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Certified Landscape Professional Exam Study Series

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Certified Landscape Professional Exam Study Series Exterior Production Operations and Horticulture Module: A managers perspective Landscape Specifications Include ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Certified Landscape Professional Exam Study Series


1
Certified Landscape Professional Exam Study Series
  • Exterior Production Operations and Horticulture
    Module
  • A managers perspective

2
Landscape Specifications Include
  • Drawings - scaled visual representation
  • Written specifications
  • Quantity takeoffs from drawings
  • Develop a cost to carry out
  • Large dollar tenders will often be drafted
    according to CCDC standards (Canadian
    Construction Documents Committee)
  • www.ccdc.org/home/html

3
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5
Written Specifications
  • A precise, formal, detailed description of the
    work to be done.
  • Including the way the work is to be done,
    procedures, materials, and quality required.
  • Describe how assemblies go together and the
    necessary quality and quantity of materials
    required to meet code.
  • Written specs. take precedence over drawings in
    the eyes of the court

6
Written Specifications
  • Generally include 3 parts
  • Should Reflect Industry Standards
  • General specific administrative and procedural
    requirement unique to the project
  • Products detailed description and quantity of
    products to be incorporated in the project
  • Execution detailed description of preparations
    required and the who, what, where, when and how
    the products are to be incorporated into the
    project

7
Specifications Terminology
  • Open specifications - use a generic description
    of an item to be supplied. For example, a wooden
    patio table of a certain size and dimension
  • Closed specifications use a specific
    description of the item. For example, the
    specification could call for a specific model
    from a specific manufacturer

8
Carrying Out Basic Landscape Calculations
  • Managers should be able to check landscape
    calculations and carry them out on their own

9
Landscape Standards
  • A good manager has good working knowledge of
    local industry standards and government landscape
    standards
  • Operates business accordingly
  • CNLA Landscape Ontario

10
Landscape Standards in Canada
  • Produced by Canadian Nursery Landscape
    Association (CNLA)
  • Available at www.horttrades.com
  • Not enforceable by law unless the standards are
    specifically referred to in the contract
    specifications

11
Landscape Standards
  • Standards are usually voluntary unless they are
    written directly into contract specifications
    however we should always maintain standards!
  • If they are in the specifications, they form part
    of the legal contract

12
Hardscape Installation
  • Manager and / or other personnel in the company
    must have a good working knowledge and required
    expertise of hard landscape materials and
    processes of installation for their geographic
    areas

13
Grading and Drainage - Codes and Regulations
  • There are regulations/ codes for grading and
    drainage installations - commercial and
    residential sites
  • Commercial projects specified in the contract
    and contract drawings - engineer/architect
  • Residential projects often contractor does
    drawings must ensure grading and drainage meets
    codes
  • Many municipalities require a sewer layer
    license or other special license to lay drain
    line of any type

14
Drainage Systems
  • Includes subsurface and surface drainage systems
    for interception, collection, conduction, and
    disposal of storm runoff and subsurface water
  • Designed and sized to deal efficiently with
    projected precipitation, infiltration, and flow
    rates
  • Large projects designed by engineer to meet
    local building code

15
Drainage Systems
  • Must ensure the safety of the property owner and
    the protection of dwellings, site elements, and
    properties from water damage, flooding, and
    erosion.
  • If storm drain water flow accumulates - requires
    storm-water retention ponds to prevent erosion
    damage or flooding on the site or adjacent
    properties

16
Drainage Systems - Installation
  • Contractor must be aware of measurements and
    installations that have been made off-site and
    on-site as part of the hard construction to
    ensure that the work specified in the landscape
    contract can be properly carried out re site
    drainage.
  • Contractor must take measures to prevent
    siltation of existing drainage systems and
    watercourses during all on-site work

17
Subsurface Drainage
  • Any drainage method installed below the soil
    surface to move water out of the soil
  • A detailed subsurface drainage plan is prepared
    by engineers - not the landscape contractor
  • Before installing on residential and commercial
    sites Contractor must consult prepared
    engineering drainage plan that should be
    supplied as part of the contract drawings

18
Subsurface Drainage Plan Includes
  • Drain outlet locations
  • Location, size, depth, spacing, and slope or
    drains
  • Location of any obstructions, such as trees,
    buildings, etc.
  • Surface runoff from adjacent properties
  • Back-filling requirements

