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Introduction to HACCP Principles

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HACCP Principles Lynn Knipe Animal Sciences 555.02 The Ohio State University Why HACCP Training? CFR417.7(b) states individual (developing HACCP plans ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to HACCP Principles


1
Introduction to HACCP Principles
  • Lynn Knipe
  • Animal Sciences 555.02
  • The Ohio State University

2
Why HACCP Training?
  • CFR417.7(b) states individual(developing
    HACCP plans) shall have successfully completed a
    course of instruction of the seven HACCP
    principles to meat or poultry processing
  • Write, reassess or modify

3
Why HACCP Training?
  • HACCP mandated for large meat poultry plants
    Jan. 98, small plants - Jan. 99, very small
    plants- Jan. 00, under MegaReg.

4
Why HACCP Training?
  • Seafood HACCP - FDA mandated Dec. 18, 1997
  • HACCP recommended for establishments inspected
    under 2003 FDA Food Code.
  • Frozen Dairy Processors, ODA Division of Dairy.

5
Why HACCP?
  • Consumers expecting more from foods.
  • New products present new food safety
    challenges.
  • Previous meat poultry inspection needed
    updating.
  • Modern dining

6
New kitchens intended for cooking?
7
Having Dinner with the Family
8
Quick Serve Food Handling Issues
9
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10
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11
What is HACCP?
  • Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
  • Management toolfor producing safest food
    possible
  • developed by Pillsbury NASA in 1959
  • prevent illness in space
  • prevent crumbs

12
HACCP Stated Simply
  • plan, control and document safe food
    processing

13
HACCP Objectives
  • Prevent problems by controlling defects
  • key words prevent control
  • problems food-borne illnesses or injuries
  • defects hazards out of control

14
HACCP Benefits
  • Returning responsibility for safe products to
    industry
  • Loss control
  • doing it right the first time
  • decreased down time/rework
  • Defensibility - provides records of performance

15
HACCP Benefits
  • Assists in allocation of resources to produce
    safe products.
  • Insurance costs.
  • Can be applied later to product quality and
    yields.

16
HACCP Costs
  • Training HACCP writing team, other employees
  • Writing implementing plan.
  • Monitoring devices
  • thermometers, recorders, pH meters, etc.

17
HACCP Summary
  • Preventive system for assuring safe food
    pro- duction, before it is too late.
  • Applicable to all phases of food production.
  • Control of factors affecting
    ingredients, process product.

18
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19
HACCP programs are built upon
  • Existing regulations guidelines
  • SSOPs
  • GMPs
  • Employee training

20
HACCP
Education and Training
GMPS
SOPS
Laws and Regulations
Company Commitment to Food Safety
21
GMPs (Good Manufacturing Practices)
  • facility design/product flow
  • equipment
  • maintenance programs
  • warehousing
  • rodent/pest control

22
GMPs (Contd)
  • incoming product programs
  • recall programs
  • voluntary
  • no records required
  • not justification for hazards not likely to
    occur, unless records are available.

23
For you to be successful with HACCP, management
must be
  • committed to HACCP.
  • aware of costs and benefits of HACCP.

24
Pre-HACCP Steps
  • Assemble HACCP Team.
  • Describe Product.
  • First page of handout (also p. 38877)
  • Develop List of Ingredients nitrites, peanuts,
    milk proteins
  • Develop Flow Chart.
  • steps listed in column 1 of Form A (Handout)

25
Need team members who are familiar with the
process
26
  • FSIS HACCP Processing Categories
  • slaughter
  • raw product-ground
  • raw product-not ground
  • thermally processed - sterile
  • not heat treated - shelf stable
  • heat treated - shelf stable
  • fully cooked - not shelf stable
  • heat treated/not fully cooked/not shelf stable

27
HACCP Principle 1 Conduct a Hazard Analysis
  • to determine the food safety hazardshistorical
    ly have occurredreasonable possibility that it
    will occurin absence of controls.. CFR9 Part
    417.2(a)(1)
  • Column 2 of Form A (Handout)

28
Types of Potential Hazards
  • Biological - L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, E.
    coli 0157H7, etc.
  • Chemical - cleaners, restricted ingredients,
    allergens, antibiotics
  • Physical - glass, metal, bone, needles, shot,
    ear tags

29
Hazard Analysis
30
Determine Likelihood of Hazard Occurrence
  • Risk Assessment.
  • Chemical physical hazards.
  • experience plant history may justify
  • Biological hazards need documentation.
  • pathogen test results, SSOP records, other
    records, scientific publications.
  • not written GMPs, without records!

31
Preventive Measures to Control a Hazard
  • 1. Prevent contamination
  • Letters of guarantee
  • 2. Cook or sterilize to destroy pathogens.
  • 3. Time/temperature control to prevent
    multiplication of pathogens.

32
Preventive Measures (Continued)
  • 4. Ferment to prevent multiplication of
    pathogens.
  • 5. Airflow to prevent environmental
    contamination.
  • 6. Metal detectors.
  • 7. Bone removal systems.

