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KNR 282 Biomechanics of Human Movement

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http://www.castonline.ilstu.edu/Thomas/ Biomechanics Lab at ISU Research Not to know is bad. Not to wish to know is worse. To understand how people can move. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: KNR 282 Biomechanics of Human Movement


1
KNR 282Biomechanics of Human Movement
  • Dr. David Q. Thomas
  • http//www.castonline.ilstu.edu/Thomas/

2
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3
Kudos
  • Credit goes to Dr. McCaw for his contributions to
    these slides.

4
Why study biomechanics?
  • Traditional teaching and coaching methods tell
    you what techniques to teach or coach

5
Why study biomechanics?
  • Biomechanics tells you why those techniques are
    best to teach or coach
  • It can also tell you why some teaching and
    coaching techniques dont work and need to be
    discontinued

6
Why study biomechanics?
  • AT, OT, and PT students will benefit from
    learning biomechanics because it will help in
  • determining the cause of injury,
  • aid in preventing future injury,
  • and guide in determining best methods for
    rehabilitation.

7
Why study biomechanics?
  • Exercise science students will learn the best
    techniques for improving fitness and enhancing
    exercise performance

8
Why study biomechanics?
  • PETE students will learn how to make
    instructional decisions based on the science of
    human movement

9
Learning Biomechanics
  • I will provide you with
  • Concept
  • Examples
  • You need to come up with
  • Application
  • How does this concept apply to
  • Physical Education Teacher Education?
  • Exercise Science?
  • Athletic Training?

10
Kinesiology
  • Kines Latin gt motion
  • logos study of
  • Kinesiology Study of Motion

11
Kinesiology
  • Includes
  • Anatomy Physiology
  • Psychology
  • Motor Development
  • Pedagogy
  • Biomechanics
  • Exercise Physiology
  • Athletic Training

12
Biomechanics
  • Bio life
  • Mechanics - study of machines
  • Biomechanics - study of living machines

13
(No Transcript)
14
science concerned with effects of forces acting
on a system (body)
15
Why study biomechanics?
  • We study biomechanics to understand how people
    move
  • This information may be used to enhance
    performance by improving technique
  • It may also be used to lower the risk for injury

16
Why study biomechanics?
  • Enhance skill performance
  • Technique improvement
  • Improve current technique (shooting a foul shot)
  • Develop new technique (Fosbury Flop, swim hand
    recovery, skating in X-country skiing, ski
    jumping)
  • Equipment improvement
  • Shoes and apparel
  • Implements
  • Protection devices
  • Training improvement

17
Why study biomechanics?
  • Injury Prevention and Rehabilitation
  • Techniques to reduce injury
  • Equipment designs to reduce injury

18
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how living bodies can move.

Edward Muybridge
19
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.

Edward Muybridge
20
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.
  • To enhance skill performance
  • elite athletes
  • USOC, WNBA, MLB, etc
  • Biomechanics in the Olympics http//www.youtube.c
    om/watch?vcsrb-GCUxzgfeaturerelated

21
Enhancing Skill Performance
  • An example using anthropometrics

22
Anthropometrics
Study of the bodys size and form
23
Anthropometrics
  • This would include measurements of
  • Height
  • Weight
  • Circumferences
  • Skinfolds
  • Girths/diameters
  • Etc

24
Ball comparison, NBA vs WNBA
7.78/0.288 27.014 inches
25
Why study biomechanics?
  • To allow for comparisons

26
Strength Males Versus Females
27
Why study biomechanics?
  • Destroy myths

28
Why study Biomechanics?
Can a cow really jump over the moon?
http//zebu.uoregon.edu/dmason/probs/mech/work/co
wmoon/cowmoon.html
29
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.
  • To enhance skill performance
  • physical challenges
  • ACL deficit
  • CP gait
  • Wheelchair
  • Age-related disease

30
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.
  • To enhance skill performance
  • physical challenges
  • ACL deficit
  • CP gait
  • Wheelchair
  • Age-related disease

31
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.
  • To enhance skill performance
  • Physical development

32
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how
  • people can move.
  • To enhance
  • skill performance
  • Improve equipment

33
Biomechanics and Safety
34
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.
  • To enhance skill performance
  • Not limited to humans

35
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.
  • To enhance skill performance
  • To lower the risk for injury
  • Exercise equipment technique
  • shoes surfaces
  • braces orthotics
  • Equine biomechanics

http//www.equinemechanics.com/
36
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.
  • To enhance skill performance
  • To lower the risk for injury
  • Automobiles
  • collisions

http//collisionresearchltd.com/index.php
37
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.
  • To enhance skill performance
  • To lower the risk for injury
  • Automobiles
  • collisions

38
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.

Vsevolod Meyerholds Biomechanical Theatre 1920s
39
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.

