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Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture

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Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture Architectural History ACT 322 Doris Kemp Topics Medieval Byzantine Architecture The Dark Ages Middle Byzantine Renaissance ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture


1
Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture
  • Architectural History
  • ACT 322
  • Doris Kemp

2
Topics
  • Medieval Byzantine Architecture
  • The Dark Ages
  • Middle Byzantine Renaissance
  • Late Byzantine Architecture
  • Structures of the Dark Ages
  • Structures of the Middle Byzantine Renassaince
  • Structures of Late Byzantine

3
Byzantine Architecture Medieval Architecture
  • Medieval Byzantine architecture refers to
    Byzantine architecture after Justinian
  • Divided into three periods
  • The Dark Ages
  • Middle Byzantium Renaissance
  • Late Byzantium

4
Byzantine Architecture Medieval Architecture
  • The Dark Ages
  • 610 842 A.D.
  • Turbulent, architecturally meager time
  • Byzantiums energy was sapped fighting powerful
    invaders
  • Fierce religious controversies over Iconoclasm
  • A rejection of religious images depicting
    Christian figures

5
Byzantine Architecture Medieval Architecture
  • Middle Byzantium Renaissance
  • 824 1204
  • The empire had been relatively stabilized and
    reached a peak in the flowering of the arts and
    architecture

6
Byzantine Architecture Medieval Architecture
  • Late Byzantium
  • 1267 1453
  • The Paleologian Dynasty came to power in
    Byzantine
  • Retained a surprisingly artistic creativity in
    architecture

7
Byzantine Architecture Dark Ages
  • Medieval Byzantine architecture becomes a strong
    style in Armenia during the late sixth and early
    seventh century A.D.
  • This style is highly realized in the St. Hripsime
    at Vagharshapat, Armenia

8
Byzantine Architecture Medieval Architecture
  • St. Hripsime at Vagharshapat, Armenia
  • Built in 618 A.D.
  • Scheme embodied an intricate configuration of
    sharply defined spaces and volumes
  • Features
  • Domed center
  • Rectangular shell
  • Built of Roman concrete but faced in massive
    ashlar masonry
  • Provided a theme that most later mainstream
    medieval Byzantine architecture was based

9
Byzantine Architecture Dark Ages
Photo Sullivan
10
Byzantine Architecture Middle Byzantine
Renaissance
  • This period represented a fairly conservative
    approach to architecture
  • Buildings served a common purpose
  • A meeting place for Christians serving the ritual
    mass
  • Features
  • Domed-core
  • Triple sanctuary to the East
  • Ancillary shell of space around the other three
    sides
  • Domes were used to represent Heaven, as in
    earlier structures

11
Byzantine Architecture Middle Byzantine
Renaissance
  • The most common medieval Byzantine church is
    known as a cross-in-a-square scheme
  • Cross-shaped structure within a square or
    rectangular plan
  • Examples
  • The Bodrum Camii in Constantinople
  • Panaghia Chalkeon in Greece
  • Church of Theotokos

12
Byzantine Architecture Middle Byzantine
Renaissance
  • The Bodrum Camii in Constantinople
  • c. 920
  • Poorly preserved
  • Embodies the cross-in-a-square theme

Photo Sullivan
13
Byzantine Architecture Middle Byzantine
Renaissance
  • Panaghia Chalkeon
  • Located in Greece
  • c. 1028

Photo Sullivan
14
Byzantine Architecture Middle Byzantine
Renaissance
  • Church of Theotokos
  • Located at the Monastery of Hosios Loukas in
    Phocis, Greece

Photo Sullivan
15
Byzantine Architecture Middle Byzantine
Renaissance
  • Other plans during this period included
  • Octagon-domed plan
  • Nea Moni in Chios
  • Greek Cross-octagon
  • Kathlikon Church at the Monastery of Hosios
    Loukas
  • Church of the Dormition in Daphni

16
Byzantine Architecture Middle Byzantine
Renaissance
  • Nea Moni in Chios
  • Imperial foundation built by Constantinopolitan
    architects between 1024 and 1056 A.D.
  • Triple-domed
  • Featured an inner-narthex with a single dome
  • Octagon-domed plan

Photo Sullivan
17
Byzantine Architecture Middle Byzantine
Renaissance
  • Kathlikon Church at the Monastery of Hosios
    Loukas
  • c. 1020
  • One of the most brilliant Byzantine designs
  • Interior is pervaded by light from many different
    sources
  • Greek cross-octagon plan

Photo Sullivan
18
Byzantine Architecture Middle Byzantine
Renaissance
  • Church of the Dormition in Daphni
  • c. 1100 A.D.
  • Greek cross-octagon plan

Photo Sullivan
19
Byzantine Architecture Late Byzantine
Architecture
  • Medieval Byzantine architecture was pushed to the
    limit during this period
  • Some critics believe it was pushed beyond the
    point of where balance and harmony were possible,
    but into excess and mannerism
  • Key Structures
  • Pantanassa in Mistra
  • Parigoritissa Church at Arta
  • Church in Gracanica, Yugoslavia

20
Byzantine Architecture Late Byzantine
Architecture
  • Pantanassa in Mistra
  • c. 1428 A.D.
  • A domed-basilica
  • Two Storied structure
  • Lower story was a Western-style three-apsed,
    three-aisled basilica
  • Upper story was a cross-in-a-sqare church

21
Byzantine Architecture Late Byzantine
Architecture
Photo Sullivan
22
Byzantine Architecture Late Byzantine
Architecture
  • Parigoritissa Church at Arta
  • c. 1283 1296

Photo Sullivan
23
Byzantine Architecture Late Byzantine
Architecture
  • Church in Gracanica, Yugoslavia
  • c. 1318 1321
  • Considered one of the most intense and
    exaggerated structures in the Late Byzantine
    period
  • Considered a double cross-in-a-square structure
  • Outer foundations form a cross-in-a-square around
    the main structure, which is a cross-in-a-square

24
Byzantine Architecture Late Byzantine
Architecture
Photo Sullivan
25
Byzantine Architecture Late Byzantine
Architecture
Photo Sullivan
26
References
  • Sullivan, Mary http//www.bluffton.edu/sullivanm
    /
  • Trachtenburg/Hyman Architecture From Prehistory
    to Postmodernity
  • Wodehouse/Moffett A History of Western
    Architecture

27
Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture
  • Architectural History
  • ACT 322
  • Doris Kemp
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