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Title: This is the online version of a


1
Welcome
  • This is the online version of a
  • presentation given by Dr Keith Merritt
  • addressing diet, exercise and weight
  • control for women. A great deal of the
  • information in this presentation comes
  • from the book In Defense of Food by
  • Michael Pollan- a highly recommended,
  • easy enjoyable read.

2
  • At times during this presentation you
  • may ask yourself what does this have
  • to do with weight control. I ask for
  • your patience hopefully it will make
  • sense as a whole. If you want to jump
  • straight to the rules go to slide 171.
  • Enjoy.

3
  • Human life is precious and fleeting
  • Hard to obtain and easy to destroy
  • -Kalu Rinpoche

4
Be careful about reading health books, you may
die of a misprint
  • -Mark Twain

5
It just is not fair!!!
  • Pregnancy related weight gain
  • Then more weight gain with menopause
  • Obesity related cancers
  • Women now burn the candle at both ends

6
What to do?
  • Cut back on something?- carbs, fats, protein?
  • Become a vegetarian?
  • Cabbage diet, Rice diet?
  • South Beach, Atkins, Glycemic impact diets?
  • Liposuction, gastric bypass?
  • Pills, pills and more pills?
  • Hcg injections?
  • Ill just stop eating for a few weeks?
  • Eat more olive oil or maybe less olive oil?
  • Is soy the magic food?

7
I AM SO CONFUSED!!!!!
8
Remember
9
Weight is just an energy balance
  • Food- the only possible energy input
  • Exercise- least energy use in most people
  • - will increase your basal
    metabolic rate
  • Basal Metabolic Rate- major user of energy

10
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
  • Calories burned to keep your basic body
  • functions running while you are at rest
  • Energy burned for such things as heart beat,
  • body heat, brain activity, transport of
    materials
  • into and out of cells, etc
  • However, the greatest user of energy at rest is
  • the calories burned to maintain muscle
  • The lowest user is body fat
  • A low BMR was historically a survival advantage

11
  • From the very beginning of life on
  • this planet, it has been all about
  • having enough energy to make
  • life run

12
  • 4.5 billion years of trial error has
  • produced the finely tuned machine
  • known as the human being

13
  • Designed to be in complete balance
  • and harmony with the environment
  • from which and by which it was
  • sculpted

14
  • This machine has thousands of
  • enzymes, hormones and neural
  • circuits designed specifically to
  • prevent starvation

15
  • And absolutely none to prevent
  • obesity
  • (not an issue until modern times)

16
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17
  • No other animal needs someone to tell it how to
    eat

18
So
  • How did we, the most knowledgeable,
  • wealthy and powerful group of mammals to
  • inhabit this planet in the past 300 million
  • years, get ourselves into such a mess?

19
  • We have become disconnected from a very
  • deep well of wisdom that was accumulated
  • through generations of trial, error, challenge
  • and suffering. The repository of this wisdom
  • has been mankinds cultures, philosophies and
  • religions.

20
Diet has been disrupted by
  • Science
  • Nutritionism
  • Food industry
  • Modern agriculture

21
Lets start with the Lipid Hypothesis of heart
disease
  • Based on observation of decreased heart disease
    during WW II
  • Original recommendation was simply to decrease
    meat dairy consumption

22
  • This, of course, led to intense lobbying efforts
  • by the meat dairy industries
  • As a result, the simple and logical
  • recommendation of decreasing meat and dairy
  • consumption was changed to a war on fat
  • (fat has no lobby)

23
  • The result was a 30 year effort to reform
  • the nations food supply
  • REMOVED DIETARY AUTHORITY FROM
  • CULTURE AND FROM MOMS KITCHEN

24
However,
  • Proponents of the lipid hypothesis seemed
  • to ignore other WW II lifestyle changes
  • Decreased smoking
  • Decreased sugar
  • Decreased total calories
  • Increased fish, vegetables and fruit
  • Increased exercise

25
Now 40 years into this massive public health
experiment
  • It appears that the lipid hypothesis is
  • most likely invalid
  • (sorry about that)

26
Bulk of Evidence
  • Total amount of fat in our diet has little
  • bearing on obesity heart disease risk
  • Little evidence supporting any benefit of
  • saturated fats being replaced with
  • polyunsaturated fats
  • -may actually be harmful

27
Mildly unhealthy saturated fats were replaced
with lethal trans fats
  • That margarine you were told to substitute
  • for butter was high in trans fats
  • Using vegetable oil for frying (fast foods)
  • also produces trans fats
  • As it turns out, not all saturated fats
  • increase your cholesterol

28
Saturated Fats
  • Only chain lengths 12, 14 16 increase serum
    cholesterol
  • The worst is myristic acid (fat) (14)
  • -high in coconut palm oil (baked goods)
  • Stearic acid (fat) (18) lowers cholesterol
  • -one of the fats in meat

