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Thinking Critically About Social Studies Instruction

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Title: Thinking Critically About Social Studies Instruction


1
Thinking Critically About Social Studies
Instruction
2
Learning Goals
  • The teacher will review the lesson cycle as it
    applies to social studies instruction
  • The teacher will learn how to align TEKS
    objectives with instruction
  • The teacher will practice a variety of strategies
    aimed at effective instruction
  • Teacher learning will become more perdurable

3
Your Map to SS Success
  • Think of the TEKS as your road map
  • Think of your students graduation, work in
    college, or TAKS as your destination
  • How can we get our students where they need to be?

4
TEKS Planning Teaching Tools
  • Make the Social Studies Center website your
    friend
  • Here you will find what you need to plan
    effective social studies instruction
  • Primary documents, SS news, review activities,
    bios, glossaries, bibliographies, more.

http//www.tea.state.tx.us/ssc
5
Take a Moment to Think About Your Instruction
  • What format do you follow?
  • What guides your planning?
  • Where do you begin?
  • What do you expect from your students?
  • Draw a diagram that describes your approach.
  • Lets discuss

6
The Lesson CycleRecycled
  • Madeline Hunters lesson cycle is still the basis
    for good teaching and learning.
  • Draw a diagram of the lesson cycle on the back of
    your handout and compare it to your approach
  • Share with your neighbor and table mates
  • What areas did you remember well, what needs some
    work?
  • Fluidity of the lesson cycle
  • How long does it take?
  • Is it really a cycle? Yes and no!

7
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8
Alignment is Essential!
Take the scenic route!
  • INSTRUCTION
  • (Strategies Methods)

How do we get from here
To here?
TYLER TRIANGLE
CURRICULUM ASSESSMENT (Content TEKS)
(Tasks, TAKS, etc)
9
Lets Break it Down
  • Curriculum TEKS/student expectations
  • Instruction Strategies activities
  • Assessment Guided Practice/
  • Performance Tasks

How would you break down the lesson cycle to
align with the Tyler Triangle components?
10
Learning Objective
  • Before you begin preparing your lesson
  • Identify and understand completely the learning
    objective (TEKS SE)
  • Identify and understand the level to which it is
    to be taught

11
Writing Quality Learning Objectives
  • Learning objectives (often called performance
    objectives or competencies) are brief, clear,
    specific statements of what learners will be able
    to perform at the conclusion of instructional
    activities.
  • They are targeted statements about expected
    student performance.
  • Generally, learning objectives are
    competency-based as they designate exactly what
    students need to do to demonstrate mastery of
    course material.
  • With this in mind, learning objectives are always
    stated in terms of student outcomes.

12
Learning Objective
  • State clearly what is to be learned
  • The TEKS
  • Knowledge and skill statement
  • Student expectation (SE)
  • The verb
  • The knowledge
  • The skill
  • See Handout Pages 3-4

13
TEKS Example
  • Grade 8 Example
  • (8.4) History. The student understands
    significant political and economic issues of the
    revolutionary era. The student is expected to
  • (A) analyze causes of the American Revolution,
    including mercantilism and British economic
    policies following the French and Indian War
  • - Skills? Identify causes/effects, analyze
  • Concepts? Revolution, Economic Policy, War
  • Content? American Revolution, mercantilism,
    French and Indian War
  • Essential Question ?

14
TEKS Example
  • Grade 8 Example
  • (8.4) History. The student understands
    significant political and economic issues of the
    revolutionary era. The student is expected to
  • (A) analyze causes of the American Revolution,
    including mercantilism and British economic
    policies following the French and Indian War
  • Concentrated or Spiraled?
  • Prior Knowledge Needed?

15
Learning Objective
  • WG 1History. The student understands how
    geographic contexts (the geography of places in
    the past) and processes of spatial exchange
    (diffusion) influenced events in the past and
    helped to shape the present.
  • (B) trace the spatial diffusion of a phenomenon
    and describe its effects on regions of contact
    such as the spread of bubonic plague, the
    diffusion and exchange of foods between the New
    and Old Worlds, or the diffusion of American
    slang.

16
Lets Break it Down
  • Translate the TEKS
  • Choose TEKS for your grade level
  • What is the expectation asking students to do?
  • 3. What is the specific content knowledge/
    concept focus?
  • 4. What important questions should your students
    be able to answer if they have mastered this
    expectation?

