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Gender Equality & Labour Market Indicators ILO ROAS Presentation Simel Esim

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Title: Gender Equality & Labour Market Indicators ILO ROAS Presentation Simel Esim


1
Gender Equality Labour Market Indicators ILO
ROAS Presentation Simel Esim
Inter-agency Expert Group Meeting On Gender
MDGs in the Arab Region 10-11 September,
2007 Cairo, Egypt
2
Outline
  • Women and Employment Trends in Arab States Brief
    Overview and Reasons
  • Additional indicators needed for MDG 3
  • Case for Old Data, New Definitions Where are
    Women in Informal Economies of Arab States?
  • Moving forward on Data Issues Few reflections
  • Compliance to Core International Labour Standards
    by Arab States MDG Indicators for the Labour
    Market from a Gender Equality and Rights
    Perspective

3
OVERVIEW
  • Gender Equality and Womens Empowerment
    Indicators in the Labour Market for Arab States

4
Womens LFPRs in Arab States are lowest of all
regions.
5
Womens LFPRs in Arab States
6
Womens LFPRs in Arab States
  • Working women have a higher share of agricultural
    employment as contributing family workers
    (unpaid)
  • There is a rigid gender based occupational
    segregation in the LM (women working as teachers,
    nurses, social workers, community, social and
    personal services) traditional, low paid
  • Public sector jobs (safeguards for women in most
    of the region) are shrinking with public sector
    cuts privatization, private sector absorption
    of women is much lower than public sector
  • The unemployment rates for women, young women,
    young educated women are on the rise

7
Gender Equality Womens Empowerment in LM
  • Labour markets are not gender neutral anywhere
  • Women and men engage, participate and benefit
    from labour markets differently from each other
    on account of gender inequalities
  • Gender equality in the LM is about women and men
    having the same opportunities in three domains
  • LM relevant capabilities (skills, knowledge,
    networks)
  • Access to productive resources and LM
    opportunities
  • Agency (ability to influence contribute to LM
    outcomes)

8
Gender Equality Womens Empowerment in Arab LMs
  • Women have more limited access to LM relevant
    capabilities (skills, knowledge, networks) than
    men in Arab States
  • Women in Arab States also have less access to
    productive resources (land, capital, livestock)
    than men (
  • Women face mobility constraints in communities
    (social norms, crisis/conflict, resurgence of
    religious extremism)
  • Early marriage child bearing/rearing continue
    to inhibit womens integration into the LM across
    the life cycle
  • Women are underrepresented in the formal LM
    over represented in the informal economy, unpaid
    family work, part time/low wage work, unemployed
    inactive

9
Constraints Posed by Labour Market Governance
Rules and Institutions
  • The labour market governance rules, regulations
    and institutions
  • Were established when womens LFP was low, and
    women were considered as dependants
  • Were based on a traditional male breadwinner
    household model with women in unpaid care work as
    part of a family
  • Showed direct concern for women in social policy
    and programs through maternity benefits and/or
    MCH care
  • Few took into account the multiple roles of
    working woman recognizing care needs and
    constraints (i.e. child care, elderly care, care
    for the sick and the disabled)

10
Current and Expanded Indicators for the Labour
Market Using a Gender Equality and Workers
Rights Perspective
  • ARAB STATES

11
(No Transcript)
12
Addition to Indicator 9 for Arab States
(Girls/Boys in Education)
  • Ratio can be misleading due to decline in GERs
    for boys (hh poverty sending children to work)
  • Need to add Drop out rates for girls boys in
    primary and secondary education
  • Due to duality in skills base for LM (no skill,
    high theoretical skills), need more TVET
  • Therefore need to add Enrollment in TVET centers
    for boys and girls

13
Addition to Indicator 10 for Arab States
(Illiteracy Ratio)
  • The ratio of literate women to men (15-24 years
    old) is important especially in extended
    crisis/conflict contexts like Palestine and Iraq)
  • Overall, illiteracy is more a pressing issue for
    older generations of women (45 and above)
    especially in rural areas with little access to
    education in the region.
  • Therefore, we need to add Ratio of illiterate
    women to men (45 and above) for rural populations

