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Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMISM)

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Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMISM) Bojana Mila inovi bojana_at_rti7020.etf.bg.ac.yu Miodrag Ivanovi imiodrag_at_gmail.com Veljko Milutinovi – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMISM)


1
Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMISM)
  • Bojana Milašinovic
  • bojana_at_rti7020.etf.bg.ac.yu
  • Miodrag Ivanovic
  • imiodrag_at_gmail.com

Veljko Milutinovic vm_at_etf.etf.bg.ac.yu
2
Part 1 Introduction
3
History of CMMI
1987
1991
1995
1997
2000
2002
1993
First CMM Published
SW-CMM v1.1 Published
CMMI-SE/SW Version 1.0 Published
Model Refined and Published as SW-CMM v1.0
CMMI Initiative Launched
CMMI-SE/SW/IPPD/A Version 1.1 Published
Software Acquisition (SA-CMM), Systems
Engineering (SE-CMM), Integrated Product
Development (IPD-CMM), Organizational Workforce
Capability Development (People CMM) Developed
Buchholtz Cordes
4
Part 1 About CMMI Models
5
Part 1 Why should we care?
6
Part 1 About CMMI Models
  • Purpose
  • The purpose of CMM Integration is
  • to provide guidance for
  • improving organizations processes and
  • your ability to manage the development,
    acquisition, and maintenance of products or
    services.

7
Part 1 Selecting a CMMI Model
  • Multiple models available
  • Choosing the model that best fits your
    organization's needs
  • Representations
  • Continuous
  • Staged

8
Part 1 CMMI Model Representations
9
Part 1 Continuous Representations
  • Select the order of improvement that best meets
    the organizations business objectives
  • Comparison across and among organization on a
    process area
  • Easy migration from electronic industries
    alliance interim standard (EIA/IS) 731 to CMMI
  • Easy comparison of process improvement to
    international organization for standardization
    and international Electrotechnical commission
    (ISO/IEC) 15504

10
Part 1 Staged Representation
  • Providing sequence of improvements
  • Permit comparisons across and among organizations
  • Easy migration from the SW-CMM to CMMI
  • Single rating that summarizes appraisal results

11
Part 1 Which Integrated Model To Choose?
  • Four bodies of knowledge for selecting a CMMI
    model
  • Systems engineering
  • Software engineering
  • Integrated product and process development
  • Supplier sourcing

12
Part 1 Systems Engineering
  • Development of total systems
  • Focus on transforming customers needs into
    product solutions
  • Supporting these product solutions throughout the
    life of the product
  • Models of systems engineering
  • Process management
  • Project management
  • Support
  • Engineering process areas

13
Part 1 Software Engineering
  • Covers the development of software systems
  • Focus on
  • Applying systematic, disciplined, and
    quantifiable approaches to development
  • Operation
  • Maintenance of software
  • Models of software engineering
  • Process management
  • Project management
  • Support
  • Engineering process areas

14
Part 1 Integrated Product and Process
Development
  • Systematic approach to better satisfy customer
    needs
  • Processes to support the IPPD approach are
    integrated with the other processes in the
    organization
  • Models of IPPD
  • Process management
  • Project management
  • Support
  • Engineering process areas

15
Part 1 Supplier Sourcing
  • Use suppliers needed by the project when work
    efforts become more complex
  • Models of supplier sourcing
  • Process management
  • Project management
  • Support
  • Engineering process areas

16
Part 1 A Recommendation
  • Select both systems and software engineering
  • Based on the fact that only distinction between
    the models is the type of discipline
    amplifications included
  • Otherwise models are exactly the same

17
Part 1Maturity Levels
18
Part 1Capability Levels
19
Part 1 Comparison of Representations
  • Staged
  • Continuous
  • Process improvement is measured using capability
    levels.
  • Capability level is the achievement of process
    improvement within an individual process area.
  • Process area capability pertains to the
    maturity of a particular process across an
    organization.
  • Process improvement is measured using maturity
    levels.
  • Maturity level is the degree of process
    improvement across a predefined set of process
    areas.
  • Organizational maturity pertains to the
    maturity of a set of processes across an
    organization