17
Lets Break it Down
  • Translate the TEKS
  • 5. Is information concentrated or spiraled?
  • 6. What prior knowledge is necessary for students
    to expand their understanding and meet this
    expectation?

18
Learning Objective Blooms (II)
  • In order to be able to teach and assess the
    learning objective correctly you need to
    understand the content knowledge and cognitive
    level that the student expectation (SE) addresses
  • The Blooms (II) Taxonomy is a very useful tool
    for this
  • Assessing background knowledge Fill out the top
    half of
  • Page 1 of your handout

19
Taxonomy of Learning, Instruction, and Assessment
WH1(D) explain the significance of the following
dates 1066,
Explain significance of date-assessment
Explain significance of date
20
6.3(B) pose and answer questions about geographic
distributions and patterns for selected world
regions and countries shown on maps, graphs,
charts, models, and databases
Understand data
Geographic distributions, regions
Pose questions
Geographic distributions, regions
Map, chart skills
Pose questions
21
Learning Objective Blooms II
  • It is not important which taxonomy you use but
    that you use one
  • If you do not know the knowledge and cognitive
    levels of your learning objective then you can
    not effectively align your instruction and
    assessment to it

22
Learning Objective
  • Take one of the TEKS SEs on page 2 and 3 of your
    handout and plot it on the taxonomy table on page
    1.
  • Discuss your results with tablemates.

23
Learning Objective
  • Give students a clear picture of what they will
    need to learn.
  • Take the TEKS SE that you just plotted and
    rewrite it so that your students will understand
    what they are expected to know and do.
  • (Use page 4 in handout)
  • Rephrase and personalize these objectives by
    putting them into first person.

24
Anticipatory Set
  • Should focus student attention on the objective
    they are to study
  • Should foster relevance by tapping into the
    students active background knowledge.
  • Marzano, What Works in Schools
  • Both academic and non-academic
  • Should foster relevance by tapping into the
    students world and surroundings

25
Sparking Student Knowledge Improves Learning
  • Sparking students ideas or prior knowledge plays
    an important role in learning (Goss, 1999 Dochy
    Bouwens, 1990 Rumelhart Norman, 1978).
  • Without the right prior knowledge activated in
    short-term memory, it is difficult to learn and
    remember new information (Pearson, Roehler, Dole,
    Duffy, 1992).
  • Researchers found that activating prior knowledge
    helps students learn better and retain
    information longer (Anderson, 1990 Richards
    Gipe, 1992).

26
Sparking Student Knowledge Improves Learning
  • Cunningham et al. (1995) advocated, students who
    activate prior knowledge in a content area have
    advantages over those who do not.
  • These studies show that the more students use
    their prior knowledge, the better their learning
    will be (Pearson, Roehler, Dole, Duffy, 1992, p
    155).

27
Building Background Knowledge
  • All students have background knowledge to use
  • Some is academic, some non-academic
  • All is useful, we must work to fill the gap
  • We must connect to prior experiences and learning
    if we want learning to be lasting
  • Refer to handout page 12 - 9 Essential Strategies

Marzano, R. (2004). Building Background Knowledge
for Academic Achievement. Alexandria, VA ASCD
28
Background Knowledge
  • All students have background knowledge
  • Not all have academic background knowledge
  • All background knowledge is useful, and required
    for vocabulary development

Robert Marzano, Building Background Knowledge for
Academic Achievement, 2004
29
The Process of Meaningful Learning During a
Social Studies Lesson
Sunal Hass, 2005
30
The Social Studies Lesson
  • Motivate students to recall related prior
    knowledge
  • Connect the new social studies idea to students
    prior knowledge
  • Allow students to compare and confront their
    prior knowledge with a social studies idea
  • Encourage students to use metacognition
  • (Costa, 2002 Pintrict, Marx, Boyle, 1993)

31
Anticipatory Set
  • Instructional Focus
  • A story (Non fiction)
  • A picture
  • A song
  • A primary source
  • Pre assessment on learning objective
  • Shock
  • One out of three new teachers will not last more
    than three years
  • Relevance and Transfer
  • Relevant to
  • Today
  • The kids
  • Other subjects

32
Instructional Strategies Effects on Achievement
33
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34
Cues
  • Cues are hints about what the
  • students are going to experience.
  • Anticipatory set / Mental Set
  • The Hook

35
Questions
  • Ask a question that will be answered by the
    information studied. A higher order question asks
    students to restructure information or apply what
    they know.
  • Turn the objective into a question
  • Ask an essential question

36
Cues and Questions Trigger Memory
  • Prior Knowledge
  • What do you already know about ___?
  • (Advance Organizer K-W-L Chart)
  • Inferential Question
  • What changes occur as a result of war?
  • Analytical Question
  • How could boundaries be changed other than
    through war?