14
Addition to Indicators 9 10 for Arab States
(Technical Skills)
  • There is a dual bulge in the skills base of the
    labour force, especially among youth in Arab
    States
  • With the low skilled/unskilled on the one hand,
    and
  • Highly educated, with theoretical information,
    but no technical know-how on the other
  • There is a huge gap in technical and vocational
    skills which are high in demand from the labour
    market
  • When in TVET, girls are concentrating in
    traditional skills
  • Therefore, we need to add
  • TVET enrollment rates for boys and girls
  • TVET enrollment rates for girls in
    non-traditional skills
  • Need to make the resource allocations (human,
    budget, institutional) to ensure achieving targets

15
Addition to Indicator 11 for Arab States
(Occupational Segregation)
  • Share of women in wage employment in the
    non-agricultural sector important, but does not
    capture gender based occupational segregation in
    the labour markets of Arab States where women are
    concentrated in
  • lower ranks (secretarial, clerical) without
    opportunities for promotion and professional
    growth (vertical segregation)
  • in occupations associated with womens
    traditional care giving roles (teachers, nurses,
    social workers, etc.) that are seriously
    underpaid (horizontal segregation)
  • Therefore we need to add
  • of women in senior decision making positions in
    public and private sector establishments
    (vertical)
  • women in industry and technical fields, i.e.
    engineering, sciences, IT (horizontal)

16
Add to Indicator 12 for Arab States (Women
Leaders in COCIs TUs)
  • Proportion of Seats Held by Women in National
    Parliaments is necessary, it is insufficient
  • Therefore, we need to add
  • women in senior decision making positions in
    local government
  • women in labour market governance institutions
    (chambers of commerce industry trade unions)
  • Need to make the resource allocations (human,
    budget, institutional) to ensure achieving these
    targets

17
Challenge of achieving targets for 9 10 vs. 11
12 in Arab States
  • While gender parity in education and literacy
    rates may seem within reach for indicators 9 and
    10
  • They are far from achievable for indicators 11
    (women in wage employment in the non-agricultural
    sector) and 12 ( Seats Held by Women in National
    Parliaments) by 2015
  • Unless there is serious political will and
    advocacy to put in place policy measures,
    training, awareness raising and resource
    allocations (human, budget, institutional) to
    achieve them

18
MENAgreen
Key Gender Equality Indicators, 2000
Developing regions yellow
Female life expectancy 100
Seats Held by Women in Parliament
Reducing Fertility Rate
Ratio of girls to boys in primary and
secondary education
Ratio of Women to Men in Non Agricultural Wage
Employment
GDP Per Capita
19
Need to Lower Womens Unemployment Rates in Arab
States
  • Globally, more women than ever before are
    unemployed rate of womens unemployment (6.6 )
    higher than that of men (6.1 )
  • In Arab States, in 2006, womens unemployment
    rate (17) was 6.6 higher than mens (10.4 )
  • Therefore we need an indicator on Unemployment
    rates for Arab women (decline of 5 by 2015)
  • Serious implications for macroeconomic policies
    (employment intensive growth, investments, etc.)
    and training of women in technical fields where
    there is LM demand

Source Global Employment Trends for Women, ILO
KILM, 2007.
20
Womens Unemployment in Arab States
Women and Unemployment in Arab States
Even if not all women of working age may want to
work, the fact that there is high unemployment
for women in Arab States shows they want to work,
but are unable to find work
21
Need to Lower Young Womens Unemployment Rates in
Arab States
  • Youth unemployment rates (aged 15 to 24 years),
    for both, four times higher than adult
    unemployment rates in Arab States
  • Difficulty of finding work is even higher for
    young women with their unemployment at 32
    compared to 23 for young men
  • Majority of unemployed young women are likely to
    be well educated (more so than the young men who
    are unemployed)
  • Therefore we need to add indicators on
  • Unemployment rates for young women
  • Unemployment rates for educated young women

