary medicine programs).
    As we moved on to discuss content, we talked
    about animals' vulnerability in human society and
    asked how faculty members might assess
    animal-human relations in the context of power
    and privilege. We concluded by asking faculty
    members to imagine how they might help their
    students think about issues of difference, power,
    and privilege in light of a range of questions,
    including
  • What is poverty's impact on the practice of
    veterinary medicine?
  • How do cultural and gender differences affect the
    practice of veterinary medicine?
  • What role do veterinarians play in organizations
    that help humans, and do veterinarians have an
    obligation to work toward improving human
    conditions?
  • What ties does veterinary medicine have to
    pharmaceutical companies?
  • What role do veterinarians play in global
    development work, in disasters, and in wars?
  • What role do veterinarians play in developing
    legislation about animal welfare issues?

56
Anj Petto tba
The goal comes out of my training in
anthropology --- both to recognize and to
understand the impact of cultural perspective
... even on biology.We consider lactose
intolerance a "disorder" or disease. However,
lactose intolerance is not only more common in
human populations than lactose tolerance (after
weaning), it is also the normal state of affairs
for all post-weaning mammals. A Eurocentric
perspective sees lactose intolerance as an
abnormal condition and so defines it as a
disease. A proper perspective identifies the
European variant as a genetic mutation that has
fitness benefits in cultures where dairy products
make up an appreciable proportion of available
foods, even for adults. There are two issues
here (1) A redefinition of "normal" so that the
unusual condition in Europeans is the standard
condition, and the condition of the rest of the
world now becomes a disease or disorder and (2)
the renaming of the normal condition to call it
"lactose intolerance" as though it were a
deviation from the usual state of affairs in
mammals. (We could do a similar bit with the
sickle-cell trait or any of the hemoglobin
variants) I have a data set based on students in
my past classes in which they report ethnicity
and many of them include skin color information
(based on paint samples that match their skin).
When we look at the 20 or so genetic traits that
are recorded there, we find that none on these
tracks the ethnic and color variables very well.
We can then talk about concepts such as
hypodescent (one-drop rules) and "blood quantum"
measures. We also have problems that students
work on that have to do with sex differences in
head measurements and so on. Clouds of data to be
parsed, graphed, queried and understood.
57
Infusing Diversity
  • Accompanied by Assessment

58
Infusion Efforts Should be Accompanied by
Assessment
  • Brief low stakes assessments
  • How perspectives changed
  • How view of field changed
  • How approach to solving, thinking has changes
  • Higher Stakes Assignments
  • directly measure application of and inclusion of
    diverse viewpoints, data, facts, evidence, and
    arguments
  • Rubrics
  • Criteria
  • Before/After Case analysis comparison
  • Predictions/Assumptions, Biases

59
Rubric inserts example
60
How will we know when weve done this?
  • The highest level of cultural competency
  • results when every policy, issue, and
  • action is examined in its cultural context
  • and assessed for its strengths and limits.
  • From Bennetts Cultural Sensitivity Model

61
How should we measure infusing diversity into the
curriculum?
62
Infusion of Diversity into the Curriculum
Cultural Change?
  • Models of Institutional Programs

How do some institutions become more successful
at infusing diversity into the curriculum and
into courses?
63
What is culture change?
  • Culture
  • Structure/policies
  • Norms, practices, habits, behaviors
  • Values, beliefs
  • (Miles Huberman, l984)

64
Change strategies
  • The annual report alone does not appear to
    generate sustained institutional change. The
    literature shows that the most successful
    diversity curriculum revision initiatives,
    engage people in reading, thinking, and debating
    over time in a sustained group that fosters
    development of collegial and personal
    relationships (McTighe Musil et al., 1999, p.
    25).

65
Infusing the Culture Where is the curriculum
situated?
66
Example A Sustainable Campus-wide Program for
Diversity Curriculum Infusion
  • Diversity Curriculum Infusion Program (DCIP),
    established in 2003
  • University of MissouriKansas City
  • http//www.diversityweb.org/digest/vol10no2/ukpoko
    du.cfm

67
Change strategies
  • The annual report alone does not appear to
    generate sustained institutional change. The
    literature shows that the most successful
    diversity curriculum revision initiatives,
    engage people in reading, thinking, and debating
    over time in a sustained group that fosters
    development of collegial and personal
    relationships (McTighe Musil et al., 1999, p.
    25).

68
a yearlong institute
  • Four daylong workshops
  • participants revise an existing course by
    infusing the curriculum with diversity and social
    justice,
  • implement the course the following semester, and
  • make a presentation about the experience at the
    campus-wide culminating celebration held in
    April.

69
  • The first workshop
  • Orientation, community building,
  • collectively define critical diversity
  • examine their teaching using the rubric of the
    six areas of potential diversity curriculum
    infusion (see sidebar)
  • The second workshop
  • self-transformation
  • examine their biases and their commitment to
    diversity
  • The third workshop
  • present preliminary drafts of their course
    revisions
  • receive constructive feedback from the group
  • The fourth and final workshop is a celebratory
    experience
  • present the pre- and post-syllabi
  • discuss the implementation experience.

70
DCIP Faculty Outcomes
  • aroused faculty interest in the scholarship of
    diversity
  • appreciation for the opportunity to be empowered
    and challenged
  • chance to discuss diversity and curriculum
    infusion
  • raised consciousness of diversity and its
    enrichment in the curriculum
  • newly energized teaching
  • increased knowledge of diversity
  • new teaching strategies they have learned
    heightened sensitivity and responsiveness to
    diverse groups of students.