37
Hypothesize
  • A good way for the teacher to check for
    understanding is to create a hypothetical
    situation to check for teacher understanding
    and/or cue and question feasibility.

38
Advance Organizers
  • Help students create a pattern to organize the
    new information.
  • Venn Diagram
  • Time Line

39
Anticipatory Set
  • 30 years ago there were no state or national
    standardized tests in the U.S. in the area of
    social studies
  • 25 years ago there were no state standards that
    teachers had to follow
  • 20 years ago there were no alternatively
    certified teachers in the state of Texas
  • 15 years ago there was no teacher shortage in
    Texas
  • 10 years ago there were no TEKS
  • 5 years ago there was no TAKS

40
Anticipatory Set
  • The research is clear
  • To survive their first three years, teachers
    need to have two main abilities
  • 1. the ability to have good classroom management
  • 2. the ability to properly teach to an objective
    within a structured lesson cycle
  • These are highly interrelated

41
The 4 steps of Critical Analysis
  • 1. Observation.
  • What do you observe? This does not involve
    interpretation.
  • 2. Inference.
  • This involves interpretation, based on
    observations.
  • 3. Evidence.
  • What is the evidence you detect for your
    inference?
  • This step requires the integration of prior
    knowledge
  • with observations.
  • 4. Conclusion.
  • What is your conclusion? Explain

42
F.I.S.H. for Critical Analysis
  • F Facts (Find 3 within the source provided)
  • I Inferences (Make 3 based on evidence)
  • S Supporting Details (Provide or have students
    develop details that provide background for the
    image, event or era you are studying)
  • H Headline (Develop a main idea statement by
    formulating a headline-type title for the source)

43
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44
F.I.S.H. for Critical Analysis
Headline Summarize the information gathered into
one meaningful line
1- Facts Have students list 3 facts Evidence
2 Inferences Have students draw 3
inferences based on the evidence in 1
Supporting Details List characteristics of the
era, dates, people involved, to help student
gain understanding of context
45
F.I.S.H. for Critical Analysis
4 Headline
4
2 Inferences - - -
1. Facts - - -
2
1
3
3. Supporting Details
46
New York City Tenements
During the Industrial Revolution, thousands of
people immigrated to cities to find work. Many
had to live in overcrowded tenement housing, such
as this building in New York City.
Available http//encarta.msn.com
47
Anticipatory Set
  • Quick focus or exploratory phase?
  • 8.30 (A) differentiate between, locate, and use
    primary and secondary sources such as computer
    software, databases, media and news services,
    biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire
    information about the United States
  • ?Based on the TEKS SE you have selected write a
    description of the anticipatory set (focus) that
    you would use with your students. Use page 6 in
    your handout.

48
Purpose
  • Why does the student need to know this?
  • What is the relevance?
  • This is not about playing to the kids wishes.
    This is about the way that we learn. We all learn
    better if we can make personal connections
    (hooks) to the learning.
  • Understanding gives us hooks to future learning

49
Purpose
  • What is the overarching/big picture/critical
    question that you want the students to be able to
    answer?
  • Can YOU develop an effective lesson that brings
    relevance, depth of understanding, alignment to
    the TEKS SE and mastery to the student?

50
Purpose
  • Bottom line Why are you teaching this to the
    students?
  • Do I have to do this with EVERY objective?
  • YES!
  • Based on the TEKS SE you have selected write down
    the purpose of teaching this particular skill,
    content or concept to your students.
  • Use page 6 in your handout.