Borelli
40
Borelli
  • Borellis major scientific achievements are
    focused around his investigation into
    biomechanics. This work originated with his
    studies of animals. His publications, De Motu
    Animalium I and De Motu Animalium II, relate
    animals to machines and utilize mathematics to
    prove his theories. The anatomists of the 17th
    century were the first to suggest the contractile
    movement of muscles. Borelli, however, first
    suggested that muscles do not exercise vital
    movement otherwise than by contracting. He was
    also the first to deny corpuscular influence on
    the movements of muscles. This was proven through
    his scientific experiments demonstrating that
    living muscle did not release corpuscles into
    water when cut. Borelli also recognized that
    forward motion entailed movement of a bodys
    center of gravity forward, which was then
    followed by the swinging of its limbs in order to
    maintain balance. His studies also extended
    beyond muscle and locomotion. In particular he
    likened the action of the heart to that of a
    piston. For this to work properly he derived the
    idea that the arteries have be elastic. For these
    discoveries, Borelli is labeled as the father of
    modern biomechanics.
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giovanni_Alfonso_Bore
    lli

41
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.
  • To enhance skill performance
  • To lower the risk for injury

42
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.
  • To enhance skill performance
  • To lower the risk for
  • injury

43
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.
  • To enhance skill performance
  • To lower the risk for injury

44
Why do we need biomechanics?
  • We treat symptoms of an injury, with less
    emphasis on etiology (cause) of an injury
  • placebo effect vs true treatment effects
  • high rate of reoccurrence
  • Some of us are not doing a good job
  • Coach focus on strategy
  • Teaching
  • skills farm system
  • vs
  • fitness CV strength
  • Cater to the converted.
  • Serve the skilled.

Safety Performance Trade-Off
45
Need for biomechanics in childrens sports
46
Problem-solving approach
  • Quantitative analysis - mainly a clinical
    research perspective.
  • Qualitative analysis - most teachers/coaches need
    this ability.

47
Mechanics
  • Science concerned with the effects of forces
    acting on objects (body)
  • body focus of the analysis
  • human body
  • individual body segment
  • specific tissue / anatomical site
  • balls, pucks
  • implement bat, stick, club

48
Mechanics
  • Science concerned with the effects of forces
    acting on objects (body)
  • Rigid-body mechanics
  • Deformable body mechanics
  • Fluid mechanics
  • Relativistic mechanics
  • Quantum mechanics

49
Rigid Body Mechanics
  • Acceptable for analyzing gross movements
  • Assumptions
  • body does not deform by bending, stretching or
    compressing
  • segments are rigid links joined by frictionless
    hinges at joints

50
Rigid Body Mechanics
51
Basic Dimensions of Biomechanics
  • Length - of what size?
  • Time - of what duration?
  • Mass - how much matter?
  • Inertia - what resistance to movement?

52
Basic dimensions in mechanics
  • Describe someone out for a run

53
Basic dimensions in mechanics
  • Describe someone out for a run
  • Kinematics
  • How far did she run?
  • How long to run that far?
  • How fast was she?
  • How big is she?
  • Kinetics
  • What friction under her feet?
  • What forces on her joints?
  • What tension in her muscles?

54
Length
  • Measure to describe
  • location at a particular point in her run
  • how far she ran
  • Feet, inches, miles
  • Systeme Internationale dUnites (SI)
  • meter
  • 1 m 3.28 feet 39 inches

http//physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/
55
Time
  • Measure to describe how long it takes her
  • seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, years
  • Systeme Internationale dUnites (SI)
  • second (s)

56
Length time motion
  • Space to move in and time during which to move
  • speed velocitygt length per unit of time
  • miles per hour
  • m / s or m . sec-1
  • acceleration
  • m/s/s or m . sec-1 . sec-1

57
Inertia
  • Inertia
  • resistance to a change in state of motion
  • Who is harder to start or stop moving
  • Olympic weight lifter
  • Olympic gymnast

58
Inertia
  • Inertia
  • resistance to a change in state of motion
  • Who is harder to start or stop moving
  • Olympic weight lifter has more inertia
  • Olympic gymnast

59
Inertia and Mass
  • Inertia
  • resistance to a change in state of motion
  • Mass
  • the quantity of matter a body possesses
  • quantifies inertia (the measure of inertia)
  • Greater mass, greater inertia
  • resistance to change state of motion
  • units are kilogram (kg) or slug (English)
  • Not the same as weight

60
Importance of Inertia Mass
  • Provide an example of changing motion in
  • sport
  • exercise
  • workplace

61
Importance of Inertia Mass
  • Provide an example of changing motion in
  • Sport size expectations of different positions
    (i.e. interior defensive linemen)
  • Exercise alter mass to be moved to increase load
    on NMS system (i.e. push-up)
  • Workplace alter mass of components to reduce
    load (i.e. cement bags, engine blocks)

62
3 basic dimensions
  • Length
  • Time
  • Mass
  • Force defined from the above
  • a push or pull acting on a body

All that is needed to describe and explain the
motion of objects
63
Biomechanics Professional Societies
64
Research in Biomechanics Journals Magazines
65
Biomechanics Textbooks
66
Biomechanics Lab at ISU Research
Not to know is bad. Not to wish to know is
worse.
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