19
Drain Outlet Locations
  • 2 types of outlets for subsurface drains
  • 1. Gravity most common for landscape purposes
    discharge water into storm sewers or open
    waterways
  • 2. Pump

20
Gravity Drain Outlet
  • The next slide shows a typical gravity outlet
    that discharges into an open ditch. Its is
    critical when installing the outlet that the end
    of the pipe should not extend too for beyond the
    ditch bank, since the force of the falling water
    will cause erosion, creating the potential for
    serious environmental problems. The installation
    of riprap below the outlet to prevent erosion is
    a common procedure

21
Gravity Drain Outlet
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23
Any questions/review regarding Subsurface
Drainage?
24
French Drains
  • Essentially a trench

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27
Surface Drainage
  • Final grading must conform to grade elevations
    contours on approved plan
  • Water flows away from all structures positive
    drainage
  • Maximum settling of 30 mm or 1.25 inches

28
Open Channel Drainage
  • Ditches swales to direct water from a site
  • Vegetated waterways are effective in erosion
    control
  • Not to be used when water flow continuous or
    constant ground water sits
  • Engineered drawings must be provided

29
Important Soil Properties
  • Important to understand the basic properties of
    soils that have a direct impact on the success of
    plant and turf establishment.

30
Soil Compaction
  • Leads to problems with drainage and plant
    establishment
  • Compacted soils have very low filtration
    therefore can cause overland flow and erosion
    increases

31
Soil Compaction Caused By
  • Quality, foot traffic, heavy equipment, vehicular
    traffic, and landscape maintenance equipment

32
Soil Compaction Management
  • Good planning prior to construction can reduce
    some of the soil compaction that takes place
    during building and landscape construction by
    limiting the areas that construction equipment
    can drive on
  • Topsoil can be removed prior to construction so
    that only the subsoils are being driven on
  • After construction, the subsoil should be
    decompacted by ripping or subsoiling and the top
    soil should be replaced

33
Soil Compaction Consequences
  • Impaired root growth
  • Poor aeration
  • Reduced drainage
  • Which causes..

34
Soil Compaction Consequences
  • Some indirect consequences of soil compaction
  • Nutrient deficiencies
  • Flooding
  • Soil erosion
  • Susceptibility to root rot

35
Impact of Pressure Applied to Soils on Compaction
  • When subsoils are compacted by heavy traffic,
    free drainage is impacted and saturation of the
    topsoil will occur
  • Effects of compaction by wheeled vehicles -
    usually within the top 4 inches (10 cm) of the
    soil
  • 80 of compaction will occur with the first wheel
    to travel over the soil
  • Heavier equipment upper 6-8 inches (15-20cm)
    are seriously effected

36
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37
Impact of Pressure Applied to Soils on Compaction
  • Rules of thumb
  • Keep foot and vehicle traffic to a minimum
  • Use the same path to confine compaction to a
    single area that can be repaired
  • Keep wheeled traffic away from tree roots
  • Schedule work when the soil is dry
  • Use low ground pressure vehicles whenever
    possible
  • Place a coarse mulch over heavily trafficked
    areas and remove it when project is done

38
Soil Erosion
  • Happens when particles are detached and
    transported by water or wind
  • On landscape sites, largest problem is erosion by
    water initiated by the impact that raindrops
    have on bare soil
  • Soil should be covered, mulched, or seeded with
    annual grasses if it is being exposed to the
    elements for significant amounts of time

39
Soil Erosion
  • Classified as gully, rill, and sheet erosion
  • Gully erosion water concentrates in channels
    and deepen rapidly
  • Rill erosion removal of soil on a side slope
    where small channels are formed
  • Sheet erosion where there is little or no
    vegetation cover and the slopes are not steep
    soil is removed in a relatively even plane

40
Gully Erosion
41
Rill Erosion
42
Sheet Erosion
43
Erosion Control Measures
  • Important to reduce environmental damage
  • There are environmental regulations that specify
    the use of erosion control measures on
    construction sites
  • Good planning prior to the commencement of
    construction

44
Erosion Control Measures
  • Planning Stage identify areas with high
    susceptibility to erosion - avoid disturbing
    these areas
  • If areas with high erosion potential are
    disturbed, - ensure that they are will protected
    until vegetation re-established
  • Establish vegetation as soon as possible
  • Cover soil with mulches, annual grasses, or
    erosion control fabric