Source Global Employment Trends for Women, ILO
KILM, 2007.
22
Young Womens Unemployment in Arab States
Young Women (15-24) and Unemployment in Arab
States
23
Gender Difference in Employment- to-Population
Ratios in Arab States
  • Employment to-population ratios show how
    efficiently economies make use of the productive
    potential of their working-age population. In
    most regions, employment to population ratios are
    20-30 points smaller for women than men
  • The gender difference is highest in South Asia
    and Arab States, (around 40 points gap both)
    increasing in the last decade
  • Female employment to population ratio 20.4
    (1996) and 24.5 (2006)
  • Mens employment to population ratio 68.3 (1996)
    and 69.3 (2006)
  • Therefore we need to add and indicator to track
    the change in the employment to population ratios
    for women and men in the region and lower the
    gender gap by increasing womens
    employment-to-population ratio

Source Global Employment Trends for Women, ILO
KILM, 2007.
24
Where are Women in the Informal Economies of Arab
States?
25
Gender Equality and Workers Rights in the
Informal Economies of Arab States
  • Joint ILO/CAWTAR regional initiative (focusing on
    statistics and social protection)
  • Research (regional, country), training, policy
    advocacy and organizing in the informal economy
  • Regional and 5 country research done, 2 more
    country case studies under way
  • Training program for statisticians and socials
    security experts on workers in informal economy
  • Policy advocacy for updating and improving IE
    statistics, protection and coverage for IE
    workers their families
  • Initiative with TUs to organize workers in IE

26
Old New Definitions Informal Sector
Informal Employment
The two cells in grey cover the informal sector
while the two cells in double line cover
informal employment.Cell (2) means that in the
informal sector, some individuals may have a
formal job (it may happen where the criteria of
non- registration of the unit or of the employees
is not used in the definition). Such a category
is assumed to be small. But the new and
un-investigated group of workers are in cell
(3), which represents informal jobs outside the
informal sector and in the formal sector (mainly
in private, but also in public). This category is
large around the world and is shown to be
growing. We do not have these indicators for Arab
States.
27
Workers in the Expanded Definition of Informal
Economy
  • Informal self-employment includes
  • employers in informal enterprises
  • own account workers in informal enterprises
  • unpaid family workers in informal and formal
    enterprises
  • members of in formal producers cooperatives
  • Informal wage employment includes
  • employees without formal contracts, worker
    benefits or social protection
  • employed by formal or informal enterprises or as
    paid domestic workers by households

28
Stylized Facts from Other Regions on Womens
Employment in IE
  • Women are disproportionately represented in
    informal employment compared to men
  • In many countries, agricultural employment
    accounts for larger share of mens total empl.
    than womens
  • Employment as own-account workers is often a
    significant source of work for women
  • Employed women are often far less likely to work
    as wage employees particularly in formal,
    private employment than are men

29
Gender Equality and Workers Rights in the
Informal Economies of Arab States
30
Definitions of Informal Economy from the Recent
Research in the Region
31
Harmonized Data on Informal Economy from Arab
Region
32
Distribution of women mens tot. employment
(inc. IE in Arab States)
33
Womens mens employment by category of
employment in Palestine
Source Hilal, Kafri, and Kuttab, 2007. Note
Own-account workers in professional occupations
are classified as formal. Other own-account
workers are classified as informal.
34
Data Conclusions
  • Fill in data gaps, gather and analyze (i.e. wage
    data)
  • Mine and use existing data to shed light on
    issues where facts from other regions were used
    as a given, i.e. IE
  • Standardize definitions of informal employment
    and change the existing LFSs so they better
    capture all dimensions of employment
  • Review existing data for underestimation. For
    instance
  • home based subcontracting work
  • home based economic activities for market
    purposes (especially rural households)