33
HACCP Principle 2 Identify Critical Control
Points in the Process
34
A CCP is
  • the last point where control can (or is needed
    to) prevent, reduce or eliminate hazards to
    acceptable levels.
  • Last column of Form A.

35
CCP Examples
  • Raw product temperature
  • Cooking
  • Chilling of cooked product
  • Slaughter - fecal contamination
  • Product formula nitrites, allergens
  • pH adjustment
  • L. monocytogenes control -fully cooked, RTE
  • Hot holding

36
HACCP Principle 3 Establish Critical Limits
for Preventive (Control) Measures Associated with
Identified CCPs
  • critical limits shall ensure thatapplicable
    performance targets estab-lished by FSISare met
    - CFR9 Part 417.2(c)(3)

37
  • CLs are criterion that must be met for each
    preventive measure.
  • If exceeded, or not met, product is considered
    adulterated.
  • (Optional) Set targets (operating limits), to
    minimize HACCP deviations.
  • Start with applicable regulations or
    guidelines.

38
Critical limits must be
  • based upon scientifically determined
    parameters.
  • quantifiable
  • , ºF, pH, defects, minutes, CFUs/gm?
  • What cannot be measured, cannot be
    controlled.

39
Critical Limit Examples
  • Temperatures and times
  • salt
  • Water activity, Aw
  • pH or acidity
  • visual appearance?
  • hand washing?
  • microbial standards?

40
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41
HACCP Principle 4 Establish CCP Monitoring
Procedures
  • Planned sequence of observations or
    measurements
  • to assess whether or not a CCP is under
    control
  • ...and to produce a record to verify process.

42
Monitoring Frequency
  • Continuous monitoring.
  • ideal system
  • thermocouple or pH probe w/chart recorder
  • Monitoring at established intervals.
  • manual check every X hr(s)/shift.
  • Frequency How much out of compliance product
    are you able to hold?

43
Monitoring Responsibility
  • Assign responsibility to management or
    production worker?
  • Training needed in monitoring method, purpose
    of monitoring, importance of accuracy.
  • Records/documents initialed by person
    monitoring.

44
Monitoring Responsibility
  • Note unusual circumstances.
  • Report deviations immediately.

45
Monitoring Options
  • Actual product monitoring.
  • accuracy
  • labor intensity
  • cross contamination
  • Process monitoring
  • monitor ovens, coolers, etc.
  • continuous recording charts.

46
HACCP Principle 5 Describe Corrective Actions
  • to be taken when there is a deviation (out of
    compliance or control) from an established
    critical limit.
  • Four parts of 417.3(a) (p. 38870, Federal
    Register)

47
Corrective Action Plans to Ensure
  • ...cause of deviation I.D.ed eliminated.
  • CCPunder control...
  • measures to prevent recurrenceestablished
  • no adulterated product is shipped.

48
Principle 6 Establish Procedures to Verify
that the HACCP System is Working Correctly
(417.4)
  • Verification is to a HACCP plan, what
    monitoring is to a CCP.
  • Includes initial validation on-going
    verification.

49
Initial Validation
  • Demonstrate that your HACCP plan is adequate to
    prevent, reduce or eliminate hazards.
  • New establishments or new product categories
    90 day trial period to validate.
  • Generate and review records.
  • Scientific documentation.

50
On-Going Verification
  • Demonstrate that your HACCP plan is working as
    you intended.
  • Ensure that employees are following your
    established procedures for record keeping
    handling product deviations.

51
Verification Must Include
  • Review of records generated by the HACCP plan.
  • Direct observations of the monitoring and
    corrective actions.
  • Calibration of monitoring instruments/equipment.

52
Reassessment
  • Verify that all significant hazards have a CCP
  • confirm CLs are appropriate
  • establish that corrective actions are in place
    and effective
  • Total reassessment 1x/yr.

53
HACCP System Reassessment Triggers
  • new information concerning product safety
  • monitoring results
  • product link to outbreak
  • system modified -
    formulation, processing, distribution
    consumer use

54
Pre-Shipment Review
  • Must be completed before product is shipped.
  • Do ASAP after monitoring.
  • Requires lot numbers on products.
  • Requires signature.

55
Lot ID could be based upon
  • full sanitation to full sanitation (FSIS)
  • day, shift, 1/2 day (Julian)
  • slaughter, cutting
  • common ingredients
  • mixer batch, brine batch
  • sublot by stuffer, oven, etc.

56
Lot Identification
  • First, ID your product lots
  • Later, tie lot information of received product
    to lot information of products you produce.
  • Do mock recalls to test system.

57
Verification Summary
  • Direct observation record review of
    monitoring corrective actions
  • Equipment calibration
  • Reassess plan
  • Designate position (person) frequency.

58
HACCP Principle 7 Establish effective record
keeping procedures
  • ...only reference available to trace product
    history
  • and actions taken to prevent a problem
  • ...assist in case of a recall.

59
HACCP Records
  • Monitoring records
  • Deviation/corrective action records
  • Verification/pre-shipment review records

60
HACCP Records
  • Retention of records
  • 1 year for unfrozen
  • 2 years for frozen
  • Store off site after 6 mos.
  • Regulatory access in 24 hr.
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