20
Part 1 Advantages of Each Representation
  • Staged
  • Provides a roadmap for implementing
  • groups of process areas
  • sequencing of implementation
  • Familiar structure for those transitioning from
    the Software CMM
  • Continuous
  • Provides maximum flexibility for focusing on
    specific process areas according to business
    goals and objectives
  • Familiar structure for those transitioning from
    EIA 731

21
Part 1 Summary
  • There is one CMMI Model with two representations,
    Staged and Continuous
  • The material in both representations is the same
    just organized differently
  • Each representation provides different ways of
    implementing processes
  • Equivalent Staging provides a mechanism for
    relating Maturity Levels to Capability Levels
  • The CMMI model should be applied using
    intelligence, common sense, and professional
    judgment

22
Part 2 Model Components
23
Part 2CMMI Levels
24
Part 2Level Requirements
25
Part 2Level Requirements
26
Part 2Continuous Representation
27
Part 2CMMI Process Areas Categories
28
Part 2CMMI Model ComponentsStaged Representation
Maturity Levels
Process Area 1
Process Area 2
Process Area n
Specific Goals
Generic Goals
Specific Practices
Commitment to Perform
Ability to Perform
Directing Implementation
Verifying Implementation
Generic Practices
29
Part 2 Maturity Levels
  • Provides a way to predict the future performance
    of an organization within a given discipline or
    set of disciplines
  • In CMMI models, there are five maturity levels
  • 1.Initial
  • 2.Managed
  • 3.Defined
  • 4.Quantitatively managed
  • 5.Optimizing

30
Part 2 Maturity Level Details
  • Consist of a predefined set of process areas
  • Measured by the achievement of the specific and
    generic goals

31
Part 2 Maturity Level Details
32
Part 2 Equivalent Staging
33
Part 2 Maturity Level 1 Initial
  • Processes are usually ad hoc and chaotic
  • Organization usually does not provide a stable
    environment
  • Maturity level organizations often produce
    products and services that work
  • Maturity level organizations are characterized
    by
  • Tendency to over commit
  • Abandon processes in the time of the crisis
  • Not be able to repeat their past successes

34
Part 2 Maturity Level 2 Managed
  • Organization has achieved all the specific and
    generic goals
  • Projects of the organization have ensured that
  • Requirements are managed
  • Processes are planned
  • Performed, measured, and controlled

35
Part 2 Maturity Level 2 Managed Process Areas
  • REQUIREMENTS MANAGEMENT The purpose of
    Requirements Management (REQM) is to manage the
    requirements of the projects products and
    product components and to identify
    inconsistencies between those requirements and
    the projects plans and work products.
  • PROJECT PLANNING
  • The purpose of Project Planning (PP) is to
    establish and maintain plans that define project
    activities.
  • PROJECT MONITORING AND CONTROL The purpose of
    Project Monitoring and Control (PMC) is to
    provide an understanding of the projects
    progress so that appropriate corrective actions
    can be taken when the projects performance
    deviates significantly from the plan.
  • SUPPLIER AGREEMENT MANAGEMENT
  • The purpose of Supplier Agreement Management
    (SAM) is to manage the acquisition of products
    from suppliers.

36
Part 2 Maturity Level 2 Managed Process Areas
  • MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS
  • The purpose of Measurement and Analysis (MA) is
    to develop and sustain a measurement capability
    that is used to support management information
    needs.
  • PROCESS AND PRODUCT QUALITY ASSURANCE
  • The purpose of Process and Product Quality
    Assurance (PPQA) is to provide staff and
    management with objective insight into processes
    and associated work products.
  • CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT
  • The purpose of Configuration Management (CM) is
    to establish and maintain the integrity of work
    products using configuration identification,
    configuration control, configuration status
    accounting, and configuration audits.