29
What is certain
  • The increased carbohydrates in low fat
  • foods have increased obesity

30
Still
  • The most important aspect of fat in our diet
    today
  • may actually be the large change in the ratio of
  • essential fatty acids in meat and dairy products
  • due to changing the cattles diet from grazing to
  • grain based feeds
  • -omega-3 omega-6 fatty acids
  • The same is true for chickens and eggs

31
Next- Nutritionism
  • Food has been reduced to a mere delivery
  • system for nutrients
  • There is a near priesthood of experts
  • Has caused a war of the macronutrients
  • -fats vs carbs vs protein
  • Has given rise to a near endless stream of
  • snake oils, diet gurus confusion

32
  • Wild swings in the national food pendulum
  • -created food fads and phobias
  • -divided foods into good vs bad

33
Fake foods billed as being better for You
  • The 1938 Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act was
  • repealed in 1973
  • - This act had required fake foods such as
  • margarine to be labeled as fake
  • Otherwise, a very large number of foods
  • in the grocery store would now be labeled as
  • fake food
  • -low fat, low carb, high fiber, heart
    healthy, etc

34
Finally, the past century in US food production
has been devoted to quantity over quality
  • However, cheaper food is building a very
  • large unpaid health care debt

35
The greatest beneficiary of the 36 billion food
industry
  • The 250 billion pharmaceutical industry

36
Americans Have the Cheapest Food Costs in the
World
  • Both in time invested in preparing the meals in
    cost of the food
  • 1960 food 18 of our income
  • health care 6
  • 2009 food 10
  • health care 16

37
The modern Western Diet supplies foods that are
  • Cheap
  • High calorie
  • Depleted of nutrition
  • KILLING OUR POPULATION

38
  • When your gods die, you die. For you live by
    them.
  • -Antoine Saint Exupery

39
Historically diet has been a central part of
every culture
  • Healthy diets evolved over thousands of years
    through a lot of trial and error
  • Only the foods and food combinations
  • that maximized the health of the group
  • were kept as part of the culture

40
  • Why Diet Should Belong to
  • Culture

41
  • Even the most simple food is a complicated
    maze of chemicals that act in concert with each
    other and with those of other foods

42
  • How we digest, absorb and process the
  • components of foods is incredibly
  • complicated and mysterious

43
  • Whole foods and food combinations behave very
    differently than their individual components

44
Nutritionism and food science seek the magic
nutrients
  • To fortify the refined foods they were
  • removed from
  • To sell as supplements
  • Blind men describing an elephant

45
Im on two diets
  • Just one doesnt give me
  • enough to eat

46
Weight Loss Diets DO NOT WORK
  • Metabolic imbalance does permanent
  • damage to you
  • No long term difference between low fat
  • diet, low carb diet and no diet

47
  • Any weight lost will be regained when you
  • stop your diet resume your previous
  • lifestyle
  • (which you will)

48
Each cycle of weight loss becomes more
difficult
  • Metabolically demanding muscle that is lost
  • with dieting is replaced by fat when the
  • weight is regained
  • (which it will be)

49
Any machine that is misused will break
50
The Human Machine
  • Designed to

51
  • Be adaptable creative
  • -survive and evolve to be in balance with
  • changing environments
  • Work hard physically for its survival
  • Eat the foods naturally occurring in its
    environment
  • Have a sense of wonder and connection

52
It was not designed to
53
  • Be sedentary
  • Eat sugar and high-fructose corn syrup
  • Eat trans fats
  • Eat diets high in omega-6 fatty acids
  • Eat vegetables grown in depleted soils and picked
    before they are ripe
  • Eat refined processed foods
  • Eat grain fed antibiotic raised beef, dairy and
    eggs
  • Consume pesticides growth hormones
  • Be disconnected from the environment

54
  • When healthy people living in isolated,
  • Proven cultures such as the aborigines
  • are exposed to our lifestyle and diet they
  • develop our obesity and our diseases

55
  • Fortunately, when they return to their
  • Culturally based diets and lifestyle their
  • weight returns to normal and most of
  • their diseases such as hypertension and
  • diabetes are reversed

56
High Sugar Intake
  • Makes you obese
  • Poisons your pancreas and your insulin receptors
  • Contributes to becoming insulin resistant
  • Directly contributes to heart disease
  • -effect greater in women than in men
  • Most likely increases cancer risk

57
  • The USDA food pyramid allows up to 25
  • of our calories to be from sugar while the
  • World Health Organization has placed the
  • limit at 10

58
  • The previous administration, under pressure
  • from the sugar producers, was pressuring
  • the WHO to increase its sugar intake limit to
  • 25 thereby export more of our obesity
  • to the world