45
Erosion Control Measures
  • Water erosion of soil direct result of overland
    flow, the higher the water velocity, the greater
    the erosion
  • Important to keep runoff velocities as low as
    possible
  • Install straw bales or silt fences to help
    prevent/reduce
  • Retain on the site any sediment generated by
    construction of small retention ponds in
    strategic areas/ silt fences/ straw bales

46
Irrigation Systems and Water Management Strategies
  • The manager of a landscape company that sells
    installs irrigation systems must understand
    the following 5 strategies

47
Strategy 1
  • Legal licences/codes/permits/design
    requirements/restrictions/ insurance etc.
  • Prevent contamination

48
Strategy 2
  • 2. Design basic concepts of match system to
    site use, precipitation rates/efficiency (water
    conservation), head design/spacing, topography,
    soil type, water distribution, local codes, plant
    requirements

49
Strategy 3
  • 3. Physics - basic physics of water flow (volume
    vs. pressure), electricity, pipe sizing, and low
    voltage limitations

50
Strategy 4
  • 4. Mechanics - of an effective irrigation system
    ( nuts bolts of system), including working
    knowledge types of backflow prevention and
    features, controllers, wiring, valves, pipe
    material, head types, and nozzles

51
Strategy 5
  • 5. Installation Methods and Techniques - working
    knowledge of methods used to install the system
    as per site ( soil conditions, landscape/site
    specific), connections qualifications required
    to design, install, and maintain the system

52
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53
Guarantee or Warranty
  • Insure and guarantee complete balanced coverage
    of the specified areas on the drawings to be
    irrigated without excessive overthrow
  • Satisfactory operation of entire system,
    workmanship, restoration of site for 1 yr.
    Period
  • Includes start up and end season system shut down

54
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55
Submittals
  • Scaled - as-built drawing provided to site
    owner -commercial or residential. All components
    of system indicated shown as to be installed,
    includes parts features

56
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57
Testing and Maintenance
  • Upon install completion all components undergo
    final adjustment to optimize the operation
  • Perform final inspection and testing for proper
    operation coverage
  • System must be operated sequentially with the
    controller in presence of the owners
    representative

58
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59
Efficient Water Use
  • Deep, infrequent irrigation better than
    shallow, frequent irrigation root development
  • Never allow precipitation rate to exceed soil
    infiltration rate flood or waste may result
  • Allow minimum of one hour between irrigation
    cycles minimizes waste by complete absorption

60
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61
Lighting Systems
  • Can include Design, supply, installing, and
    testing all lighting equipment /hardware
    restoring site to original condition
  • usually identified in detailed specification
    document

62
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63
3 Goals for Landscape Lighting
  • Beauty
  • Safety
  • Security

64
LightingTechniques
  • Down Lighting from ht. in trees cast shadow
  • Area Lighting lit paths, stairs, beds
  • Up lighting from below object
  • Front lighting, side lighting, and backlighting
  • Shadow lighting (lighting a plant or object on a
    wall)
  • Accent lighting
  • Silhouetting

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68
Lighting Systems Cont
  • Systems low voltage or regular voltage
  • Low voltage systems easier to work with fewer
    government regulations governing installation

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70
Manager Ensures
  • Electrical work and installation meets prevailing
    codes - all 120-volt connections electrical
    panel hookups performed by/ under direct
    supervision of licensed electrician
  • Must meet CSA standards and must be suitable for
    outdoor installation
  • Equipment specifications and installation
    procedures are followed according to drawings and
    contract specifications
  • Installation crews are aware of utility locates

71
Softscape Installation
  • Installation of plants into the landscape
  • Plant Selection appropriate to site
  • Plants purchased must meet quality/size specified
  • Shipped to the landscape site in good condition
  • Handled and planted according to standards

72
Plant Selection
  • The manager should understand and employ
    architect/designer who
  • 1. Match plants and mature sizes to site use
  • 2. Site conditions
  • 3. Climate / environment
  • 4. Soil quality
  • 5. Aesthetic goals
  • 6. Post install maintenance levels

73
Plant Packaging
  • Container light weight, planting season longer
  • BB hand dug, wrapped smaller calipre
  • Tree Spade / Wire Basket heavy, larger
    specimens
  • Bare Root no soil, field grown not common
    cheaper success rate?