51
Input/Direct Teach
  • Teach to the level of the TEKS Verb
  • Teach what the students need to know
  • Teach the critical attributes and key terms of
    the objectives using a variety of research-based
    instructional strategies.
  • Direct teach the vocabulary (Extremely important
    for building academic background knowledge)

52
Input/Direct Teach
  • What do these verbs look like when students are
    working?
  • Analyze
  • Evaluate
  • Explain
  • Describe
  • Trace
  • Predict
  • Compare

53
What does analysis look like?
  • Students are able to break down ideas, events,
    scenarios, causes/ effects, etc.
  • Dissecting information into various parts
  • How will our students perform these tasks? How
    will we know they have succeeded?

54
What does evaluate look like?
  • Students are able to determine the value of
    various things
  • Students can discern which was most significant,
    which was the longest lasting effect, etc.
  • How will our students perform these tasks? How
    will we know they have succeeded?

55
What does predict look like?
  • Students are able to take a chance and make
    statements in advance
  • Students can make logical statements about what
    might have been, how something may have occurred,
    etc.
  • How will our students perform these tasks? How
    will we know they have succeeded?

56
Input/Direct Teach -Vocabulary
  • Vocabulary development strategies
  • And the research says.
  • Multiple exposures
  • Mental/symbolic imaging
  • Direct teach not direct copy
  • Frayer Model (Page 6)
  • Concept Definition Mapping (Page 7)
  • Verbal Visual Word Association (Page 8)

57
Five Statements from current research about
vocabulary . . .
  • Students need to be exposed to a word at least
    six times in context before it becomes perdurable

they have enough experience with the word to
ascertain and remember its meaning
58
Five Statements from current research about
vocabulary . . .
  • Even superficial instruction in new words
    enhances the probability that students will
    understand the words when they encounter them.

59
Five Statements From Current Research About
Vocabulary . . .
  • One of the best ways to learn a new word is to
    associate a mental image or symbolic
    representation with it.
  • Direct vocabulary instruction works. Teaching
    new vocabulary directly increases student
    comprehension of new information.

60
Five Statements From Current Research About
Vocabulary . . .
  • Direct instruction on words that are critical to
    new content produces the most powerful learning.

61
Six Steps to Effective Vocabulary Instruction
(Marzano, 2005)
  • Provide description, explanation or example of
    the new term
  • Students restate the explanation of the new term
    in their own words
  • Students create a nonlinguistic representation of
    the term

62
Six Steps to Effective Vocabulary Instruction
(Marzano, 2005)
  • Students periodically do activities that help
    them add to their knowledge of vocabulary terms
  • Comparing Terms
  • Classifying Terms
  • Generating Metaphors
  • Generating Analogies
  • Revising Initial Descriptions or Nonlinguistic
    Representations
  • Understanding the roots and affixes

63
Six Steps to Effective Vocabulary Instruction
(Marzano, 2005)
  • Periodically ask students to discuss the terms
    with one another
  • Should occur as a regular part of SS instruction
  • Pose questions to stimulate discussion
  • Raise questions and issues about terms

64
Six Steps to Effective Vocabulary Instruction
(Marzano, 2005)
  • Periodically engage students in games that allow
    them to play with the terms
  • Example Word Splash
  • Resources Available
  • TEKS Vocabulary Flashcards, Word Splashes
    Word Walls for Grades 5-11
  • www.esc13.net/socialstudies
  • www.tea.state.tx.us/ssc

65
The Frayer Model
(To become more durable) To ingrain in my memory
so well that I will not forget it.
Perdurable
66
Concept Definition Mapping
67
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68
Verbal Visual Word Association
69
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70
  • Using a Word Splash
  • Objectives
  • Assess prior knowledge
  • Provide motivation for reading
  • Set a clear purpose for reading
  • Decipher vocabulary
  • Allow for a variety of modes of learning

71
  • Using a Word Splash
  • Select seven to ten social studies terms,
  • people, or phrases from a unit of study.
  • 2. Be sure to include not only similar words that
    will indicate the subject of the selection but
    also some of the words and phrases that seem
    contradictory to the others.
  • 3. Give each student a little time to think about
    what the terms, people, or phrases have in
    common.
  • 4. Ask students to form small groups of three to
    five (or you can assign them to groups).
  •  

72
  • Using a Word Splash
  • 5. In their groups, they should decide what the
    main category or topic is for the terms, people
    or phrases.
  • 6. Have students create a narrative or an
    explanation that will include all of the words or
    phrases.
  • 7. Ask each group to share their narrative or
    explanation.
  • 8. Ask student to list the common elements they
    heard and list these elements on the board.
  •  

