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HIV/AIDS in South Africa

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HIV/AIDS in South Africa Stacy Krull Natalie Kunewych Lindsey Litwinczuk Angela Madias Mary Martinovich Brian Matyniak Overview of South Africa Official Name ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HIV/AIDS in South Africa


1
HIV/AIDS in South Africa
  • Stacy Krull
  • Natalie Kunewych
  • Lindsey Litwinczuk
  • Angela Madias
  • Mary Martinovich
  • Brian Matyniak

2
Overview of South Africa
  • Official Name Republic of South Africa
  • Land Area 471,443 sq miles
  • Population 43,647,658
  • Ethnic Groups Black (75.2) White (13.6)
    Colored (8.6) Indian (2.6)
  • Religion primarily Christian (68) Indigenous
    (28.5)

3
Overview of HIV/AIDS in South Africa
  • HIV Infected 5.6 million -- more HIV positive
    people than any other country
  • (This number includes the approximately 230,000
    children, under 15 years old, that are infected)
  • AIDS Deaths 370,000
  • 1,000 AIDS deaths occurring every day
  • AIDS Orphans 1.1 million

4
Overview of HIV/AIDS in South Africa Continued .
. .
  • Among females, HIV prevalence is highest in those
    between 25 and 29 years old
  • Among males, the peak is in the group aged 30-39
    years

5
Overview of HIV/AIDS in South Africa Continued .
. .
  • Researchers estimate that 10.8 of all South
    Africans over the age of 2 years were living with
    HIV in 2005
  • Among those between 15 and 49 years old, the
    estimated HIV prevalence was 16.2 in 2005

6
Commonalities Compared to Brazil, India,
Ukraine, Cambodia, the United States, Haiti, and
Uganda
  • Predominantly discovered during the 1980s
  • Commonly transmitted via sexual contact,
    intravenous drug use, blood transfusions, and
    mother to child transmission

7
Commonalities Continued
  • Globally, women and girls comprise approximately
    50 of the HIV/Aids population
  • Affects and kills the most productive members,
    young adults 15-24 years old
  • High numbers of orphaned children put strains on
    the traditional family structure
  • Often carries a stigma causing discrimination

8
Commonalities Continued
  • Conflict found in many of the areas cause unrest
    and displacement leading to poverty and
    helplessness
  • Often leads to employment in the sex trade and
    heavy use of drugs
  • Typically spreads trailing the travel lines of
    migrants, displaced individuals, and transport
    drivers

9
Commonalities Continued
  • Healthcare and drug treatment is almost
    nonexistent in most regions especially for the
    impoverished
  • Lack of education and literacy issues cause
    difficulties in communicating the need for
    treatment and behavioral modifications

10
  • Social factors that place South Africa at high
    risk for HIV/ Aids
  • Social inequalities in income and employment
    status are powerful predictors of HIV infection.
  • In many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, as elsewhere
    in the world, the inequality between men and
    women, and economic deprivation helps to drive
    the epidemic. Women and girls are commonly
    discriminated against in terms of access to
    education, employment, credit, health care, land
    and inheritance.
  • Mobility Mass resettlements of populations
    under apartheid, seasonal labor migrations,
    movements along major trade routes and refugees
    fleeing war in other parts of Africa help spread
    infection.
  • Sexual violence Linked with common forms of
    social and political violence that have long been
    part of the everyday life of townships and inner
    city areas.

11
A Touchy Situation? Racism and the suspicion to
eliminate the African race.
  • Epidemics have often been used to enforce racial
    segregation. The bubonic plague of 1900 in
    Capetown was used to justify the mass removal of
    Africans from their homes to the first native
    locations under the first segregationist law,
    passed in 1883 and called, significantly, the
    Public Health Act.
  • When AIDS appeared in South Africa it was
    immediately interpreted in racist terms some
    white leaders evoked a supposed African
    promiscuity they denounced the danger that
    infected black people posed to the nation and
    they even publicly rejoiced over the possible
    elimination of black people by the disease as one
    member of parliament did in 1992.

12
So, what is the Common Response to such a problem
as HIV/AIDS?
  • Denial!
  • It is difficult for anybody- even a state
    leader-to fully comprehend the magnitude of the
    epidemic and its demographic consequences, such
    as the loss of 20 years of life expectancy within
    two decades.
  • This is what obvious state president Mbeki was in
    when he denied the link of HIV and AIDS in
    September 2003 by stating Personally, I dont
    know anyone who has died of AIDS. I honestly
    dont.
  • The lack of political commitment has contributed
    to the spread of HIV/AIDS.