74
Container Plants


75
Balled and Burlapped
76
Wire Basket
77
Bare Root
78
Quality and Performance of Trees
  • Selection driven by availability, cost, size and
    personal preference
  • The larger the tree is at planting, the longer it
    will take to establish itself so may be smaller
    than expected

79
Quality and Performance of Trees Cont
  • Post-planting irrigation critical
  • If irrigation supply is limited container
    -grown plants more likely to experience post
    planting water stress

80
Long Term Quality Success
  • Branch pattern tree size at planting have
    little influence on long-term growth
  • Levels of vigor, laterals on the trunk, and
    height-caliper ratios will greatly influence the
    effort required to optimize performance
  • Shoot and root quality will have a long-term
    effect on performance and may impact the plants
    survival

81
Plant Buying Criteria
  • Inspect
  • 1. Roots
  • 2. Evaluate trunks/stems branching/ canopy for
    balance, durability, vigor, pests, diseases,
    injury
  • 3. Reject anything not up to standard

82
Tree Caliper
  • Trees sized and sold by caliper
  • Measurement of trunk shall be taken 6 inches
    (15cm) above ground level for trees up to and
    including 4 inches (100mm) in size
  • Larger trees should be measured 12 inches (30 cm)
    above ground level
  • In Canada caliper is quoted in millimeters
  • Caliper only relates to the size of the tree

83
Plant Shipping and Handling
  • Protect during delivery to prevent damage to
    plants and roots
  • Space between trees so that trunks are not
    scarred or branches broken
  • Use trunk protectors / adequate trunk protection
  • Transport in enclosed trucks or cover with
    tarpaulin- reduces wind burn/dessication
  • Trees should be wrapped to prevent damage

84
Plant Shipping and Handling
  • Material should never be handled by the
    trunk/stem
  • Material should be handled by the ball or
    container with support from the plant top when
    needed

85
On-Site Plant Handling
  • Place plants in the shade whenever possible (soil
    can reach 120F/49C on a hot day will kill leaf
    tips)
  • Prevent wilt by following a frequent watering
    program
  • Place plants close together to reduce injury from
    excessive movement of the tops and to keep them
    from falling over/tie down

86
Turfgrass Management
  • Requires a knowledge of
  • 1. Local site conditions and intended use
  • 2. Understanding of grass species and grass seed
    and turf specifications

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88
Seed or Turf Selection
  • In Canada, grass seed should meet requirements of
    the Seeds Act and Regulations for Canada
    Certified No.1, Canada Common No.1, and Canada
    Common No.2
  • Have a minimum germination rate of 85 and a
    minimum purity of 97

89
Seed Packaging Standards
  • Name of seed or seed mixture
  • Seed grade
  • Lot number
  • Name of supplier
  • Germination percent
  • Purity analysis of seed mixture ( or pure seed,
    variety, and weed)
  • Year of production
  • Net weight (mass)
  • Date and location of bagging

90
Seed Mixtures Must Be
  • suited to the climate, soil conditions and type
    of soil, use, orientation, sun exposure,
    terrain, establishment, and maintenance
    conditions under which they are to be grown

91
Grass Types and Varieties
  • Perennial ryegrass will not grow well in very
    hot, dry conditions.
  • Kentucky bluegrass should not be grown in costal
    areas, where acidic soil and wet winters are
    prevalent
  • Fine fescues will normally perform much better
    than Kentucky bluegrass in the shade

92
Seed Bed Soil Criteria
  • Successful turf management good root management
  • Match grass type to the soil conditions
  • Soil test quality, texture, pH, nutrient level
    - guides action plan
  • Rectify any problems before installation to suit
    blend/use

93
Established Turf Assessment
  • When dealing with established turf areas, carry
    out a site assessment quality, pests/ disease,
    site use, maintenance levels/issues
  • form a plan of action for renovation /
    rejeuvenation based on use, goals of client,
    future maintenance levels, budgets

94
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95
Soil Fertility and Fertilizer
  • Soil fertility soils ability to supply and
    sustain nutrients for healthy plant growth
  • Fertile soil contains a balanced supply of
    nutrients macro (NPK) micro (Ca,Mg,S,I etc)
  • Soil tests undertaken periodically to determine
    the quantity and type of fertilizer required to
    replace lost nutrients

