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Chapter 6 Ancient Rome and Early Christianity

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Title: Chapter 6 Ancient Rome and Early Christianity


1
Chapter 6 Ancient Rome and Early Christianity
  • Section 1
  • The Roman Republic

2
Section 1 Objective
  • Describe the structure of the Roman Republic and
    the ways it changed

3
Terms to Define
  • Patrician wealthy aristocrat class that had come
    into being in RomeLatin nobles.
  • Republic a community in which the people elected
    the leaders.
  • Plebian Most of Romes inhabitants, some
    wealthy, some not, non-aristocratic townspeople
    and landowners as well as merchants, shopkeepers,
    small farmers, and laborers.
  • Consul Two patrician officials elected for one
    year terms. They had to consult each other
    before acting.

4
Terms (cont)
  • Dictator a leader whose word was lawoccurred
    mostly during times of crisis
  • Tribunes representatives chosen by Plebians,
    granting them legal protections and the right to
    veto government decisions

5
People to Meet
  • The Etruscans
  • The Latins
  • Romulus
  • The Tarquins

6
Places to Locate
  • Italy
  • Sicily
  • Rome

7
Introduction
  • Greeks settled as colonies 900 B.C.
  • Set up farming communities
  • Planted olive trees and other crops
  • Introduced Greek alphabet

8
The Italian Peninsula
  • The Greeks were interested in colonizing Italy
    for several reasons
  • -Central location in the Mediterranean
  • -Rich soil

9
The Italian Peninsula
  • Soiled enriched by silt from mountain runoff
  • -Land to the north cut off by the Apls
  • Mild, moist, climate
  • -Ideally suited for trade among three
    continentsEurope, Asia, Africa

10
The Italian Peninsula
  • Silt would often clog the rivers
  • Created mosquito infested areas
  • Epidemics of Malaria, etc

11
Early Inhabitants
  • Generally traded among themselves
  • -Mountains
  • -Rocky coastline
  • -Covered 75 of the country

12
Early Inhabitants
  • Soiled enriched by silt from mountain runoff
  • -Land to the north cut off by the Alps
  • -Generally traded among themselves

13
Geographic Problems
  • Silt created swamps which drew mosquitos
  • Marshy coastline wasnt good for harbors

14
Early Peoples
  • Neolithic cultures probably 5000 B.C.
  • People there long before the Greeks arrived or
    Roman civilization began
  • Villages and farms

15
Indo-Europeans
  • Umbrians, Latins (Latium--LAY-shee-uhm--), Oscans
  • Indo-European migrants arrived and overwhelmed
    the Neolithic peoples on Italian Peninsula
    2000-1000 B.C.

16
The Etruscans
  • Ruled northern Italy from 900 B.C. to 500 B.C.
  • Did not speak Indo-European languages
  • Their alphabet came from the Greeksbut only a
    few Etruscan words have been deciphered

17
The Etruscans (cont)
  • Etruscans writing baffles scientists
  • Etruscan art (paintings and sculptures) is
    expressive, needing no translation
  • -dancing, playing, rich and pleasant life

18
The Etruscans
  • The Etruscansmore
  • feasting, conversing, wrestling matches
  • Triumphant soldiers
  • Beautiful deities, smile and gesture

19
The Etruscans (cont)
  • Wealthy overlords
  • Aristocratic priests
  • Slave labor
  • Slaves forced to dual to the death to appease
    angry gods
  • Lower classes finally freed themselveschief
    among them were the Latins who settled in Rome

20
The Etruscans
  • The Latins freed themselves after being offended
    by the Etruscans
  • Son of Etruscan king savages matron, Lucretia

21
The Rise of Rome--Legend
  • Legend
  • -753 B.C. Romulus was building a wall for his
    city on the side of a hill overlooking the Tiber
    River
  • -Twin brother Remus building on the other side
    of the hill

22
The Rise of Rome
  • According to Roman historian Livy, Remus leaped
    over the wall built by Romulus and mocked him.
  • Romulus killed Remus warning, so perish whoever
    else shall overleap my battlements

23
Romulus--myth
  • Continued to build Romenamed after him
  • Romulusmythgreat military commander
  • Rome continues to expand
  • Rome became the greatest city in that part of the
    peninsula

24
Rome Origins
  • Latins
  • -Huddled in huts on seven hills
  • -At some point, 800 B.C.-700 B.C., they joined
    to become one community--Rome

25
Etruscan Rule
  • About 620 B.C., the Etruscan gained control of
    Rome
  • The Tarquins, name of Etruscan family
  • -Taught the Latins to use brick to build
  • -Drained the lowlands and laid out streets

26
Etruscan Rule
  • Created the Forum in the middle of the citywhich
    became the government building
  • -Served as kings for Rome

27
The Tarquins
  • Wealthy Etruscan family
  • Provided kings for rule
  • Taught Romans to built with brick and tile their
    roofs
  • Drained marsh lands and designed streets