37
Part 2 Maturity Level 3 Defined
  • Processes are well characterized, and understood,
    are described in standards, procedures, tools and
    methods
  • The organizations set of standard processes, is
    established and improved over time
  • Establishing consistency across the organization

38
Part 2 Maturity Level 3 Defined Process Areas
  • REQUIREMENTS DEVELOPMENT
  • The purpose of Requirements Development (RD) is
    to produce and analyze customer, product, and
    product component requirements.
  • TECHNICAL SOLUTION
  • The purpose of Technical Solution (TS) is to
    design, develop, and implement solutions to
    requirements. Solutions, designs, and
    implementations encompass products, product
    components, and product-related lifecycle
    processes either singly or in combination as
    appropriate.
  • PRODUCT INTEGRATION
  • The purpose of Product Integration (PI) is to
    assemble the product from the product components,
    ensure that the product, as integrated, functions
    properly, and deliver the product.

39
Part 2 Maturity Level 3 Defined Process Areas
  • VERIFICATION
  • The purpose of Verification (VER) is to ensure
    that selected work products meet their specified
    requirements.
  • VALIDATION
  • The purpose of Validation (VAL) is to
    demonstrate that a product or product component
    fulfills its intended use when placed in its
    intended environment.
  • ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS FOCUS
  • The purpose of Organizational Process Focus
    (OPF) is to plan, implement, and deploy
    organizational process improvements based on a
    thorough understanding of the current strengths
    and weaknesses of the organizations processes
    and process assets.
  • ORGANIZATIONAL TRAINING
  • The purpose of Organizational Training (OT) is
    to develop the skills and knowledge of people so
    they can perform their roles effectively and
    efficiently.

40
Part 2 Maturity Level 3 Defined Process Areas
  • ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS DEFINITION IPPD
  • The purpose of Organizational Process Definition
    (OPD) is to establish and maintain a usable set
    of organizational process assets and work
    environment standards.
  • IPPD Addition
  • For IPPD, Organizational Process Definition
    IPPD also covers the establishment of
    organizational rules and guidelines that enable
    conducting work using integrated teams.
  • INTEGRATED PROJECT MANAGEMENT IPPD
  • The purpose of Integrated Project Management
    (IPM) is to establish and manage the project and
    the involvement of the relevant stakeholders
    according to an integrated and defined process
    that is tailored from the organizations set of
    standard processes.
  • IPPD Addition
  • For IPPD, Integrated Project Management IPPD
    also covers the establishment of a shared vision
    for the project and the establishment of
    integrated teams that will carry out objectives
    of the project.

41
Part 2 Maturity Level 3 Defined Process Areas
  • RISK MANAGEMENT
  • The purpose of Risk Management (RSKM) is to
    identify potential problems before they occur so
    that risk-handling activities can be planned and
    invoked as needed across the life of the product
    or project to mitigate adverse impacts on
    achieving objectives.
  • DECISION ANALYSIS AND RESOLUTION
  • The purpose of Decision Analysis and Resolution
    (DAR) is to analyze possible decisions using a
    formal evaluation process that evaluates
    identified alternatives against established
    criteria.
  • INTEGRATED TEAMING
  • The purpose of Integrated Teaming is to form and
    sustain an integrated team for the development of
    work products.
  • INTEGRATED SUPPLIER MANAGEMENT
  • The purpose of Integrated Supplier Management is
    to proactively identify sources of products that
    may be used to satisfy the projects requirements
    and to manage selected suppliers while
    maintaining a cooperative project-supplier
    relationship.
  • ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT FOR INTEGRATION
  • The purpose of Organizational Environment for
    Integration is to provide an Integrated Product
    and Process Development (IPPD) infrastructure and
    manage people for integration.