96
Soil Fertility and Fertilizer
  • N controls growth rate of turf
  • Too little nitrogen can slow growth rate turf
    weakness so vulnerable to diseases such as rust
    or dollar spot
  • Excess N lush growth, weak cell membranes,
    susceptibility to stress, poor rooting,
    vulnerable to diseases

97
Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Cont
  • Slow release fertilizers provides stable,
    long-term feeding that prevents the tremendous
    peaks and valleys of growth seen when using
    quick-release formulas
  • Slow-release products fewer applications less
    chance of root burn
  • Mulching mowers can reduce the annual need for
    nitrogen applications( can return 6 from
    clippings)

98
Water Requirements
  • Warm weather and cool weather grasses grow and go
    dormant at different times of the year
    different irrigation needs
  • Soil type and quality/ plant needs/climate
    dictates program

99
Appropriate Equipment
  • Mowers
  • Mowing main cultural practice of turf
    management
  • Mowing causes significant stress on turf
  • Need quality well-maintained equipment
  • Cutting height for the variety/use of
    grass/climate
  • Appropriate mowing schedule
  • Depth of the root system is related to the height
    of the grass

100
Categories of Mowers
  • 1. Reel Mower - rotating blades on reel- shears
    grass against a stationary bedknife
  • Good cut when used and maintained properly - can
    be costly and maintenance intensive

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102
Categories of Mowers
  • 2. Rotary Mowers 1 or multiple blades rotate
    horizontally at high speeds
  • not best quality cut uses a lot of power
  • versatile and are relatively low maintenance
  • Most common type of mower

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104
Categories of Mowers
  • 3. Flail Mowers - series of heavy duty rotating
    blades on a horizontal shaft
  • Give a poor quality cut and are used on utility
    or very low-maintenance turf

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106
Other Turf Equipment
  • Core Aerators
  • Hollow ties or spoons to extract cores
  • Improved air exchange, improved infiltration of
    water and fertilizer to the root zone

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108
Other Turf Equipment Cont
  • Vertical Mowers - knives
  • Dethatchers
  • Used to break up cores left by aerators
  • Aid in thatch removal
  • Cultivate the soil
  • Often in conjunction with overseeding

109
Other Turf Equipment
  • Seeders
  • Used to apply grass seed
  • Drop seeders
  • Rotary seeders
  • Drill seeders

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111
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
  • holistic plant health care (PHC) management
    programs
  • IPM is a decision making approach that uses a
    combination of pest management techniques in an
    organized program to suppress pest populations in
    effective, economical, and environmentally
    sound/responsible ways

112
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
  • regular monitoring to determine if, and when,
    treatments are needed and employs physical,
    mechanical, cultural, biological, and educational
    methods to keep pest numbers low enough to
    prevent intolerable damage or annoyance.
    Least-toxic chemicals are used as a last resort

113
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
  • When we refer to pests, we are referring to any
    living organism that causes an undesirable effect
    in a landscape
  • Ranges from plants (weeds) to animals, from
    single-celled bacterial to insects, and to the
    neighbors dog or cat
  • Perception about what is undesirable varies
    greatly

114
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
  • Since the reduction of pesticide use is the main
    goal, non-chemical methods are used wherever
    possible, leaving pesticides to be used only when
    absolutely necessary
  • Prevention is a key element of an IPM program
  • By monitoring the situation, action is taken only
    when necessary
  • A much more knowledge-intensive approach and
    places a premium on knowledge, planning, and
    marketing skills

115
IPM Advantages
  • Risk to people, animals, and the environment in
    general is reduced
  • Costs and liability that arise from pesticide
    application are reduced
  • Reduced pesticide use reduces the likelihood of
    new pesticide-resistant pests developing
    therefore, pesticides will remain effective for a
    longer time
  • It is the best long-term solution to pest
    problems and can reduce long-term pest control
    costs

116
IPM Requires
  • Prevention key element. Puts a premium on
    knowledge of landscape horticulture
  • Work with a solid landscape design that
    incorporates plant diversity / native plants
  • Use the right plant in the right place
  • Know and use pest-resistant plants and varieties
  • Use good cultural practices that will result in
    healthy plants
  • Use good plant health care practices