59
The problem with simple carbs
  • Sugar and refined flour cause a rapid rise in
  • your blood sugar
  • -this rise is measured as glycemic index
  • Your body responds with a rapid insulin spike
  • -rapidly lowers your blood sugar
  • -soon makes you feel hungry and tired

60
  • Unless the energy is either immediately
  • used or the energy stores in your liver and
  • muscle need to be replenished, the glucose
  • from these foods is converted into long-term
  • storage- FAT

61
  • Neither your pancreas nor your body were
  • designed for exposure to frequent, large
  • amounts of simple carbs such as sugar and
  • refined flour (and therefore insulin surges)
  • Remember, insulin is also a growth factor
  • making it a potential factor in heart disease
  • and cancer

62
Whole foods with a low glycemic index make you
feel full more quickly for longer
63
Diet cannot be separated from lifestyle
64
Mediterranean Diet
  • More of a lifestyle than a diet
  • Considered one of the healthiest
  • traditional lifestyles
  • Modeled after Greek Orthodox community
  • on the island of Crete in the 1950s
  • Physical labor and religious fasts were central
    to their lifestyle

65
Mediterranean Lifestyle/diet
  • http//www.mayoclinic.com/health/mediterranean-die
    t/CL00011
  • http//www.mediterraneandiet.com/
  • http//www.oldwayspt.org/med_pyramid.html
  • http//www.webmd.com/diet/features/the-mediterrane
    an-diet
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mediterranean_diet

66
It takes more than just adding olive oil
  • Hard physical labor
  • Frequent fasting
  • Lots of wild greens
  • No refined foods
  • Whole grains, vegetables fruit
  • Minimizing sugar based deserts red meat
  • FAR FEWER CALORIES

67
While we are near Greece
  • Three sayings of the Oracle of Delphi were
  • considered to be so important in ancient
    Greece
  • that they were carved into the base of the
  • Temple of Apollo
  • In a way, the Oracle was an expression
  • of 200,000 years of modern human suffering,
  • wisdom tradition

68
  • 1st saying of the Oracle

69
sea?t??
  • Know thyself

70
Same wisdom is found within the Judeo-Christian
Tradition
  • But if you do not know yourselves, then
  • you dwell in poverty, and you are poverty
  • -Gospel of Thomas, 3

71
We Have Become
  • The United States of Obesity

72
Americans are committing sedentary suicide
  • Sharp rise in inactivity
  • Careless food consumption
  • Sharp decline in cost in quality of food

73
HEALTH CONSEQUENCES
  • Death- reduced only with loss of the excess body
    fat
  • Diabetes
  • Arthritis
  • Birth Defects
  • Breast Cancer- 16 of increase is from obesity
  • Endometrial Cancer- Obesity is 50 of risk
  • Heart Attack and Stroke- more than with men
  • Gallbladder disease
  • Infertility
  • Complications of pregnancy and in surgery
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Discrimination, unemployment, damaged self esteem

74
The 1970s were a turning point
  • Government endorsement of low fat diet
  • Repeal of of artificial foods labeling law
  • Changes in US agricultural policies
  • -subsidized wheat, corn soy beans
  • High fructose corn syrup mass marketing
  • Food pyramid designed to market US farm products
    not for public health

75
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76
Body Mass Index
  • Important for understanding risk
  • Ratio of weight to height
  • http//www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/
  • -BMI calculator
  • BMI over 25 considered overweight
  • over 30 is obese
  • over 40 is morbidly obese

77
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78
  • 2nd saying of the Oracle

79
µ?d?? ??a?
  • Nothing in excess

80
  • A false balance is an abomination to the lord,
    but a just balance is his delight
  • -Proverbs 111

81
BALANCE
82
BALANCE IN NATURE
  • Not a static condition
  • A continual changing
  • Constantly adjusting to the shifting flow
  • of circumstances

83
BALANCE
  • When reflexive it is experienced as
  • stillness in the center of motion
  • That is when an organism lives as it
  • is designed to live, that organism lives
  • a life with less stress and less disease

84
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85
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86
Nature will always balance the books
87
Debts to nature will always come due
  • (with interest)

88
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89
Patient Quotes
  • I dont have enough time to eat healthy
  • Ive got too much going on to worry about
  • balancing my life

90
A man too busy to take care of his health is
like a mechanic too busy to take care of his
tools -Spanish proverb
91
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92
  • One key concept of the Philosophy of Zen
  • is holding the balance of the opposites
  • Interestingly, this is similar to the medical
  • principle of homeostasis

93
HOMEOSTASIS
  • A medical term
  • An absolute requirement for good health
  • A balance held within you that is produced
  • by the tension between opposing systems
  • within you