42
Part 2 Maturity Level 4 Quantitatively Managed
  • Subprocesses are selected that significantly
    contribute to overall process performance
  • As criteria in managing process the quantitative
    objects for quality are established
  • Quantitative objectives are based on
  • Needs of a customer
  • End users
  • Organization
  • Process implements
  • For these processes, detailed measures of process
    performance are collected and statistically
    analyzed

43
Part 2 Maturity Level 4 Quantitatively Managed
Process Areas
  • ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESS PERFORMANCE
  • The purpose of Organizational Process
    Performance (OPP) is to establish and maintain a
    quantitative understanding of the performance of
    the organizations set of standard processes in
    support of quality and process-performance
    objectives, and to provide the process-performance
    data, baselines, and models to quantitatively
    manage the organizations projects.
  • QUANTITATIVE PROJECT MANAGEMENT
  • The purpose of Quantitative Project Management
    (QPM) is to quantitatively manage the projects
    defined process to achieve the projects
    established quality and process-performance
    objectives.

44
Part 2 Maturity Level 5 Optimizing
  • Focuses on continually improving process
    performance through
  • Incremental technological improvements
  • Innovative technological improvements
  • Both processes are the organizations set of
    measurable improvement activities

45
Part 2 Maturity Level 5 Optimizing Process
Areas
  • ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION AND DEPLOYMENT
  • The purpose of Organizational Innovation and
    Deployment (OID) is to select and deploy
    incremental and innovative improvements that
    measurably improve the organizations processes
    and technologies. The improvements support the
    organizations quality and process-performance
    objectives as derived from the organizations
    business objectives.
  • CAUSAL ANALYSIS AND RESOLUTION
  • The purpose of Causal Analysis and Resolution
    (CAR) is to identify causes of defects and other
    problems and take action to prevent them from
    occurring in the future.

46
Part 2 Skipping Maturity Levels
  • Through staged representations an organization
    should evolve to establish a culture of
    excellence
  • Each maturity level forms a necessary foundation
    on which to build the next level
  • Trying to skip maturity level is usually
    counterproductive

47
Part 2 Required, Expected, and Informative
Components
  • The components of CMMI model are grouped into
    these three categories
  • 1. Required
  • Specific and generic goals
  • Must be achieved by an organizations planned and
    implemented process
  • Essential to rating the achievement of a process
    area
  • Only the statement of the specific or generic
    goal is a required model component
  • The title of a specific or generic goal and any
    other notes are considered informative model
    components

48
Part 2 Required, Expected, and Informative
Components
  • 2. Expected
  • Specific and generic practices
  • Describe what an organization will typically
    implement to achieve a required components
  • Only the statement of the practice is a expected
    model component
  • The title of a practice and any notes associated
    with the practice are considered informative
    model components

49
Part 2 Required, Expected, and Informative
Components
  • 3. Informative
  • Subpractices
  • Typical work products
  • Discipline amplifications
  • Generic practice elaborations
  • Goal and practice titles
  • Goal and practice notes
  • Referrers
  • Provide details that help model users get started
    in thinking about how to approach goals and
    practices

50
Part 2 Model Components
  • Process areas
  • Cluster of related practices in an area
  • When performed collectively, satisfy a set of
    goals considered important for improvement in
    that area
  • Specific goals
  • Apply to a process area and address the unique
    characteristics
  • Describe what must be implemented to satisfy the
    process area
  • Specific practices
  • Activity that is considered important in
    achieving the associated specific goal
  • Describe the activities expected to result in
    achievement of the specific goals of a process
    area

51
Part 2 Model Components
  • Common features
  • Organize the generic practices of each process
    area
  • Commitment to perform (CO)
  • Ability to perform (AB)
  • Directing implementation (DI)
  • Verifying implementation (VE)
  • Typical work products
  • Provides example outputs from a specific or
    generic practice
  • Subpractices
  • Detailed description that provide guidance for
    interpreting specific or generic practices