73
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74
  • Using a Word Splash
  • Assessment
  • Students, in small groups, are able to create a
    story using 90 of the words presented.
  • Students are able to identify and list at least
    one common element from every narrative
    presented.
  •  

75
Other Vocabulary Formats
  • Cognates
  • PictoWords
  • Concept Cards
  • Vocabulary Word Cards
  • Word Wall
  • Word Splash
  • Frayer Model
  • Concept Definition Map
  • Visual Word Association
  • Vocabulary Word Maps

76
Pictowords
Choose one Social Studies TAKS or TAKS-related
term and create a pictoword
e
t
a
l
a
c
s
e
77
Concept Card
78
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79
Concept Card
Front
Back
80
Word Wall
  • The Word Wall approach (Green 1993) was
    originally designed to challenge and motivate
    high-achieving as well as reluctant first
    language students (in elementary and secondary
    classrooms) to develop vocabulary learning skills
    and to internalize new vocabulary.
  • Using a set of six word-filled wall panels, each
    with a different background color corresponding
    to a different curricular objective (TAKS Obj
    History, Economics, Government, Culture,
    Geography, Skills)
  • TEKS vocabulary is complete for your grade level
    www.esc13.net/socialstudies

81
Input/Direct Teach
  • Teach to the level of the TEKS Verb
  • Teach what the students need to know
  • Use high-interest, real-world examples and
    non-examples.
  • Provide explicit samples of how students will
    demonstrate mastery the formats and standards
    of performance.

Manifest Destiny
82
Input/Direct Teach
  • Ensure universal engagement throughout the lesson
    by writing the answers somewhere for students to
    see, pair-sharing (having students share with
    each other what they just learned) , using
    visuals, understanding checks, etc.
  • Ensure universal engagement throughout the lesson
    by using good questioning techniques
  • We will look at this in depth in the Checking
    for Understanding section

83
Essential Questions
  • Use the essential questions to focus on critical
    attributes of the objective(s).
  • Wiggins and McTighe, Understanding by Design
  • Use pages 9-10
  • Effective questioning strategies promote thinking
    by students.
  • The ability to ask great questions often
    separates great teachers from good ones.

84
Essential Questions
  • Essential questions require one of the
  • following thought processes
  • to develop a plan or course of action
  • to make a decision
  • The essential question directs the course
  • of student work.
  • Essential questions are powerful, directive
  • and commit students to the process of
  • critical thinking through inquiry.

Students must use knowledge to construct an
answer!
85
Lets Consult the Experts
  • In Classroom Instruction That Works
  • Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student
    Achievement (2001)
  • ROBERT J. MARZANO, DEBRA J. PICKERING, JANE E.
    POLLOCK
  • identify Nine Essential Instructional Strategies
  • that are most likely to improve student
    achievement across all content areas and across
    all grade levels.

86
Input/Direct Teach
  • Marzanos Nine Classroom Instruction that Works
  • (Page 12)
  • Examples of
  • Similarities and differences (Comparison Matrix)
  • Summarizing and note taking (combined)
  • Already used
  • Summarizing and note taking
  • Reinforcing effort
  • Practice
  • Nonlinguistic representations
  • Set objectives and provide feedback

87
Similarities Differences
  • Comparing
  • Classifying
  • Creating Metaphors
  • Creating Analogies

88
Similarities Differences Marzano, Classroom
Instruction That Works, p. 19, figure 2.4
89
Comparing Tasks
  • Can be teacher-directed
  • Identify items and characteristics to be compared
  • Needs to be highly structured
  • Can be student-directed
  • Students select items characteristics to
    compare
  • Use when a more diverse, learner-centered
    approach to content learning is desired

90
Common Types of Analogies
  • Synonyms
  • Antonyms
  • Class membership
  • Part to whole
  • Sequence/Chronology
  • Function
  • Quantity/Size
  • Cause/Effect

91
Steps in Writing Analogies
  • Determine content
  • Determine relationship
  • Set up relationship in the first pair
  • Determine analogy for second pair
  • For assessment items Proof and have another
    person proof all analogies

92
Graphic Organizer for Analogies
Relationship
is to
is to
as
MARZANO, PICKERING, POLLOCK, p. 28
93
Relationship
Graphic Organizer for Analogies
is to
is to
as
94
Note Taking
  • Verbatim note taking is, perhaps the least
    effective way to take notes no room left for
    analysis thinking
  • Notes should be considered a work in progress
  • Notes should be used as study guides for tests
  • The more notes that are taken, the better