94
Homeostasis
  • A constantly shifting tug-of-war between opposite
  • forces within multiple body systems that keep you
  • in a healthy and stable range of functioning
  • Temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, mood,
  • sleep, hormone secretions, weight, etc

95
Homeostasis requires that the organism operate
within its design parameters
96
  • That is with the fuels, nutrients and
  • lifestyles designed, tested and
  • approved on the very long factory
  • floor of evolution

97
Illness occurs when any system within the
organism fails to remain in homeostasis
98
This happens when the organism attempts to
operate outside of its design limits
99
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100
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE HUMAN RACE
101
  • During the 500 million years of evolution
  • that produced most of our metabolic
  • machinery and for the first 90 of modern
  • human existence our nutrients and calories
  • were supplied though hunting and through
  • gathering a very large variety of plants
  • in the surrounding environment

102
  • This required that most of the individuals
  • time and effort be spent finding food
  • Required frequent use of muscles
  • Some essential nutrients were so rare
  • and often so dangerous to gather that
  • nature countered by giving us a strong
  • appetite for and attraction to them

103
Hunter Gatherer
  • Developed strong attraction to essential
  • but rare nutrients
  • Sugars - ultimate brain fuel
  • Salt - essential electrolyte
  • Fats - critical building block nutrient
  • - rich source of vitamins

104
  • There was no wasted baggage in the human
  • design meaning that every nerve, muscle
  • hormone, and enzyme fit together in an
  • intricate pattern in which the proper
  • functioning of every individual part
  • depended on the proper functioning of
  • every other part

105
  • That is, muscles were for more than show.
  • For the entire system to remain in balance
  • and therefore in good health, regular use
  • of the bodys muscles was (and is) as
  • important as regular use of the heart, gut,
  • liver, lungs and brain

106
  • Why is it that when we try to eat less we
  • want to eat more
  • To understand our powerful impulse to eat
  • we must understand the mind

107
  • The neural programs that give us our strong
  • attraction to fats, sugars and salt and that
  • direct us to consume calories whenever
  • they are available are housed within the
  • two primitive layers of our brains
  • Brainstem or reptilian brain
  • Limbic system or mammalian brain

108
The Human Brain
  • Evolved by layering new structures over
  • old, proven structures
  • Has three layers- a triune brain (a trinity)
  • -reptilian, mammalian neocortex
  • http//www.healing-arts.org/n-r-limbic.htm
  • http//thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/d/d_05/d_05_cr/d_0
    5_cr_her/d_05_cr_her.html

109
Reptilian Brain
  • First appeared 550 million years ago
  • Gives you your sense of needing to survive
  • Sense of territory and impulse for aggression
  • Impulse to acquire and possess
  • Fight or flight response to danger
  • Connected to all body systems by both hard wiring
  • and chemical signals
  • Makes your mouth dry, your stomach tight and your
  • heart beat fast
  • The conscious mind perceives as fear, anxiety,
  • anger and aggression

110
Mammalian Brain
  • First appeared 350 million years ago
  • Original purpose was differentiating those things
    in the
  • environment that were harmful from those that
    were
  • beneficial- an experiment of nature for
    survival
  • Evolved into drive for or attraction to things
    that are
  • pleasurable and to avoid those things that
    are not
  • The home of our emotions such as love, our
    parenting
  • instincts and our need for community
  • Developed into value judgments
  • -sense of right and wrong
  • Controls body functions such as hunger, thirst,
    body
  • temperature, lactation, ovulation, metabolic
    rate libido

111
Neocortex
  • The new kid on the block- still experimental
  • Our computer
  • Our ability for rational thought reasoning
  • Our sense of self
  • Our conscious mind
  • Ability to learn, remember and compare
  • Used by the primitive brain layers to carry out
  • their drives and impulses

112
Brain Psychology Equivalents
  • The primitive brain layers are home to
  • Our wants and our needs
  • Freuds id
  • Jungs collective subconscious
  • The part of ourselves that we need to know but
  • usually do not know fully
  • To varying degrees, every human struggles with
  • the same impulses, conflicts lack of insight

113
  • 3rd saying of the Oracle

114
????a p??a d'at?
  • Make a pledge and mischief is nigh

115
  • That is, simply trying to believe that you
  • either do not have or are not influenced
  • by these natural drives and impulses keeps
  • them in the shadows and thereby give
  • them more control over your conscious mind

116
  • Those things that you give up violently own
  • you forever
  • -Anthony De Mello, Awareness

117
Modern Human Brain
  • The thing that distinguishes us from our more
  • primitive ancestors is not just the increased
  • amount of grey matter or computing part of our
  • neocortex but also the amount of white matter in
  • our neocortex
  • White matter forms the communication pathways