117
Constructing an IPM Program
  • 5 Steps
  • Pest identification
  • Monitoring pop. increases, climate, beneficials
  • Action decisions damage threshold, appearance
  • Treatments (Controls biological vs. chemical)-
    most effective for longest term / cost effective,
    least environmental impact
  • Evaluation assess records re-direct as needed

118
Licensing and Environmental Protection
  • Pollution and environmental responsibility are
    foremost
  • Manager responsible to be aware of the laws and
    requirements in region and to assure compliance
    with the local authority
  • Proficiency and continuing education is required
    in Labeling and Safety (proper use of PPE
    Personal Protective Equipment)

119
Licensing and Environmental Protection
  • The proper precautions taken to alert the public
    of potential danger
  • The proper protection to prevent entry to the
    treated area to protect public
  • Proper documentation in case of emergency
  • Precautions taken to prevent drift
  • Cleanup of equipment and PPE

120
Management and Logistics
  • Project An undertaking requiring concerted
    effort, defined beginning and end, uses resources
    specifically allocated to it, produces a unique
    outcome
  • Project management proper planning,
    implementation, and follow-up of projects
    critical to success
  • Good project management practices maximizes time
    and resources

121
Management and Logistics
  • 5 processes in project management
  • Initiating agreement by a client for whom the
    work is being done
  • Planning scope of the project identified,
    sequenced budgets and schedules are obtained.
  • Executing resources applied, leadership
    provided, special talent is obtained,
    stakeholders informed
  • Controlling monitoring progress, corrective
    action if needed, rescheduling, adding resources,
    problem solving
  • 5. Closing final completion tasks, getting
    acceptance of completion

122
Project Management and Logistics
  • General rules
  • Must have consensus on the expected results
  • Should build the best team they do the work
  • Must have comprehensive and viable plan that is
    kept up-to-date all informed
  • Must be accurate in the resources needed to
    complete the project
  • Realistic Scheduling
  • Solid leadership

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124
Management and Logistics Cont
  • Help keep everything on track use charts
  • Gantt Chart (aka project timeline)
  • Shows main tasks dates
  • A line on the chart shows the date each task
    starts and ends
  • Many tasks cannot be started until another one is
    completed
  • Aids in coordination of multiple projects

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126
Management and Logistics Cont
  • For large projects/complex tasks - a critical
    path must be determined sequence of tasks that
    forms the longest durations of the project
  • 1 task delay on path then the whole project may
    be delayed

127
Management and Logistics Large Projects
  • The critical path will be different for different
    projects
  • Necessary to clearly show and communicate each
    plan to the staff that will be involved in
    completing the project
  • Process called PERT (Program Evaluation and
    Review Technique) tool / plan schedule
    designed for large projects
  • Max. efficiency

128
Management and Logistics Cont
  • A line representing actual progress against
    planned progress will visually show everyone
    involved what is happening and what are the
    consequences of not getting tasks done on time
  • Helps to keep the clients up-to-date as well
  • For creating charts a program equivalent to
    Microsoft Excel may be sufficient

129
Types of Landscape Contracts
  • Services that are likely to be covered by
    contracts
  • Design
  • Supply
  • Installation
  • Maintenance

130
Types of Landscape Contracts
  • Design, supply and installation cover short-term
    projects - completed in short time frame,
  • Maintenance can be longer period of time
  • Some contracts cover two or all three services
  • In a formal or informal manner, they must
    identify who, agrees to do what, when and
    indicate the provisions that apply to both parties

131
Types of Landscape Contracts
  • For projects under 100,000 an informal letter
    agreement, as opposed to a formal contract, works
    best.

132
Landscape Contracts
  • The letter of agreement can take the form of an
    offer, which is accepted, for example, by the
    homeowners when they sign and return a copy of
    the letter
  • Signatures from all parties should be obtained
    makes all responsible for payment
  • Offer should include an expiration date

133
Landscape Contracts Include
  • A reference to established product/service
    standards clearly fixes the level or expectations
    and is beneficial if legal problems arise, term,
    payment schedule
  • Dates and amounts of payments can be incorporated
    as can a provision that any changes to the work
    must be agreed on in writing
  • Any other details to be agreed on in writing

134
Landscape Contracts Include
  • The right of termination by either party must be
    included and can be specified to take place at
    the end of any calendar year with three months
    notice

135
So go out and do it, do it professionally, and
do yourselves and the exterior landscape
industry proud!
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