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Introduction to Research Chapter 1

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Introduction to Research Chapter 1 KNES 510 Research Methods in Kinesiology * Research and Truth There is no truth! Separation of science, philosophy and religion ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Research Chapter 1


1
Introduction to ResearchChapter 1
  • KNES 510
  • Research Methods in Kinesiology

2
Research and Truth
  • There is no truth!
  • Separation of science, philosophy and religion
  • Aristotle, Plato, Socrates
  • Einstein-dice

3
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4
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5
Nature of Research
  • Systematic plan, identify, design, collect
    data, evaluate
  • Logical examine procedures to evaluate
    conclusions
  • Empirical decisions are based on data
    (observation)
  • Reductive general relationships are established
    from data
  • Replicable actions are recorded

6
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7
Unscientific Methods of Problem Solving
  • Tenacity
  • Intuition
  • Authority
  • The rationalistic method
  • The empirical method

8
Scientific Method of Problem Solving
  • Step 1 develop the problem (define and delimit
    it)
  • identify independent and dependent variables
  • Step 2 formulate the hypotheses
  • the anticipated outcome
  • Step 3 gather data
  • maximize internal and external validity
  • Step 4(5) analyze and interpret results

9
Applied Research
  • Montoya BS, Brown LE, Coburn JW, Zinder SM.
    Effect of warm-up with different weighted bats on
    normal baseball bat velocity. Journal of Strength
    and Conditioning Research. 23(5)1566-1569, 2009.
  • Step 1 develop the problem
  • identify independent and dependent variables
  • Step 2 formulate the hypotheses
  • the anticipated outcome
  • Step 3 gather data
  • maximize internal and external validity
  • Step 4(5) analyze and interpret results

10
Basic vs. Applied Research
  • Basic research type of research that may have
    limited direct application but in which the
    researcher has careful control of the conditions
  • Applied research type of research that has
    direct value to practitioners but in which the
    researcher has limited control over the research
    setting

11
Continuum of Basic vs. Applied Research
  • Level IBasic research
  • Goal Theory-driven
  • Approach Laboratory
  • Level IIModerate relevance
  • Goal Theory-based using relevant movements
  • Approach Similar to real-world task or setting
  • Level IIIApplied research
  • Goal Immediate solutions
  • Approach Real-world settings

12
Experimental vs. Nonexperimental Research
  • Experimental research
  • Treatments are given to subjects
  • Cause-and-effect questions
  • Nonexperimental research
  • Treatments are not given to subjects
  • Participants are observed as they naturally exist

13
Experimental vs. Causal-Comparative Studies
  • Researchers may not be able to conduct
    experimental research due to ethical or legal
    concerns, etc.
  • Examples
  • physical activity and heart disease
  • anabolic-androgenic steroids and liver cancer

14
Experimental vs. Causal-Comparative Studies,
contd
  • Steps in causal-comparative (ex post facto)
    studies
  • Observe and describe some current condition
  • Look to the past to determine cause(s)

15
Types of Nonexperimental Research
  • Causal-comparative
  • Survey (poll)
  • Sample vs. census
  • Case study
  • Longitudinal
  • Correlational
  • Historical

16
Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
  • Quantitative data are gathered such that they
    can be quantified and subjected to statistical
    analysis
  • Qualitative data are gathered such that they
    can be analyzed through informed judgment

17
Quan vs. Qual
18
Variables in Experimental Studies
  • Independent variable
  • Variable that is manipulated (treatment is
    administered)
  • Dependent variable
  • Effect of the independent variable
  • Simplest study has one independent variable and
    one dependent variable

19
Variables in Experimental Studies, contd
  • Effect of Isocaloric CHO vs. CHO-Pro Supplements
    on Time-to-Exhaustion (Kristy L. Richardson,
    Masters thesis, CSUF)
  • A 2 x 2, time (first test to exhaustion, second
    test to exhaustion) x supplement (CHO vs.
    CHO-Pro), repeated measures ANOVA was used to
    compare the difference in time-to-exhaustion

20
CSUF Department of KinesiologyDescription of
Thesis
  • Thesis written product of a systematic study of
    a significant problemThe finished product
    evidences originality, critical and independent
    thinking, appropriate organization and format,
    and thorough documentation
  • Creates new knowledge, extends existing knowledge

21
CSUF Department of KinesiologyDescription of
Thesis
  • Format of thesis
  • Five-chapter format
  • Introduction
  • Review of Literature
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • References
  • Tables and figures

22
CSUF Department of KinesiologyDescription of
Thesis
  • Journal format
  • Similar to traditional format with some
    differences (i.e., the review of literature is
    part of the appendices)
  • Thesis committee one chairperson and two
    members
  • Use of human subjects requires submission of
    application to the CSUF Institutional Review
    Board (IRB) prior to collecting data

23
CSUF Department of KinesiologyDescription of
Project
  • Project disseminates theoretical material for
    the practitioner or layperson in a given field
  • Project committee project chairperson and one
    committee member
  • Typically in the form of a manual, brochure,
    videotape, handbook, etc.
  • In addition to the project, a written review of
    literature is required

24
CSUF Department of KinesiologyDescription of
Thesis and Project
  • Proposal-intro, summary of lit review, methods
    and stats (slides)
  • Defense-same as above with results, discussion,
    tables and figures

25
CSUF Department of KinesiologyDescription of
Comp Exam
  • Comprehensive exam provides the student with
    the opportunity to synthesize and articulate the
    knowledge acquired throughout the graduate
    education and helps in preparing the student for
    his or her chosen profession

26
CSUF Department of KinesiologyDescription of
Comp Exam
  • The student is required to complete the written
    comprehensive examination in the major area of
    academic concentration and minor
  • The examination will be 3 hours in length for the
    major and 1 ½ hours for the minor
  • The faculty member responsible for the specific
    section determines the number of questions
  • One question examining research design and/or
    statistics is included in the major area

27
CSUF Department of KinesiologyDescription of
Comp Exam
  • If all committee members are satisfied with
    written portion, a 90 minute oral exam is
    scheduled at least two weeks after written
  • Further questioning on major/minor areas and
    statistics research design

28
Next Class
  • Chapter 2
  • Get an article for your lit review
  • Print out entire article
  • Write (one page)
  • Abstract
  • Problem
  • Hypothesis
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