118
Modern Human Brain
  • Our ancestors survived when other humans
  • perished in large part not just because they had
  • evolved a more powerful ability to reason,
  • remember compare but just as importantly
  • they evolved better lines of communication
  • between the conscious mind and the subconscious
  • needs and impulses within the primitive brain

119
  • This allowed an understanding of outcome and
  • consequence to override powerful urges and
  • drives from within the subconscious mind
  • This gave a definite survival advantage in a
    world
  • with rapidly changing weather patterns and
  • challenges and was a huge advantage for complex
  • activities such as organized hunting

120
Our Growth From Birth to Death
  • In large part is about building and opening
  • communication between these brain layers
  • At birth, we are pure Id- that is wants and needs
  • Growth requires that we have defeats and denial
    of our wants and needs
  • -marked most obviously by parents placing
  • boundaries during the terrible twos
  • Pathways not fully in place until around age 24
  • Life lessons continue this cycle of wants,
  • defeats, and growth (better communication)

121
  • This growth is known as wisdom
  • That is to gain wisdom, we must suffer
  • the outcomes of unrestrained impulses
  • Some require more suffering than others
  • to build these lines or pathways of
  • communication- some never do

122
  • All of us have some type of recurrent behavior(s)
  • that are ultimately harmful to us yet we seem to
  • have little control over them.
  • However, we each have some level of suffering
  • we are unwilling to endure at this point, if we
    are
  • honest with ourselves, we gain insight, know a
    part
  • of ourselves, and curb the behavior(s).

123
  • I have refined you but not in the way silver
  • is refined. Rather, I have refined you in the
  • furnace of suffering.
  • -Isaiah 4810

124
  • We usually perceive this important aspect of
    growth as a conflict between good and bad
  • Instead of understanding that this struggle is
  • a necessary part of opening a line of
  • communication between the conscious mind
  • and the unconscious impulses thereby
  • removing their control over the conscious
    mind
  • -changes it from a struggle to a partnership

125
  • When this happens we understand that what
  • we once saw as a struggle is actually a
  • tension of opposites that is simply one more
  • form of homeostasis

126
The Brains Homeostasis
  • Our neocortex provides the intelligence, memory
    and
  • planning needed to execute the needs drives
    of the
  • the subconscious, primitive brain
  • Without the urges, drives and emotions generated
  • by the subconscious mind we would be lifeless
    and
  • incapable of either making any decision or
    taking any
  • action e-motion energy of motion
  • When working together in balance the primitive
    brain
  • provides the motivation while the neocortex
    provides
  • the intelligence judgment for optimum benefit

127
So
  • What happened to screw it up so badly

128
Modern Humans originated in Africa 200,000 years
ago
  • http//www.pbs.org/newshour/indepth_coverage/scien
    ce/dna/timeline_flash.html
  • Produced by harsh changes in climate that
  • drove other early humans into extinction
  • Design was altered over time with subtle
  • variations to fit different climates as
  • humans migrated out of Africa- Races

129
Hunter Gatherer prior to 20,000 BC
  • Diet consisted of over 3000 species of plants and
    animals
  • That is, the human machine was designed
  • to consume a diet with a wide variety of
  • wild plants and animals
  • The limited supply of calories in an area
  • kept a natural limit on the population

130
Agriculture
  • Began around 10,000- 20,000 years ago
  • More reliable but less complex food supply
  • More free time
  • Explosion in number of humans on planet

131
  • A major change in the Human
  • food supply to which we are still
  • adjusting

132
But
  • Not as great as what came next

133
Industrialization of Agriculture
  • Roller grinding of wheat
  • (no wheat germ no nutrients)
  • Refined sugar
  • White rice

134
  • Shelf life of foods increased by removing
    nutrients
  • Resulted in malnutrition diseases
  • -scurvy, pellagra, beriberi,
  • birth defects, etc, etc

135
Early 20th Century explorers
  • Albert Sweitzer Dennis Burkitt- Africa
  • Samuel Hutton- Eskimos
  • Ales Hrdlicka- Native Americans
  • Weston Price- Peruvian Indians
  • Aborigines
  • Swiss Mountaineers
  • Australia, Africa

136
All documented
  • Isolated primitive native populations
  • thriving on a wide variety of diets
  • -seafood diets
  • -dairy diets
  • -meat diets
  • -diets high in fruits and vegetables

137
  • All had high consumption of animal fat
  • -animal fat prized
  • Least hardy were the Bantu of Africa
  • -agriculturalists

138
Western Diseases Were Rare
  • Obesity
  • Cancer
  • Heart disease
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Stroke
  • Appendicitis
  • Diverticulitis
  • Tooth decay
  • Varicose veins
  • Ulcers
  • Hemorrhoids
  • Depression