95
Combination Template
  • Combines the informal outline and the webbing
    strategies
  • Each page is divided into three sections
  • Students summarize and create generalizations to
    process new information and connect learning

96
Topic
Informal outline notes here, necessary vocab
Drawings, graphics, webbing, etc. here Or, use
your essential strategies for practice and
learning!
Summary statements, generalizations made here.
97
Combination Template
Processing Content Connections
Topic Conflict Change
  • Lexington Concord
  • Firing on Ft. Sumter
  • Battle of the Alamo
  • Attack on Pearl
  • Harbor

Lexington Concord
American Revolution
is to
Relationship Part to Whole
is to
Attack on Pearl Harbor
World War II
Generalizations
98
Middle School Example Grade 8
Topic Separation of Powers Legislative Branch
Takes student through thinking process we want
to encourage.
  • Constitutional Convention
  • The Great Compromise
  • resulted in the creation of
  • two houses, or a bicameral
  • legislature, with rep. based on
  • population in one with equal
  • representation in the other.
  • gtgtBicameral Structure
  • House of Representatives
  • and the Senate
  • Why?
  • gtgtProvides checks and balances
  • within the legislative branch
  • (Checks Balances A system of
  • limits imposed on all branches

Images from http//bensguide.gpo.gov
The founding fathers wanted to make sure that no
one body within our federal government had more
power than the other. This was because they were
afraid of having a king again (monarchy). Even
though it is harder to get laws passed that way,
we need two houses (bicameral) in the
legislature to check and balance the power of our
representatives.
MARZANO, PICKERING, POLLOCK, p. 48
99
High School Example Economics
Topic Inflation
Takes student through thinking process we want
to encourage.
Increases When the money supply Is greater than
the value Of nations output of goods and
services (GS) Decreases When money supply is
smaller than value of nations output of GS
1.10

G S
gt
1.00

Output G S
1.00
lt
.90
Inflation results from the relationship between
the money supply and the value of the nations
output of goods and services.
MARZANO, PICKERING, POLLOCK, p. 48
100
The Essential Nine
  • 1. Identifying similarities differences2.
    Summarizing note taking3. Reinforcing effort
    providing recognition4. Homework practice5.
    Nonlinguistic representations6. Cooperative
    learning7. Setting objectives providing
    feedback8. Generating testing hypotheses9.
    Cues, questions, advance organizers

9
101
Instructional Strategies Effects on Achievement
102
Average Retention Rate
Collaborative Setting
5
Lecture
After 24 Hours
Reading
10
20
Audiovisual
Demonstration
30
Discussion Group
50
Practice by Doing
75
Teach Others / Immediate Application
90
103
Input/Direct Teach
  • Direct Instruction Lectures are sometimes
    necessary for baseline information, explaining
    new skills, modeling, and providing instructions,
    etc.
  • Plan your lecture well beforehand
  • Clear and well-structured explanations are not
    enough if they are dull and dreary.
  • Use the 10 Minute Rule--don't ask your students
    to do the same thing for more than 10 minutes
  • Wait time
  • Build a positive relationship with your students
  • Look at page 13 in your handout

104
  • Lecture (verbal instruction) is not optimal for
    English Language
  • Learners, Special Education students, or visual
    learners.
  • You must find a way to include additional forms
    of communication
  • Visuals
  • Nonlinguistic strategies
  • Manipulatives

105
Input/Direct Teach
Based on the TEKS SE you have selected write down
the three most important concepts/skills that you
need to teach the students and briefly describe
how you would do that in Direct Teach. Page 12
106
Modeling
  • Give lots of relevant examples
  • Ask students to give examples and explain why
    they are good examples
  • Show students other students quality work or
    answers
  • Dont play hide and seek

107
Modeling
  • Discuss with your neighbors and make a list of
    all of the ways that we have modeled for you
    today. (Page 13)
  • Go to the Lesson Cycle note sheet and jot down
    ideas, examples, and modifications

108
Check for Understanding
Making Sure Learning is Perdurable
  • Allow multiple ways and opportunities for
    students to demonstrate acquisition of the
    learning (Papers, projects, PowerPoints, posters,
    presentations and a plethora of others are all
    powerful ways to check understanding and
    differentiate for various learning styles)

109
Check for Understanding
  • Return to the content objectives and learning
    goals over time to review and reinforce mastery,
    either embedded in future lessons or as
    stand-alone activities. (Spiraling)
  • Ask students to be responsible for prior learning
  • During the lesson
  • During future lessons and on assessments

110
Check for understanding
  • In what part of the lesson cycle do we check for
    understanding?
  • This is a key skill for any great teacher!