71
The inventories were distributed by David Conn to
every Cal Poly department chair/head with
undergraduate major(s) and the Multiple Subject
Credential program. 
  • Column A 51 
  • None-Low
  • Columns C D 20
  • medium-high and high
  • Nutrition
  • Recreation Administration Agribusiness
  • Kinesiology
  • English
  • Modern Languages Literatures
  • History
  • Social Sciences
  • Multiple Subject Credential
  • engineering
  • mathematics
  • life and physical sciences

http//www.inclusiveexcellence.calpoly.edu/reports
/curr_task_force_report.html
72
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73
Example Maricopa
  • This program provides funding to support faculty
    as they seek to infuse diversity issues and
    perspectives into courses they currently teach.
    These projects are completed within the framework
    of the Program for Infusing Diversity into the
    Curriculum. There is a one-year commitment to the
    Program, which runs from summer each year to the
    end of spring semester the following year.

74
Maricopa Example
  • Selected participants receive a stipend for 90
    hours during their one-year commitment. This
    stipend is approximately equivalent to one,
    3-hour course load.
  • http//www.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/fsd/opps/diversi
    ty.html

75
Barriers and Challenges to Infusion
76
What are the perceived barriers to infusing
diversity into teaching?
  • Student barriers
  • Perceived student defensiveness
  • Concern over student evaluations
  • Perceived multicultural fatigue
  • Perceived lack of connection to content

http//www.diversityweb.org/digest/vol10no2/goodma
n.cfm
from IUPUI Multicultural Teaching Community of
Practice Faculty Survey, 2007-2008
77
Students think that addressing bias is better
than ignoring it
From Boysen et al., 2009, Journal of Diversity in
Higher Education
78
If students are not the barrier, what is?
  • Teaching resources
  • e.g., Where would I begin to acquire knowledge,
    gain confidence about how to teach about
    diversity?
  • Perceived especially by instructors who are not
    diverse
  • Time constraints
  • e.g., Ive got a standard curriculum to cover
    theres no time for covering extras like
    diversity
  • Lack of knowledge
  • e.g., My graduate training did not include
    diversity, cultural competence

from IUPUI Multicultural Teaching Community of
Practice Faculty Survey, 2007-2008
79
Learning Environment
  • Since resistance is an expression of fear,
    anxiety, and discomfort, educators need to create
    an environment of psychological safety and
    readiness (Friedman and Lipshitz 1992).
  • Robert Kegan (1982) discusses the need for
    confirmation (an environment of support) before
    contradiction (conditions that challenge
    current meaning-making systems).
  • Educators jump to contradiction, providing new
    and challenging perspectives without first
    establishing environments and relationships of
    trust (among the students, but especially with
    the teacher).

80
Resistance Resources Diane J. Goodman, Promoting
Diversity and Social Justice Educating People
from Privileged Groups (Sage 2001).
  • References
  • Friedman, V. J., and R. Lipshitz. 1992. Teaching
    people to shift cognitive gears Overcoming
    resistance on the road to model II. Journal of
    Applied Behavioral Science 28 (1) 11836.
  • Hardiman, R., and B. Jackson. 1992. Racial
    identity development Understanding racial
    dynamics in college classrooms and on campus. In
    Promoting diversity in college classrooms
    Innovative responses for the curriculum, faculty,
    and institutions, ed. M. Adams, 2137. San
    Francisco Jossey-Bass.
  • Helms, J. 1995. An update on Helms white and
    people of color racial identity models. In
    Handbook of multicultural counseling, ed. J. G.
    Ponterotto, J. M. Casa, L. A. Suzuki, and C. M.
    Alexander, 18198. Thousand Oaks, CA Sage.
  • Kegan, R. 1982. The evolving self Problems and
    process in human development. Cambridge, MA
    Harvard University Press.
  • Tatum, B. D. 1997. Why are all the Black kids
    sitting together in the cafeteria? and other
    conversations about race. New York Basic Books

81
References
  • Banks, J. (1995). Multicultural education
    historical development, dimensions, and practice.
    In J.
  • B. Banks (Ed.), Handbook of research on
    multicultural education (pp. 3-24). New York,
  • New York Macmillan Publishing.
  • Carr, J. F. (2007). Diversity and disciplinary
    practices. In J. Branche, J. Mullennix, E. Cohn
  • (Eds.), Diversity across the curriculum A guide
    for faculty in higher education (pp. 30-
  • 37). Bolton, Massachusetts Anker Publishing.
  • Chang, M. (2002). The impact of an undergraduate
    diversity course requirement on students'
  • racial views and attitudes. Journal of General
    Education, 25, 125-140.
  • Chester, M., Wilson, M., Milani, A. (1993).
    Perceptions of faculty behavior by students of
  • color. The Michigan Journal of Political Science,
    16, 54-79.
  • Cohn, E., Mullenix, J. (2007). Diversity as an
    integral component of college curriculum. In J.
  • Branche, J. Mullennix, E. Cohn (Eds.),
    Diversity across the curriculum A guide for
  • faculty in higher education (pp. 11-17). Bolton,
    Massachusetts Anker.
  • Fischer, K. (2007, November 2). "Flat world"
    lessons for real-world students. Chronicle of
  • Higher Education.
  • Frey, B. (2007). Practices that facilitate
    diversity across the curriculum Inclusive
    classroom
  • assessment. In J. Branche, J. Mullennix, E.
    Cohn (Eds.), Diversity across the
  • curriculum A guide for faculty in higher
    education (pp. 23-29). Bolton, Massachusetts
  • Anker.

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Your Task Together Today
  • Visioning 60 min.
  • What could infusing diversity in the curriculum
    look like in five years?

83
Our Output
Infusion Looks Like (5 yrs.) 60 minutes
Recommended Strategies
Benchmarks/milestones
Obstacles/challenges
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