139
All reached same conclusion
  • Humans can thrive on a wide variety of diets but
    not on the western diet
  • THE WESTERN DIET CAUSES OBESITY AND CHRONIC
    ILLNESSES

140
  • Lengthening the food chain to fuel the
  • human population explosion broke the
  • balance of nature

141
The Western Diet
  • Highly refined foods
  • (refined depleted of nutrients)
  • Lots of sugar
  • Lots of grains legumes
  • Grain raised meat, dairy eggs
  • Fertilizer, pesticides,
  • Antibiotics, growth hormones

142
  • Evolution produces signals between
  • foods and the animals that eat them

143
  • The food industry has produced foods
  • designed specifically to deceive our
  • senses

144
Fast Foods Trinity
  • Sugar Salt
  • Fat

145
High Fructose Corn Syrup
  • 10 of our total calories
  • 2100 increase in intake
  • -parallels increase in obesity diabetes
  • High energy density
  • High glycemic index
  • Cheap omnipresent
  • TASTES GREAT

146
  • What you eat and how it is grown is the
  • most basic and important factor in your
  • overall health and wellbeing
  • A house built of straw vs a house of stone

147
Remember
148
Food Is a relationship that goes all the way back
to the soil
  • When the health of one part of the food
  • chain is affected the health of the rest of
  • the chain is affected

149
Healthy food needs healthy soil
  • Industrial fertilizers and insecticides have
  • simplified the biochemistry of the soil

150
  • Overlooks what the complex soil
  • ecosystem contributes to the plant and in
  • turn to the animal that is eating the plant
  • Less well nourished plants are more
  • vulnerable to disease pests

151
  • The animal that eats these plants is less
  • well nourished and more vulnerable to
  • disease
  • The animal that eats the animal that

152
Our diet has been dramatically simplified
  • US agricultural policy of 1970s
  • CORN, WHEAT, SOY
  • -extremely efficient at transforming
  • chemical fertilizer sunlight into calories

153
Human Design Factory Floor
  • 3000 species of food

154
Corn, Wheat Soy
  • Now 2/3s of our daily caloric intake
  • Can be broken down, refined
  • recombined into a range of value added
  • (fake) foods

155
Leafy vegetable consumption has plummeted
  • Western diet now revolves around a
  • handful of grains legumes
  • These grains and legumes can also be
  • profitably converted into meat, milk, eggs
  • processed foods though animal feeds

156
More Calories, Less Nutrition
  • Following change in agricultural policy in
  • 1970s, US agriculture produces 600 kcal
  • per day more for each person

157
  • 96 of this increase is from
  • -sugar
  • -vegetable oils
  • -refined grains

158
Our population is now overfed malnourished
159
  • The human machine is no longer operating
  • within its design parameters

160
For Example
161
Huge increase in ratio of essential fatty acids
  • Omega-6/omega-3
  • Humans designed for 11 ratio
  • 100 years ago was 31
  • Modern western diet 71

162
Essential Fatty Acids- Omega 63
  • Our bodies cannot make them
  • Critical in cell structure and signaling
  • between cells
  • Opposites in several critical aspects of
  • homeostasis

163
  • Grains legumes are high in omega-6
  • -Linoleic acid
  • Green leafy plants are high in omega-3
  • -Alpha-linolenic (sic) acid
  • Fatty, cold water is fish high in omega-3
  • -eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
  • -docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

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Be Aware
  • Farm raised (grain fed) fish such as the
  • salmon you find at most stores is high in
  • omega-6 fatty acid (not omega-3)
  • Fish high in omega-3 must be harvested
  • from the ocean (good source of mercury)

166
  • Omega- 3
  • http//www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/omega-3-00031
    6.htm
  • Omega- 6
  • http//www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstor
    y_74360.html

167
Impact of High Omega 6/3 Ratio
  • Decreased neurological development
  • function
  • Increased clotting
  • Increased inflammation

168
Diseases Due to Increased Ratio
  • Learning disabilities, ADHD, aggression
  • Heart Attack stroke
  • Mortality from all causes
  • Cancer
  • Asthma
  • Allergies

169
Use omega-3 supplements with caution
  • Remember the concept of homeostasis
  • Neither omega-3 nor omega-6 are good or
  • bad but are both required to act in balance
  • with opposite functions to keep us in the
  • middle of the road

170
Impact of Low Omega 6/3 Ratio
  • Less able to fight infection
  • - are supplements in the elderly safe?
  • Less able to heal
  • Less able to clot blood after injury
  • Less able to reduce impact of diabetes
  • alcohol abuse
  • Macular degeneration, prostate cancer

171
Will you please get to the point
  • Weight loss

172
GOALS
  • First stabilize- STOP GAINING!!!!!
  • A 5-15 weight loss is a realistic goal
  • -will reverse most medical risks

173
  • 15 or more loss is an extremely good
  • medical result
  • No more than ½ to 1 pound per week
  • -more is due to loss of muscle
  • -500 kcal/day 1 pound/week

174
How?
175
  • The only way we are going to reduce
  • disease is to go back to the diet and
  • lifestyle of our ancestors -Dr
    Dennis Burkitt
  • (Fat Chance)

176
So- What is a good consumer to do?
  • Become a vegetarian?
  • Reduce fats?
  • Reduce carbs?
  • Atkins, Zone, South Beach?
  • Take fish oil?
  • Paint ourselves with mud, get naked and
  • return to the bush?
  • (can I take my i-pod?)