52
Part 2 Model Components
  • Discipline amplifications
  • Contain information relevant to a particular
    discipline
  • Associated with specific practices
  • Generic goals
  • Used in appraisals to determine whether a process
    area is satisfied
  • Generic practices
  • Provide institutionalization to ensure that the
    processes associated with the process area will
    be effective, repeatable and lasting

53
Part 2 Model Components
  • Generic practice elaborations
  • Appear in each process area to provide guidance
    on how the generic practices should uniquely be
    applied to the process area

54
Part 2 Specific Practices vs. Generic Practices
  • Apply to a single process area
  • Describe activities that implement the process
    area
  • Example Requirements Mgmt.
  • SG 1 Manage Requirements
  • SP 1.1 Obtain an Understanding of Requirements
  • SP 1.2 Obtain Commitment to Requirements
  • SP 1.3 Manage Requirements Changes
  • SP 1.4 Maintain Bidirectional Traceability of
    Requirements
  • SP 1.5 Identify Inconsistencies between Project
    Work and Requirements
  • Apply to all process areas
  • Describe activities that institutionalize the
    process areas
  • GG 2 Institutionalize a Managed Process
  • GP 2.1 Establish an Organizational Policy
  • GP 2.2 Plan the Process
  • GP 2.3 Provide Resources
  • GP 2.4 Assign Responsibility
  • GP 2.5 Train People
  • GP 2.6 Manage Configurations
  • GP 2.7 Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders
  • GP 2.8 Monitor and Control the Process
  • GP 2.9 Objectively Evaluate Adherence
  • GP 2.10 Review Status with Higher Level
    Management
  • GG 3 Institutionalize a Defined Process
  • GP 3.1 Establish a Defined Process
  • GP 3.2 Collect Improvement Information

55
Part 3 Model Terminology
56
Part 3 Terminology Evolution
  • In any CMMI model, the terminology used and how
    it is defined are important for understanding the
    content
  • When developing the CMMI model, the Product Team
    started with the terminology used in the source
    model
  • Terminology is not consistent
  • Some terms were abandoned

57
Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning
  • Adequate, Appropriate, As Needed
  • Words used to interpret goals and practices in
    light of organizations business objectives
  • Establish and Maintain
  • This phrase connotes a meaning beyond the
    component terms it includes documentation and
    usage
  • Customer
  • Party (individual, project, or organization)
    responsible for accepting the product or for
    authorizing payment
  • Stakeholder
  • Group or individual that is affected by or in
    some way accountable for the outcome of an
    undertaking

58
Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning
  • Relevant Stakeholder
  • The term used to designate a stakeholder that is
    identified for involvement in specific activities
    and is included in an appropriate plan
  • Manager
  • Refers to a person who provides technical and
    administrative directions
  • Control to those performing tasks or activities
  • Project Manager
  • Person responsible for planning, directing,
    controlling, structuring, and motivating the
    project
  • Responsible for satisfying the customer

59
Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning
  • Senior Manager
  • Refers to a management role at a high enough
    level in an organization
  • Primary focus of the person filling
  • The role is the long-term vitality of the
    organization, rather than short-term project and
    concerns and pressures
  • Shared Vision
  • Common understanding of guiding principles
  • Includes mission, objectives, expected behavior,
    values, and final outcomes developed and used by
    the group, such as organization, project or team

60
Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning
  • Organization
  • Typically an administrative structure in which
    people collectively manage one or more projects
    as a whole, and whose projects share a senior
    manager and operate under the same policies
  • Enterprise
  • Enterprise illustrates the larger entity not
    always reached by the word organization
  • Development
  • Implies not only development activities, but also
    maintenance activities

61
Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning
  • Discipline
  • Refers to the bodies of knowledge available when
    selecting a CMMI model
  • Project
  • Managed set of interrelated resources that
    delivers one or more products to a customer or
    end user
  • Product
  • Mean any tangible output that is a result of a
    process
  • It is intended for delivery to an customer or end
    user