13
Common Response to HIV/AIDS Continued
  • Alongside AIDS denialism and misinformation about
    AIDS treatment, false beliefs about how HIV can
    be transmitted are also a concern. At a trial in
    April 2006, South Africas former
    Deputy-President, Jacob Zuma, stated his belief
    that taking a shower after having sex had reduced
    his chances of contracting HIV. 
  • South African President Thabo Mbeki's has
    consistently refused to acknowledge that HIV is
    the cause of AIDS he argues that HIV is just one
    factor among many that might contribute to deaths
    resulting from immunodeficiency, alongside others
    such as poverty and poor nutrition 
  • Does HIV Cause AIDS? Can a virus cause a
    syndrome? How? It cant, because a syndrome is a
    group of diseases resulting from acquired immune
    deficiency. Indeed, HIV contributes, but other
    things contribute as well.- African president
    Thabo Mbeki. 

14
Responsibilities include
  • Poverty and Social Instability
  • High levels of sexual infections
  • Low status of women
  • High mobility

15
Government Response 2000-2005
  • The Operational Plan for Comprehensive care and
    Treatment for People Living with HIV and AIDS
  • Prevention
  • Treatment
  • Care
  • Support

16
Government Debate surrounding the Plan
  • Costs of the antiretroviral (ARV) drug
  • Other treatments needed to be considered
  • Change in the Governments attitude towards ARVs
  • Pharmaceutical companies agreed to allow low-cost
    generic versions to be produced in South Africa

17
Progress since 2003
  • Governments plan aimed to save 381,177 people on
    Government-funded ARVs by 2005-2006
  • 85,000 people in the public sector were receiving
    treatment by 2005
  • It is estimated by UNAIDS that at least 79 of
    those who needed ARVs were not receiving them at
    the end of 2005
  • Treatment was established, meeting the
    Governments 2003 goal, however the number of
    people receiving ARVs failed the initial targets.

18
Health Care Issues
  • Overcrowding of under-resourced hospitals
  • Due to working conditions patients receive
    inadequate care
  • Morale of health professional is low due to poor
    conditions inability to treat people
  • Many workers themselves are living with HIV/AIDS
  • Lack of specialized training and staff shortages

19
South African Labor Unions
  • COSATU demand for adequate care and treatment for
    people living with HIV/AIDS
  • Mineworkers were the first group known to be
    vulnerable to the disease
  • High levels of mobility, promote the tendency for
    workers to have more than one partner
  • Workers risk losing their incomes, partners,
    caregivers, and guardians
  • Unions have now made testing, counseling, and
    treatment programs available through their
    workplace.

20
Methods for the Future
  • Education and prevention campaigns
  • Encourage real behavior change
  • HIV awareness
  • Government taking firmer stance on treatment
    access

21
Culture
  • Highly diverse population with a mixture of
    ethnic backgrounds
  • South Africa consists of rural and crowded cities
    with many different dialects
  • Difficult to spread AIDS awareness campaigns

22
Culture Continued
  • The religion of South Africa is primarily
    Christianity but also includes Muslim, Hindu, and
    Jewish
  • South Africa has become the worlds most affected
    region from AIDS
  • The people are seeking both traditional African
    healers along with ARV drugs

23
Values
  • The stigma surrounding the diagnosis of AIDS is a
    major concern
  • In heterosexual AIDS victims in 2005, 57 were
    women and 75 of the total amount are either
    young people or women
  • Young people are most severely affected between
    the ages of 15-24

24
Values and Morals
  • Many men and women do not want the results from
    the HIV test to be disclosed because of the
    stigma that is placed on them and their family
  • Many women are more concerned about the hardships
    their children will face and not their disease

25
Morals and Values
  • A conflict has arisen on whether or not the
    partner of the HIV patient should have the right
    to know of the diagnosis
  • Women are afraid to tell their partners because
    of fear of abandonment

26
Poverty
  • According to the AIDS Law Project in 2006
  • 50,000 children need ARV medication and only
    10,000 are receiving them
  • The orphans are not
  • receiving medication,
  • have poor health,
  • and no education
  • High correlation between extreme poverty and high
    HIV prevalence

27
Gender Inequality
  • Many women are unable to negotiate safe sexual
    practices and are involved with men who have many
    partners
  • Women are affected by sexual violence and are
    economically and socially subordinate to men
  • Women loose their economic stability when they
    are separated from their partners

28
USAID
  • Providing 221. 5 million dollars in 2006
  • Interventions
  • Primary prevention of mother-to-child
    transmission programs and HIV/Aids education
  • Secondary increase number of ARV drugs being
    provided with 8 to children
  • Tertiary link HIV patients to community
    caregiver that will make home visits and support
    the efforts of a partner organization to train 30
    palliative care providers

29
References
  • www.cdc.gov/nchstp/od/gap/countries/southern_afric
    a.htm
  • www.usaid.gov/locations/sub-saharan_africa/countri
    es/southafrica/
  • http//www.avert.org/aidssouthafrica.html
  • http//www.avert.org/safricastats.html
  • http//www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fch
    i?artid1125376
  • http//www.csa.com/discoveryguides/afraid/review.p
    hp
  • http//www.aegis.com/countries/safrica.html
  • www.state.gov/documents/organization/61629.pdf
  • http//www.aids.org.za/hiv.htm
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