111
Check for Understanding
  • Use Good Questioning Techniques
  • All students
  • All students are required to answer a question
    that is asked of them. NO EXCEPTIONS!
  • Use strategies to keep students on their toes!
  • All levels
  • Vary the level of questioning that you use to
    help differentiate among the different levels of
    learners in you class
  • Use the equalizer to adjust the level of
    questions for student readiness

112
Readiness-based Adjustments
  • Concrete
  • Simple
  • Basic
  • Fewer Facets
  • Smaller Leaps
  • Structured
  • Dependence
  • Quicker
  • Abstract
  • Complex
  • Transformational
  • Multi-Facets
  • Greater Leaps
  • Open
  • Independence
  • Slower

(Differentiating Instruction for Advanced
Learners in the Mixed Ability Middle School
Classroom, Tomlinson, 1995)
113
Check for understanding
  • Lets review what we have learned so far!
  • Reflection!
  • Write down the three most important things that
    you learned so far today. Page 13
  • Share these with your table mates.
  • As a table come up with the three most important
    things that your table has learned.
  • Lets talk!

114
Guided Practice
  • Whistle and watch while they work
  • Positive reinforcement and feedback
  • Help students develop increased proficiency under
    close, guided supervision with corrective
    feedback.
  • Always monitor students work while they are
    learning something new
  • Spend a little time with each student to ensure
    that they understand and they know that you care
    if they understand

115
Guided Practice
  • Provide a variety of ways and multiple
    opportunities for students to practice what they
    just learned.
  • Be Positive!
  • Be Positive!
  • Be Positive!

116
Closure
  • Relevant reflection
  • Ask, What were our learning goals?
  • Ask, What have we learned and why is it
    important?
  • Provide final practice on the key concepts to
    clarify the objective(s) learned.

117
Closure
  • Use the information from your closure activities
    to diagnose next-teaching-steps (e.g. reteach,
    move on, individual review, etc.)
  • Were my teaching strategies effective?
  • How do I know?
  • Will the student learning be perdurable?

118
Independent Practice
  • Show me that you have mastered the Learning
    Goal
  • Take a flexible approach
  • Use homework carefully (i.e., to reinforce the
    learning you are confident students can be
    successful in without support, to gather new
    information for readiness for next learning, to
    complete extended readings, NO BUSY WORK!).
  • Give only enough homework to ensure mastery

119
Closure/Reflection (Again!)
  • Placemat activity
  • Lets share

120
Placemat Activity
  • Turn over the laminated paper at your table
  • Read the question in the middle of the placemat
  • You will have 1 minute to answer the question in
    front of your place
  • After one minute, turn the placemat and answer
    the next question responding to previous writers
    answer and adding your insight
  • Continue until youve added your info to each
    area of the placemat

121
Last activity!
  • Define perdurable

122
A Quick Update
  • Social Studies

123
Dates to Remember
  • At the behest of Rep. Bella Abzug (D-NY), in 1971
    the U.S. Congress designated August 26 as
    Womens Equality Day.
  • The date was selected to commemorate the 1920
    passage of the 19th Amendment to the
    Constitution. This day also calls attention to
    womens continuing efforts toward full equality.

124
Celebrate Constitution DayWeek of 9/17
  • Its the law!
  • Resources are available on the Law Related
    Education Website of the State Bar of Texas

www.texaslre.org
125
Dont ForgetCelebrate Freedom WeekNovember 7-11

www.tea.state.tx.us/ssc
126
Dana Kelley
  • Social Studies Consultant
  • Region 10 ESC
  • 972-348-1148
  • dana.kelley_at_region10.org
  • Downloads Resources
  • www.ednet10.net/socialstudies
  • Released TAKS Answer Keys
  • http//www.tea.state.tx.us/student.assessment/reso
    urces/release/taks/index.html
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