Infants and young children are at high risk for fluid and electrolyte imbalances. Which of the following factors contribute to this vulnerability? A. Decreased body surface area B. Lower metabolic rate C. Mature kidney function D. Increased - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Infants and young children are at high risk for fluid and electrolyte imbalances. Which of the following factors contribute to this vulnerability? A. Decreased body surface area B. Lower metabolic rate C. Mature kidney function D. Increased

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Title: Infants and young children are at high risk for fluid and electrolyte imbalances. Which of the following factors contribute to this vulnerability? A. Decreased body surface area B. Lower metabolic rate C. Mature kidney function D. Increased


1
Infants and young children are at high risk for
fluid and electrolyte imbalances. Which of the
following factors contribute to this
vulnerability?A. Decreased body surface areaB.
Lower metabolic rateC. Mature kidney
functionD. Increased Extracellular fluid volume
2
Infants and young children are at high risk for
fluid and electrolyte imbalances. Which of the
following factors contribute to this
vulnerability?A. Decreased body surface areaB.
Lower metabolic rateC. Mature kidney
functionD. Increased Extracellular fluid volume
3
__________ dehydration occurs when electrolyte
and water deficits are present in balanced
proportion.A. IsotonicB. HypotonicC.
Hypertonic
4
__________ dehydration occurs when electrolyte
and water deficits are present in balanced
proportion.A. IsotonicB. HypotonicC.
Hypertonic
5
__________ dehydration occurs when electrolyte
deficit exceeds the water deficit. (Electrolyte
loss gt water loss)A. IsotonicB. HypotonicC.
Hypertonic
6
__________ dehydration occurs when electrolyte
deficit exceeds the water deficit. (Electrolyte
loss gt water loss)A. IsotonicB. HypotonicC.
Hypertonic
7
An infant with moderate dehydration has what
clinical signs?A. Mottled skin color, decreased
pulse and respirationB. Decreased U.O.,
tachycardia, and feverC. Tachycardia, oliguria,
capillary filling 2-3 secondsD. Tachycardia,
bulging fontanel, decreased blood pressure
8
An infant with moderate dehydration has what
clinical signs?A. Mottled skin color, decreased
pulse and respirationB. Decreased U.O.,
tachycardia, and feverC. Tachycardia, oliguria,
capillary filling 2-3 secondsD. Tachycardia,
bulging fontanel, decreased blood pressure
9
Rapid fluid replacement is CONTRAINDICATED in
which one of the following types of
dehydration? A. IsotonicB. HypotonicC.
Hypertonic
10
Rapid fluid replacement is CONTRAINDICATED in
which one of the following types of
dehydration? A. IsotonicB. HypotonicC.
Hypertonic
11
An infant weighs 8 kg. The maintenance fluids
per day would be ____________.How fast would you
run the IV if the child were not taking any
liquids PO? ______
12
An infant weighs 8 kg. The maintenance fluids
per day would be 8 x 100cc/kg 800cc/day.How
fast would you run the IV if the child were not
taking any liquids PO? 33cc/hr
13
Diarrhea most commonly causes which one of the
following?A. respiratory acidosisB. respiratory
alkalosisC. metabolic acidosisD. metabolic
alkalosis
14
Diarrhea most commonly causes which one of the
following?A. respiratory acidosisB. respiratory
alkalosisC. metabolic acidosisD. metabolic
alkalosis
15
Tim is a one month old infant admitted for
uncontrolled vomiting. The nurse will observe Tim
for signs of which one of the following?A.
alkalosisB. acidosis
16
Tim is a one month old infant admitted for
uncontrolled vomiting. The nurse will observe Tim
for signs of which one of the following?A.
alkalosisB. acidosis
17
Which of the following is MOST likely to develop
acute diarrhea?A. A 2 month old infant who
attends daycare each dayB. An 18 month old who
stays at home each day with his motherC. A 6
year old who attends public schoolD. A 24 month
old infant with two older brothers, aged 5 and 8
years
18
Which of the following is MOST likely to develop
acute diarrhea?A. A 2 month old infant who
attends daycare each dayB. An 18 month old who
stays at home each day with his motherC. A 6
year old who attends public schoolD. A 24 month
old infant with two older brothers, aged 5 and 8
years
19
9. A 7 year old with acute diarrhea has been
rehydrated with oral rehydration fluids. The
nurse should recommend that the childs diet be
advanced to include which of the following?A.
regular dietB. clear liquidsC.
high-carbohydrate dietD. BRAT diet (bananas,
rice, apples, toast)
20
9. A 7 year old with acute diarrhea has been
rehydrated with oral rehydration fluids. The
nurse should recommend that the childs diet be
advanced to include which of the following?A.
regular dietB. clear liquidsC.
high-carbohydrate dietD. BRAT diet (bananas,
rice, apples, toast)
21
10. A 2 month old breast-fed infant is
successfully rehydrated with oral rehydration
solutions for acute diarrhea. Instructions to
the mother about breastfeeding should include
which of the following?A. continue
breast-feedingB. stop breast feeding until
breast milk is culturedC. Stop breast-feeding
until diarrhea is absent for 24 hoursD. Express
breast milk and kilute with sterile water before
feeding it
22
10. A 2 month old breast-fed infant is
successfully rehydrated with oral rehydration
solutions for acute diarrhea. Instructions to
the mother about breastfeeding should include
which of the following?A. continue
breast-feedingB. stop breast feeding until
breast milk is culturedC. Stop breast-feeding
until diarrhea is absent for 24 hoursD. Express
breast milk and kilute with sterile water before
feeding it
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