62
Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning
  • Work Product
  • Mean any artifact produced by a process
  • These artifacts include files, documents, parts
    of the product, services, processes,
    specifications, and invoices
  • Product Component
  • Any work product that must be engineered
    (requirements defined and designs developed and
    implemented) to achieve the intended use of the
    product throughout its life
  • Appraisal
  • Examination of one or more processes by a trained
    team of professionals
  • Usage of appraisal reference model as the basis
    for determining strengths and weakness

63
Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning
  • Tailoring Guidelines
  • Tailoring a process makes, alters, or adapts the
    process description for a particular end
  • Used to enable organizations to implement
    standard processes appropriately in their
    projects
  • Tailoring guidelines cover
  • Selecting a standard process
  • Selecting an approved life-cycle model
  • Tailoring the selected standard process and
    life-cycle model to fit project needs
  • Verification
  • Confirms that work products properly reflect the
    requirements specified to them

64
Part 3 Common Terminology with Special Meaning
  • Validation
  • Confirms that the product, as provided, will
    fulfill its intended use
  • Quality and Process-Performance Objectives
  • Covers objectives and requirements for product
    quality, service quality, and process performance
  • Standard
  • Refers to the formal mandatory requirements
    developed and used to prescribe consistent
    approaches to development

65
Part 3 CMMI-Specific Terminology
  • CMMI Product Suite
  • Complete set of products developed around the
    CMMI concept
  • CMMI Framework
  • Basic structure that organizes CMMI components
  • Enables new discipline to be added to CMMI so
    that the new discipline will integrate with the
    existing one

66
Part 3 CMMI-Specific Terminology
  • CMMI Model
  • Refers to one, some, or entire collection of
    possible models that can be generated from the
    CMMI Framework
  • Peer Review
  • Review of work products performed by peers during
    development of the work products to identify
    defects for removal
  • Organizations Set of Standard Processes
  • Contains the definitions of the processes that
    guide all activities in an organization

67
Part 3 CMMI-Specific Terminology
  • Process
  • Consists of activities that can be recognized as
    implementations of practices in a CMMI model
  • Managed Process
  • Performed process that is planned and executed in
    accordance with policy
  • Defined Process
  • Managed process tailored from the organizations
    set of standards processes according to the
    organizations tailoring guidelines

68
Part 3 CMMI-Specific Terminology
  • Organizational Process Assets
  • Artifacts that relate to describing,
    implementing, and improving processes
  • Include the following
  • Organizations set of standard processes,
    including the process architectures and process
    elements
  • Descriptions of life-cycle models approved for
    use
  • Guidelines and criteria for tailoring the
    organizations set of standard processes
  • Organizations measurement repository
  • Organizations process asset library

69
Part 3 CMMI-Specific Terminology
  • Process Architectures
  • Describes the ordering, interfaces,
    interdependencies, and other relationships among
    the process elements in a standard process
  • Product Life Cycle
  • Period of time, consisting of phases, that begins
    when a product is conceived and ends when the
    product is no longer available for use

70
Part 3 CMMI-Specific Terminology
  • Organizations Measurement Repository
  • Repository used to collect and make available
    measurement data on processes and work products
  • Organizations Process Asset Library
  • Library of information used to store and make
    available process assets that are potentially
    useful to those who are defining, implementing,
    and managing processes in the organization
  • Document
  • Collection of data, regardless of the medium on
    which it is recorded, that generally has
    permanence of the medium on which it is recorded,
    that generally has permanence and can be read by
    humans or machines

71
Part 4 Common Features, Generic Goals, and
Generic Practices
72
Part 4 Characteristics of Institutionalization
  • Critical aspect of process improvement important
    concept within each maturity level
  • Managed process is institutionalized by doing the
    following
  • Adhering to organizational policies
  • Following established plans and process
    descriptions
  • Providing adequate resources (including funding,
    people, and tools)
  • Assigning responsibility and authority for
    performing the process
  • Training the people performing and supporting the
    process
  • Placing designated work products under
    appropriate levels of configuration management
  • Identifying and involving relevant stakeholders
  • Monitoring and controlling the performance pf the
    process against the plans for performing the
    process and taking corrective actions