35
Compliance to Core International Labour Standards
by Arab States
  • MDG Indicators for the Labour Market from a
    Gender Equality and Workers Rights Perspective

36
Gender Equality Worker Rights Framework of the
ILO
  • Addresses the similarities and differences in the
    LM experiences of women and men
  • Identifies specific groups of workers being
    marginalized, discriminated against and abused,
    and develops responses
  • Uses international labour standards as a tool for
    regulation and monitoring

37
International Labour Standards
  • International conventions recommendations that
    represent an international consensus on minimum
    standards for basic labour rights to regulate
    conditions of work
  • Constitute binding legal obligations in
    international national laws when ratified by
    Members States
  • Member states have to provide regular, periodic
    reporting on measures taken to comply with the
    provisions of a given convention

38
Core International Labour Standards, ILO (1998)
  • An expression of commitment by governments,
    employers' and workers' organizations to uphold
    basic human values
  • Whether they have ratified them or not, ILO
    Member States have an obligation to respect these
    principles
  • The Declaration covers four areas with eight
    core conventions (two per area)

39
Core International Labour Standards Arab States
Year ( Convention) Field Arab States (
Countries)
  • (C. 87) Freedom of Association
    Protection of Right to Organize
  • (C. 98) Right to Organize Collective
    Bargaining
  • 1951 (C. 100) Equal Remuneration
  • 1958 (C. 111) Discrimination (Employment
    Occupation)
  • 1930 (C. 29) Forced Labour
  • 1957 (C. 105) Abolition of Forced Labour
  • 1973 (C. 138) Minimum Age
  • 1999 (C. 182) Worst Forms of Child Labour
  • KU/SY/YE (141)
  • IR/JO/LEB/SY/YE(152)
  • IR/JO/LEB/SA/SY/UAE/
  • YE (159)
  • BA/IR/JOR/KU/LE/QA/
  • SA/SY/UAE/YE (156)
  • BA/IR/JOR/KU/LE/QA/
  • SA/SY/UAE/YE/OM(161)
  • No Arab States (158)
  • IR/JO/KU/SY/UAE/YE
  • (117)
  • BA/IR/JOR/KU/LE/QA/
  • SA/SY/UAE/YE/OM(129)

40
ILO Key Gender Equality Conventions in Arab
Region
41
ILOs Indicators on Gender Equality Conventions
  • Ratification of the four key conventions for
    gender equality (111, 100, 156 and 183)
  • Positive changes in policies, legislation,
    programmes and institutions
  • Measurable progress in the representation of
    women in decision-making

42
Domestic work becomes forced labour when
  • Worker is forced to stay in the job against her
    will
  • Worker is physically confined (locking in the
    house)
  • Workers identity papers are withheld, taken away
  • Debt bondage (i.e. employment agencies charge
    labour migration costs to worker who has to work
    without pay)
  • Non-payment of wages to worker
  • Worker is threatened with denunciation or
    deportation
  • Worker faces physical or sexual abuse

43
(No Transcript)
44
Resolution on Conditions of Work for Domestic
Workers
In 1965, the ILC adopted a resolution
concerning the conditions of employment of
domestic workers, which drew attention
to the urgent need to provide domestic
workers with the basic elements of protection
which would assure them a minimum standard of
living, compatible with the self-respect and
dignity essential to social justice
45
No International Convention on Domestic Workers
  • There has not been enough international support
    for an international convention specially
    conceived to protect domestic workers rights.
  • In many countries domestic workers are excluded
    from the labour code protection and their working
    conditions remain unregulated.
  • Many States do not provide them with optional
    protection under any other national law

46
Key Messages
  • Unless otherwise specified, all ILO Conventions
    apply to both nationals non-nationals
    (refugees, migrant workers)
  • Ratification of instruments alone is not enough
    legislation and enforcement are equally critical
  • ILO core conventions and universal human rights
    instruments do address most violations of
    workers rights
  • Even if countries do not ratify, they can draw
    upon the good practices embodied in Conventions
    and Recommendations drafting national laws.
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