177
Aaaarrrrrrrgghhhh!!!!
178
1st
179
You have to work your body
  • No excuse will be accepted

180
12,000 Kcal/day
  • Calories burned each day by famed
  • Olympic swimmer Michael Phelps
  • -vigorous exercise for 4 - 8 hours/day
  • -huge basal metabolic rate due to lots
  • of muscle and very little body fat
  • The rest of us typically need 2000 kcal/day

181
But Im too busy to exercise
  • So what fits better into your busy schedule,
  • exercising one hour each day or being
  • dead twenty-four hours each day

182
Start Slow and Build
  • If you do too much too soon you
  • may hurt yourself
  • When you are comfortable at one
  • level then increase time intensity
  • Get obsessed and stay obsessed

183
Build exercise Into daily activities
  • Take the stairs
  • -your mammalian brain tells you to
  • take the escalator
  • Park at the far end of the parking lot
  • Chop wood, carry water, carry groceries
  • Plant a garden by hand
  • -a tough row to hoe a great workout
  • -may return your sense of connection

184
  • When the cool evening breezes were
  • blowing, the man and his wife heard the
  • Lord God walking about in the garden
  • -Genesis 38

185
Daily exercise does not justify
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2nd
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189
Beware of the Traps!!!
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  • FAT
  • SUGAR
  • SALT

192
To avoid the traps
  • Three simple rules and one corollary

193
Do not eat junk/fast food
194
Do not eat junk/fast food
195
Do not eat junk/fast food
196
EVER
197
A Sucker is Born Every Minute
  • Diet pills
  • Diet supplements
  • Diet drinks
  • Diet root extracts
  • Hcg injections
  • Fat blockers
  • Fat burners
  • Get thin while you sleep- (however, true when
  • you increase muscle mass with exercise)

198
3rd
199
Do your best to escape the Western Diet
  • Takes some effort thought due to our
  • treacherous food environment
  • Try to stop thinking as a nutritionist

200
  • Instead, separate foods into
  • whole vs processed

201
But, be careful
  • The food industry has invaded whole foods
  • -grain raised meat, milk eggs
  • -growth hormones
  • -pesticides
  • -antibiotics
  • Read labels, research the companies

202
The food chain all its links are truly
connected interdependent
  • From the health of the soil to the plant to the
    animal to the mind, body spirit of the
    consumer
  • -Michael Pollan

203
  • A purely secular approach to diet and
  • lifestyle produced

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  • EAT FOOD MOSTLY PLANTS
    NOT TOO MUCH

206
  • While a sectarian approach based purely on
  • biblical scripture led to

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  • Similar recommendations

209
EAT FOOD
210
EAT FOOD
  • Dont eat anything your great
  • grandmother would not recognize as food

211
EAT FOOD
  • Avoid processed food products with
  • ingredients that are
  • -unfamiliar
  • -unpronounceable
  • -more than 5 in number
  • -contain high-fructose corn syrup

212
EAT FOOD
  • Avoid food products making health claims
  • -low carb
  • -low fat
  • -high fiber
  • -heart healthy
  • (Fruits Vegetables make no health claims)

213
EAT FOOD
  • Do most of your grocery store shopping on
  • the periphery of the store minimize your
  • shopping in the middle of the store
  • -whole foods, for the most part, are on the
  • outer edge of the store
  • -processed foods tend to live in the middle

214
EAT FOOD
  • When possible, get out of the supermarket
  • -farmers market
  • -community supported agriculture (CSAs)
  • -Jackson Brothers
  • -Baldwin Beef in Yanceyville, NC
  • http//www.baldwinbeef.com/shop/pc/home.asp

215
Plant a Garden
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MOSTLY PLANTS
  • (Note the word mostly)

217
MOSTLY PLANTS
  • Universal agreement that plants are good
  • for you
  • -antioxidants, fiber, micronutrients,
  • omega-3
  • With the exception of grains and legumes,
  • you can eat a lot and not worry about
  • gaining weight