73
Part 4 Characteristics of Institutionalization
  • Objectively evaluating the process, its work
    products, and its services for adherence to the
    process descriptions, objectives, and standards,
    and addressing noncompliance
  • Reviewing the activities, status, and results of
    the process with higher level management, and
    taking corrective action
  • Defined process is institutionalized by doing the
    following
  • Addressing the items that institutionalize a
    managed process
  • Establishing the description of the defined
    process for the project or organizational unit
  • Collecting work products, measures, and
    improvement information derived from planning and
    performing the defined process
  • Quantitatively managed process is
    institutionalized by doing the following
  • Addressing the items that institutionalize a
    defined process
  • Controlling the process using statistical and
    other quantitative techniques such as product
    quality, service quality, and process performance

74
Part 4 Characteristics of Institutionalization
  • Optimizing process is institutionalized by doing
    the following
  • Addressing the items that institutionalize a
    quantitatively managed process
  • Improving the process based on an understanding
    of the common causes process focuses on
    continually improving the range of process
    performance

75
Part 4 Generic Goals
  • In staged representation, every process area has
    only one generic goal
  • Generic goal describes what institutionalization
    must be achieved to satisfy a process area
  • Each process area at maturity level 2 contains
    the following generic goal
  • GG 2 Institutionalize a managed process ( the
    process is institutionalized as a managed
  • process)
  • GG 3 Institutionalize a defined process ( the
  • process is institutionalized as a
    defined process)

76
Part 4 Common Features
  • Predefined attributes that group generic
    practices into categories
  • Model components not rated in any way
  • There are four common features in CMMI model
  • Commitment to perform groups the generic
    practices related to creating policies and
    securing sponsorship
  • Ability to perform groups the generic practices
    related to ensuring that the project and/or
    organization has the resources it needs
  • Directing implementation - groups the generic
    practices related to managing the performance of
    the process, managing the integrity of its work
    products, and involving relevant stakeholders
  • Verifying implementation - groups the generic
    practices related to review by higher level
    management and objective evaluation of
    conformance to process descriptions, procedures,
    and standards

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Part 4 Generic Practices Listed by Common Feature
  • Common features categories
  • Commitment to perform
  • GP 2.1 Establish and organizational policy
  • Ability to perform
  • GP 2.2 Plan the process
  • GP 2.3 Provide resources
  • GP 2.4 Assign responsibility
  • GP 2.5 Train people
  • GP 3.1 Establish a defined process

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Part 4 Generic Practices Listed by Common Feature
  • Directing implementation
  • GP 2.6 Manage configurations
  • GP 2.7 Identify and involve relevant stakeholders
  • GP 2.8 Monitor and control the process
  • GP 3.2 Collect improvement information
  • Verifying implementation
  • GP 2.9 Objectively evaluate adherence
  • GP 2.10 Review status with higher level management

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Part 5 Framework Interactions
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Part 5 Four Categories of CMMI Process Areas
  • 1.Process Management process areas contain the
    cross-project activities related to defining,
    planning, resourcing, deploying, implementing,
    monitoring, controlling, appraising, measuring,
    and improving processes.
  • 2.Project Management process areas cover the
    project management activities related to
    planning, and controlling the project.

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Part 5 Four Categories of CMMI Process Areas
  • 3. Engineering process areas cover the
    development and maintenance activities that are
    shared across engineering disciplines.
  • 4. Support process areas cover the activities
    that support product development and maintenance.

