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Classroom Management Theories

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EDU 710 10 Management Theories The Ginott Model Discipline is a series of little victories Relies on self-discipline of the teacher The second ingredient is using ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classroom Management Theories


1
Classroom Management Theories
  • EDU 710

2
10 Management Theories
3
The Ginott Model
  • Discipline is a series of little victories
  • Relies on self-discipline of the teacher
  • The second ingredient is using sane messages when
    correcting misbehaving students. Sane messages
    are messages that address the situation and do
    not attack childrens characters.
  • Teachers should model the behavior they hope to
    see in their children.

4
The Ginott Model
  • Inviting cooperation from students is vastly
    preferable to demanding it.
  • Teachers should express anger but in appropriate
    (sane) ways.
  • Labeling students disables them.
  • Sarcasm is and praise often is dangerous. Use
    both with great care.
  • Apologies from students should be accepted with
    the understanding that they intend to improve.
  • The best teachers help students to build their
    own self-esteem and to trust their own
    experience.

5
The Glasser Model
  • Students are rational beings. They can control
    their behavior.
  • Good choices produce good behavior. Bad choices
    produce bad behavior.
  • Teachers must forever try to help students make
    good choices.

6
The Glasser Model
  • Teachers who truly care about their students
    accept no excuses for bad behavior.
  • Reasonable consequences should always follow
    student behavior, good or bad.
  • Class rules are essential and they must be
    enforced.
  • Classroom meetings are effective vehicles for
    attending to matters of class rules, behavior,
    and discipline.

7
The Kounin Model (based on Glasser)
  • When teachers correct misbehavior in one student,
    it often influences the behavior of nearby
    students. This is known as the ripple effect.
  • Teachers should know what is going on in all
    parts of the classroom at all times. Kounin calls
    this awareness, withitness.

8
The Kounin Model
  • The ability to provide smooth transitions between
    activities and to maintain consistent momentum
    within activities is crucial to effective group
    management.
  • Teachers should strive to maintain group
    alertness and to hold every group member
    accountable got the content of a lesson, which
    allows optimal learning to take place.
  • Student boredom can be avoided by providing a
    feeling of progress and by adding variety to
    curriculum and classroom environment.

9
The Canter Model (Assertive Discipline)
  • This assertive discipline consists of the
    following elements
  • Identifying expectations clearly.
  • Willingness to say, "I need you to ..." and "I
    like that." "I messages don't interfere with the
    pupil's positive self-esteem. You are no good,
    why won't you behave," does interfere.
  • Persistence in stating expectations and feelings.
  • Use of firm tone of voice.
  • Maintenance of eye contact.
  • Use of nonverbal gestures
  • in support of verbal statements.

10
The Jones Model
  • 50 of instructional time is lost because
    students are off task or otherwise disturbing the
    teacher or other class members.
  • Two kinds of student misbehavior---talking
    without permission (80) and general goofing off,
    including making noises, daydreaming, or getting
    out of ones seats without asking permission
    (19).
  • Most of this lost teaching time can be salvaged
    if teachers systematically employ three kinds of
    techniques that strongly assist discipline
    effective body language, incentive systems, and
    efficient individual help.

11
The Redl Wattenberg Model
  • People in groups behave differently than they do
    individually.
  • Students adopt identifiable roles in the
    classroom.
  • Teachers are also cast into many different roles
    that affect student behavior.
  • Teachers should give students a clear say in
    helping set class standards and deciding how
    transgressions should be handled.

Fritz Redl and William Wattenberg
12
The Redl Wattenberg Model
  • Diagnostic thinking is teachers best tool for
    resolving behavior problems.
  • Forming a hunch about the cause of the
    misbehavior
  • Quickly gathering facts about it
  • exploring hidden factors
  • taking action
  • evaluation
  • flexibility with other possibilities
  • PUNISHMENT IS A LAST RESORT IN DEALING WITH
    MISBEHAVIOR

13
The Curwin Mendler Model (Discipline with
Dignity)
  • Let the students know what you expect. This means
    establishing and posting clear rules and
    consequences
  • Provide instruction at levels that match student
    ability. In other words, where is the dignity in
    not being able to comprehend the material being
    learned in the classroom? Inability to understand
    will only lead to discipline problems.
  • Listen to what the students are thinking and
    feeling. Being able to identify with your
    students makes them feel important and understood.