218
Be Aware
219
You are what you eat eats too
220
Principle of Organic Gardening
Nutrient rich, healthy soil
Nutrient rich, healthy foods
221
Animals raised on grazing have
  • omega-6 omega-3 of 11
  • lower saturated fat
  • more antioxidants and vitamins
  • no antibiotics
  • no pesticides

222
MOSTLY PLANTS
  • Buy a freezer if you can
  • -does not affect nutritional value like
  • canning does
  • The more variety the better
  • -remember the 3000 club

223
Eat wild foods when you can
  • Important part of Mediterranean diet
  • Wild plants must fend for themselves
  • making them high in antioxidants,
  • omega-3 and micronutrients

224
Resources for wild plants
  • http//www.thelivingweb.net/ediblewildplants.html
  • http//www.wildfoodadventures.com/northcarolina.ht
    ml
  • Look for lambs quarters and perslain
  • -common edible weeds in your garden
  • BE CAREFUL- some plants are poisonous

225
NOT TOO MUCH
  • (How to eat)

226
To lengthen thy life, lessen thy meals
  • -Benjamin Franklin

227
Okinowans
  • Among the healthiest, longest living
  • people on the planet
  • Hara hachi bu- eat until you are 80 full

228
The French Paradox
  • High fat meals
  • Alcohol
  • Yet the French have
  • -very little obesity
  • -much less disease

229
But, the French eat very differently than we do
  • Seldom snack
  • Meal time is shared with others
  • Smaller portions
  • Spend much more time eating their meals
  • Wine with meals in moderation
  • Seconds are taboo

230
  • Fewer calories
  • YET
  • More enjoyment

231
Better food requires fewer calories
  • Do we eat more in the Western Diet in an
  • attempt to find the nutrients that are
  • missing from our foods?

232
Benefits of paying more for better foods
  • Eat less
  • Enjoy more
  • Better health

233
EAT MEALS
  • We are snacking more than ever
  • Rare to ever be very far away from food
  • -at work
  • -gas station
  • -vending machines
  • -refrigerators in cars!!!!!

234
Do all your eating at the table
  • Not in front of the TV or computer
  • Fewer fewer families are sharing meals

235
  • Processed individual,
  • microwavable entrees mean
  • mom doesnt have to cook and
  • each family member can eat
  • what they want on their on schedule
  • (hurrahhhh for technology)

236
Get a good night sleep
  • When sleep deprived your body makes a
  • hormone that increases your appetite
  • When well rested your body makes a
  • hormone that suppresses your appetite

237
  • If you snack at night be aware
  • of the glycemic index
  • -consider a glass of milk, yogurt, or fruit
  • instead of pie, cookies, or ice cream which
  • will make you wake and eat again later

238
  • Dont fuel your body at the same place you fuel
    your car

239
Try not to eat alone
240
Consult your gut not the portion size
241
Eat slowly (mindful eating)
  • Be appreciative of the gift of food
  • It takes 20 minutes for your brain to get the
  • signal from your gut that you have eaten
  • enough- so slow down

242
Cook
  • And if possible, plant a garden
  • You know where the ingredients came
  • from and what is in what you are eating
  • Involve the whole family

243
Have a glass of wine with dinner
  • Not a bottle (µ?d?? ??a? )
  • Seems to help the French
  • Resveratrol- an antioxident in wine
  • -however- beware of seeking this as a
  • supplement- dont fall into the trap of
  • nutritionists and pharmaceuticals
  • -present in grapes (especially wild grapes)

244
Eat wild game when you can
245
Consider traditional diets
246
http//www.okinawaprogram.com/
http//www.wellnessletter.com/html/wl/2001/wlFeatu
red0901.html
http//www.okicent.org/
http//www.wonder-okinawa.jp/026/e/phi_4.html
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Regard nontraditional diets with skepticism
  • May be acceptable after 50,000 years of trial
    error adjustment
  • Be careful with soybeans
  • -in 70 of processed foods
  • -common in fast foods
  • -not true that Asians traditionally ate a lot
    of soy
  • (10 grams/day of fermented soy)
  • -may block absorption of other nutrients

249
85/15 Rule for your transition
  • 85 of the time eat a healthy diet
  • 15 of the time is for treats
  • Pair your treat with some protein or fat to lower
    the insulin spike (cheese, nuts)
  • Dark chocolate- antioxidants, less sugar
  • Hold mindful enjoyment of the moment
  • Tall glass of water and lime before after

250
  • At each and every moment of our lives we
  • are each the sum of our previous choices
  • of the choices of those before us
  • The next choice is yours
  • Thank you for your time and patience

251
He who learns must suffer. And even in our sleep
pain that cannot forget falls drop by drop upon
the heart, and in our own despair, against our
will, comes wisdom to us by the awful grace of
God. Aechylus (RFK Tombstone)
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