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WID, WAD, GAD: Theoretical Debates and Issues


WID, WAD, GAD: Theoretical Debates and Issues Theoretical Framework WID liberal Feminists (a school of thought ) WAD Marxist feminists GAD Socialist Feminists WED ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WID, WAD, GAD: Theoretical Debates and Issues

  • WID, WAD, GAD Theoretical Debates and Issues

Theoretical Framework
  • WID liberal Feminists (a school of thought )
  • WAD Marxist feminists
  • GAD Socialist Feminists
  • WED - Ecofeminists

Theoretical basis of Women in Development
Different approaches of WID
  • Welfare approach
  • Equity approach
  • Anti-poverty approach
  • Efficiency approach
  • Empowerment approach

Policy and Analytic Approaches
  • Welfare Focus on poor women, mainly in the
    roles of wife and mother. This was the only
    approach during colonial periods, and was
    favoured by many missionaries.
  • Equity Focus on equality between women and men
    and fair distribution of benefits of development
  • Anti-poverty Women targeted as the poorest of
    the poor, with emphasis on income-generating
    activities and access to productive resources
    such as training and micro-finance.
  • Efficiency Emphasis on need for womens
    participation for success, effectiveness of
    development assumes increased economic
    participation will result in increased equity.
    They are most likely to be useful when advocacy
    for the advancement of women is based on the more
    effective use of all factors of production,
    and/or desire for stronger and more sustainable
    project results. This is the approach currently
    most favoured by development agencies
  • Empowerment Focus on increasing womens capacity
    to analyze their own situation and determine
    their own life choices and societal directions.
    likely to be most useful where a human
    development and rights-based approach to
    development predominates, or is desired.

Theoretical basis of Women and
Development (WAD)
Women And Development Approach (WAD)
  • Origin
  • Emerged from a critique of the modernization
    theory and the WID approach in the second half of
    the 1970s
  • Theoretical base
  • Draws from the dependency theory
  • Focus
  • Women have always been part of development
    process-therefore integrating women in
    development is a myth
  • Focuses on relationship between women and
    development process

WAD Approach
  • Contribution
  • Accepts women as important economic actors in
    their societies
  • Womens work in the public and private domain is
    central to the maintenance of their societal
  • Looks at the nature of integration of women in
    development which sustains existing international
    structures of inequality.

Wome And Development (WAD) Approach
  • Features
  • Fails to analyze the relationship between
    patriarchy, differing modes of production and
    womens subordination and oppression.
  • Discourages a strict analytical focus on the
    problems of women independent of those of men
    since both sexes are seen to be disadvantaged
    with oppressive global structure based on class
    and capital.
  • Singular preoccupation with womens productive
    role at the expense of the reproductive side of
    womens work and lives.
  • Assumes that once international structures become
    more equitable, womens position would improve.
  • WAD doesn't question the relations between gender

Gender and Development (GAD) approach
  • Origin
  • As an alternative to the WID focus this approach
    developed in the 1980s.
  • Theoretical base
  • Influenced by socialist feminist thinking.
  • Focus
  • Offers a holistic perspective looking at all
    aspects of womens lives.
  • It questions the basis of assigning specific
    gender roles to different sexes
  • Contribution
  • Does not exclusively emphasize female solidarity-
    welcomes contributions of sensitive men.
  • Recognizes womens contribution inside and
    outside the household, including non-commodity

Gender and Development Approach
  • Features
  • GAD rejects the public/private dichotomy .
  • It gives special attention to oppression of women
    in the family by entering the so called private
  • It emphasizes the states duty to provide social
    services in promoting womens emancipation.
  • Women seen as agents of change rather than as
    passive recipients of development assistance.
  • Stresses the need for women to organize
    themselves for a more effective political voice.
  • Recognizes that patriarchy operates within and
    across classes to oppress women
  • Focuses on strengthening womens legal rights,
    including the reform of inheritance and land
  • It talks in terms of upsetting the existing power
    relations in society between men and women.

Women ,Environment and Development (WED)
  • Origin in 1970s (Northern Feminist )
  • Male control over nature and women
  • Ecofeminism
  • Ecofeminist (Rosi Braidotti, Harcourt, Maria
    Mies, Vandana Shiva etc.)
  • Theoretical stream within feminist movement
  • Environment decline patriarchal authority in
    Development planning
  • Destroying relationship between community, women
    and nature

Practical Gender Needs and Strategic Gender
  • The following is a summary of some of the
    principal differences between practical gender
    needs and strategic gender interests.
  • Practical needs
  • Short-term, immediate (e.g. clean water, food,
    housing, income)
  • Unique to particular women (i.e. site specific)
  • When asked, women can identify their basic needs.
  • Involves women as beneficiaries/participants
  • Problems can be met by concrete and specific
    inputs, usually economic inputs (e.g. water
    pumps, seeds, credit, employment)
  • Benefits the condition of some women
  • Is potentially successful in ameliorating the
    circumstances of some women

Strategic Gender Interests
  • Strategic interests
  • Long-term
  • Common to all women (e.g. vulnerability to
    physical violence, legal limitations on rights to
    hold or inherit property, difficulty of gaining
    access to higher education)
  • Women are not always in a position to recognize
    the sources or basis of their strategic
    disadvantages or limitations
  • Solutions must involve women as active agents
  • Must be addressed through consciousness raising,
    education and political mobilization at all
    levels of society
  • Improves the position of all women in a society
  • Has the potential to transform or fundamentally
    change one or more aspects of women's lives.
    This is called 'transformatory potential' of the
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