14
The Curwin Mendler Model (Discipline with
Dignity)
  • Use humor. It defuses a potentially harmful
    situation without violence or accusation. Just
    make sure not to make students the butt of your
    jokes.
  • Vary your style of presentation. Doing the same
    activity for too long makes students restless and
    prone to outbursts of inappropriate behavior.
  • Offer choices. Make it seem like the student has
    some say in what happens. For example, "You can
    do your assignment now or during recess."

15
The Curwin Mendler Model (Discipline with
Dignity)
  • Refuse to accept excuses. This ensures that you
    treat students equally. If there are legitimate
    excuses for late homework, poor behavior, etc.,
    they will need to be posted along with your
    expectations.
  • Legitimize behavior that you cannot stop.
    Generally, if you take something that is against
    the rules and make it acceptable, it ceases to be
    fun for the students.
  • Use hugs and touching to communicate with kids of
    all ages. Obviously, this must be used with
    caution because of sexual misunderstanding,
    abused students, etc. However, you want to
    communicate human warmth and caring, and kind
    words will only get you so far.

16
The Curwin Mendler Model (Discipline with
Dignity)
  • Be responsible for yourself and allow kids to
    take responsibility for themselves.
  • Realize and accept that you cannot reach every
    kid. Some of them choose to fail and this is not
    your decision.
  • Start fresh everyday. What happened yesterday is
    finished.

17
The Gordon Model
  • "You acquire more influence with young people
    when you give up using your power to control
    them...and the more you use your power to try to
    control people the less influence you'll have on
    their lives."

18
The Dreikurs Model
  • Discipline is not punishment. It means
    self-control.
  • The teacher's role is helping pupils to impose
    limits on themselves.
  • Teachers can model democratic behavior by
    providing guidance and leadership and involving
    pupils in setting rules and consequences.
  • All students want to belong. Their behavior is
    directed to belonging.

19
The Dreikurs Model
  • Misbehavior is the result of their mistaken
    belief that it will gain them peer recognition.
  • Misbehavior is directed at mistaken goals
    attention-getting, power-seeking, revenge, and
    displaying inadequacy. The trick is to identify
    the goal and act in ways that do not reinforce
    mistaken goals.
  • Teachers should encourage students' efforts, but
    avoid praising their work or character.
  • Support the idea that negative consequences
    follow inappropriate behavior by your actions.

20
The Neo-Skinnerian Model
  • Behavior is shaped by its consequences, by what
    happens to the individual after performing the
    act.
  • Behavior is strengthened if followed immediately
    by reinforces. Technically, a reinforcer is a
    stimulus that increases the likelihood that the
    individual will repeat the act. We commonly think
    of reinforces as rewards.
  • Strengthened behaviors are those that have become
    more likely to be repeated.
  • Behavior is weakened if it is not followed by
    reinforcement.

21
The Neo-Skinnerian Model
  • Behavior is weakened if followed by punishment.
    Punishment is not the same thing as negative
    reinforcement.
  • Systematic use of reinforcement (rewards) can
    shape individuals behavior in desired
    directions.
  • In the early stages of learning, constant
    reinforcement produces the best results. Constant
    means that the behavior is reinforced every time
    it occurs.

22
The Neo-Skinnerian Model
  • Classroom Application Behavior modification it
    is applied in these two ways
  • The teacher observes the student perform a
    desired act the teacher rewards the student the
    student tends to repeat the act.
  • The teacher observes the student perform an
    undesired act the teacher either ignores the act
    or punishes the student, then praises a student
    who is behaving correctly the misbehaving
    student becomes less likely than before to repeat
    the act.
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