28
The Tarquins
  • Created a square called the Forum
  • The seat of government

29
Tarquins Driven Out
  • Tarquin the Proudvery cruel
  • Romans drive the Tarquins out
  • Etruscans stay and help Rome prosper
  • Tarquin kings son violates Lacretia

30
Social Groups
  • Latin nobles called patricians
  • Patricians declared Rome a republic
  • Wealthy aristocrats

31
Social Groups
  • Most of Romes inhabitants were plebians,
  • -Both patricians and plebians could vote
  • -Both responsible for serving in military

32
Social Groups
  • Patricians
  • Plebians
  • Vote
  • Pay taxes
  • Serve in the military
  • Could hold public office
  • Vote
  • Pay taxes
  • Serve in the military

33
The Roman Republic
  • Patricians organized Romes government into
    executive and legislative branches
  • Executive Branch
  • Two consuls assigned day-to-day affairs
  • One year terms
  • Each could veto the other
  • Veto Latin for I forbid

34
The Roman Republic
  • Consuls oversaw other officials
  • Praetors judges
  • Censors keepers of taxes
  • Only a dictator could overrule the consuls
  • Dictators appointed in times of crisis

35
The Roman Republic
  • Legislative Branch
  • -Assembly of Centuries (named for 100 soldiers)
  • -Senate

36
The Roman Republic
  • Assembly of Centuries
  • Senate
  • Elected from Executive Branch officials
  • Under patrician control
  • Named for military formation
  • Members100
  • Temporary office
  • Little real power
  • Executive Branch
  • Under Patrician control
  • Power outweighed Assembly
  • Members300
  • Served for life
  • Advised Consuls
  • Proposed laws
  • Approved contracts

37
Cincinnatus
  • Most respected dictator
  • Rival threatened Rome
  • Found plowing his fields
  • Led his troops to victory
  • Resigned as dictator and returned to his fields
    within 16 days

38
Plebians Against Patricians
  • Plebeians resented power of Patricians
  • Knew they could not rule without them.
  • Plebeians made up most of military forces
  • Patricians concerned about the military

39
Plebeians Against Patricians
  • Plebeians went on strike
  • Left city create their own republic

40
Tribunes
  • Patricians meet some demands
  • Recognized the Plebeians chosen
    representatives,Tribunes
  • Granted them legal protections and the right to
    veto government decisions
  • Tribunes were members of the Magistrate of
    Plebeians and had some power

41
Tribunes
  • Patricians recognized the Assembly of Tribes, the
    body of plebeians that elected tribunes
  • Tribunes could veto any government decision

42
Tribunes
  • Could not be arrested
  • Injuring a Tribune was cause to be put to death

43
Old and New Laws
  • Plebeians insisted laws put in writing
  • The Twelve Tablets basis of Roman law
  • Plebeians gain right to serve in public office
  • Right to make laws in Assembly of Tribes

44
Changes for Plebeians
  • Debt enslavement ended
  • Patrician/Plebeian marriage approved
  • Plebeians moved Rome closer to democracy
  • The most significant victorythe Twelve Tablesa
    written law code

45
The Twelve Tables
  • Roman law had rested on unwritten traditions
  • patrician judges interpreted unfairly
  • Plebeians insisted laws be written down

46
The Twelve Tables
  • 451 B.C. patricians engraved the laws on 12
    bronze tablets set in the Forum
  • -standards for laws
  • -principle that citizens protected by law

47
Religion
  • Early Etruscans worshipped spirits ultimately
    seen as gods or deities
  • Adopted practice of foretelling the future

48
Religion
  • Priests known as soothsayers
  • Watched flight of birds or intestines of animals
    to gain knowledge of future

49
Religion
  • Roman influenced by Greek culture
  • 500 years as a republic
  • Borrowed Greek deities giving them Roman names
  • -Aphrodite, Greek goddess of love, became the
    Roman goddess, Venus
  • -Ares, Greek god of war, became Mars
  • - Etc.

50
Religion (cont)
  • Families privately worshipped their ancestral
    spirits and their storeroom guardians
  • Worshipped Vesta, goddess of the hearth

51
Family
  • The basic unit of roman society
  • Large and close knit
  • Unmarried children, married sons and their
    family, all independent relatives, and household
    slaves
  • The father was the absolute head

52
Father as Absolute Family Head
  • Conducted religious ceremonies
  • Controlled property
  • Supervised education of his sons
  • Could sell his family members into slavery
  • Could kill family members
  • However, fathers felt deep sense of
    responsibility for family

53
Roman Women
  • Few rights, but more than Greek women
  • Hosted parties, did marketing, ran households
  • Occasionally, acquired property and businesses
  • Could study art, Greek literature, etc
  • Wealthy could let slaves do work

54
Roman Children
  • Firm discipline
  • Complete family loyalty

55
Parental Training
  • Parents taught children reading, writing, and
    moral standards
  • Fathers trained boys farmers and soldiers
  • Mothers taught daughters to run households

56
Values
  • Thrift
  • Discipline
  • Self-sacrifice
  • Devotion to family
  • Devotion to the republic
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