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Part 6 Using CMMI Models
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Part 6 Using CMMI Models
  • Interpreting CMMI Models
  • Every CMMI model provides a set of publicly
    available criteria describing the characteristics
    of organizations that have successfully
    implemented process improvement
  • These criteria can be used by organizations to
    improve their processes for developing,
    acquiring, and maintaining products and services

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Part 6 Appraisal and Benchmarking
  • Process appraisals focus on identifying
    improvement opportunities
  • The appraisal principles for CMMI model
  • Senior-management sponsorship
  • A focus on the organizations business objectives
  • Confidentiality for interviewees
  • Use of a documented appraisal method
  • Use of a process reference model as a base
  • A collaborative team approach
  • A focus on actions for process improvement

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Part 6 Appraisal Requirements for CMMI (ARC)
  • Contains a set of criteria for developing,
    defining, and using appraisal methods based on
    CMMI products
  • Provides requirements for multiple types of
    appraisal methods
  • ARC document uses the CMMI models as its
    associated reference models

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Part 6 ISO/IEC 15504 Compatibility and
Conformance
  • The CMMI Product Suite was designed to achieve
    ISO/IEC 15504 compatibility and conformance
  • There are two aspects of conformance
  • Model compatibility
  • Appraisal conformance

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Part 6 Making the Transition to CMMI
  • Describing three transition scenarios
  • First two assume the organization has already
    begun its improvement efforts using either the
    Software CMM or the EIA/IS 731
  • Third scenario assumes that the organization has
    not used a particular reference model for current
    improvement efforts

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Part 6 Organizations with Software CMM Experience
  • Organizations initially making the transition to
    CMMI
  • Seeking to update their process-improvement
    efforts to incorporate the improvements
  • Gain the additional breadth of coverage afforded
    in CMMI models
  • Organizations that have achieved a high level of
    maturity
  • Wish to make the transition more quickly
  • Taking advantage of the additional coverage
    described in CMMI model

89
Part 6 Organizations with EIA/IS 7 31 Experience
  • Involves some reorganization of specific
    practices under specific goals and process areas
  • The addition of informative materials

90
Part 6 Organizations New to CMM-Type Models
  • Assumed to be in one of two categories
  • May have undertaken process-improvement efforts
    under other quality initiatives (ISO 9000,
    Malcolm Baldrige)
  • May be considering such efforts because of the
    mounting evidence of business value resulting
    from such a commitment
  • May approach improvement by using either a
    continuous or staged representation

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Part 6 Training
  • Key element in the ability of organizations to
    adopt CMMI
  • Key part of the product suite

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Part 6 Tailoring Perspectives
  • Tailoring - process whereby only a subset of a
    model is used to suit the needs of a specific
    domain of application
  • Involves the selection of options for use in an
    appraisal

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Part 6 Model Tailoring Perspectives
  • Viewed from two perspectives
  • Related to use of a model for process improvement
  • Focus on identifying the process areas and
    practices that support an organizations business
    needs and objectives
  • Related to use of a model for benchmarking
  • Process areas, in some circumstances, may be
    determined to be not applicable if the process
    area is outside of the organizations scope of
    work

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Part 6 Model Tailoring for Smaller Projects
  • High-level plan is typically available that has
    been developed for a group of projects
  • Defines the organization, resources, training,
    management participations, and quality assurance
    reporting descriptions for all projects

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ConclusionCMMI Benefits
  • CMMI product users can expect to
  • Efficiently and effectively improve and assess
    multiple disciplines across their organization
  • Reduce costs (including training) associated with
    improving and assessing processes
  • Deploy a common, integrated vision of process
    improvement that can be used as a basis for
    enterprise-wide process improvement efforts.

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Conclusion The promise...
  • CMMI team is working to assure the CMMI Product
    Suite addresses needs of software and systems
    engineering communities of practice
  • Use of an integrated model to guide enterprise
    process improvement promises to be one of the
    more sustainable profitable initiatives that
    any organization might pursue

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Literature
  • CMMISM for Systems Engineering, Software
    Engineering, Integrated Process Development, and
    Supplier Sourcing
  • Generic Practices
  • CMMI Overview
  • Measurement within the CMMI
  • Why should you Care about CMMI?
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