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Managing Small Group Instruction to Ensure Successful Readers

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Managing Small Group Instruction to Ensure Successful Readers Kristi L. Santi, Ph.D. The University of Texas Houston Center for Academic and Reading Skills – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Managing Small Group Instruction to Ensure Successful Readers


1
Managing Small Group Instruction to Ensure
Successful Readers

Kristi L. Santi, Ph.D. The University of Texas
Houston Center for Academic and Reading
Skills Kristi.L.Santi_at_uth.tmc.edu http//cars.uth.
tmc.edu
2
Objectives
  • Components of Effective Reading
  • Overview of Differentiated Instruction
  • Establishing Routines
  • Grouping Procedures
  • Work Stations

3
Activation Profiles during Word Reading of Older
Children
4
Left
Right
Before Intervention
After Intervention
5
Reading Time
Whole-Group Reading Instruction
Small-Group Instruction Same Ability
Collaborative Groups Pairs/Partners Work Station
Routines
Peer-Assisted Reading
Whole-Group Review
6
Teacher Training
Curriculum Aligned with Assessment
A key to a successful prevention and
intervention model resides in good teacher
training.
Curriculum content must be based on assessment
objectives.
Student Success
Features of Effective Instruction
A Reading Model for Prevention and Intervention
Assessing student progress, using assessment data
to design instruction, and using a variety of
grouping practices are necessary to meet
instructional needs.
7
Components of Effective Reading Instruction
Assess Student Progress
8
Assessing Student Progress
  • First Step
  • Collect assessment data at the beginning of the
    year.
  • Key to Success
  • Monitor progress by collecting assessment data
    frequently across the year.

9
Purpose of Assessment
Identifies need for support
1. Screening
Validates need for Instructional support
2. Diagnostic
Guides classroom Instruction and support
3. Progress Monitoring
Determines student progress toward benchmarks
10
Why Assessment?
  • Knowing why a student is struggling is key to
    knowing how to help them.
  • David Tilly 2006

11
Teaching the Test
  • When testing, teachers should view the assessment
    as a tool to assist with instructional planning.
  • Gains made by teaching the test
  • are not ability gains
  • will not predict to other outcomes
  • will not generalize to other tests measuring the
    same ability
  • Inferences about test scores will be invalid

12
Linking SBRR Assessments to Instruction
13
The Reading Pillar
Skilled Reading
Comprehension
Speed and ease of reading text
Conceptual Knowledge/vocabulary Strategic
processing of text
Fluency
Word Recognition
Print Awareness Letter Knowledge Motivation to
Read Oral Language including Phonological
Awareness
Decoding using alphabetic principal Decoding
using other cues Sight Recognition
Emergent Reading
14
Reading Instruction Components of Effective
Decisions Based on Data
15
Data-Based Decision Making
  • Planning the content of daily instruction based
    on frequent, ongoing assessment data
  • Grouping and regrouping students based on shared
    needs observed from data

16
Matching Text to Readers
  • Instructional and independent levels are based on
    an individual students reading ability
  • What instructional and independence for one
    student may not be instructional or independence
    for another student in the same classroom

17
Components of Effective Reading Instruction
18
Why Differentiate Instruction?
  • The range of reading ability in a typical
    classroom is about five years and is more
    academically diverse than anytime in history.
  • Kameenui Carnine, 1998 Mathes, Torgesen,
    Menchetti, Santi, Nicholas, Robinson, Grek,
    2003

19
Instructional Context forDifferent Learners
  • During typical reading instruction, students
    spend 70 of their time passively watching and
    listening to others.
  • Students spend only a small fraction of their
    time reading.
  • Poorest readers typically receive the least
    reading instruction.
  • OSullivan, Yssledyke, Christensen, Thurlow,
    1990 Grek, 2000 Vaughn, Moody, Schumm, 1998
    Allington McGill-Franzen, 1989 Stanovich, 1986

20
Concept of Definition Map
What is it?
Nonexamples
Examples
Differentiated Instruction
What is it like?
21
Concept of Definition Map
  • With your partner, write your own definition of
    differentiated instruction.
  • Brainstorm examples of how a teacher might
    differentiated instruction.
  • Brainstorm examples that do NOT depict
    differentiated instruction.
  • Identify synonyms that describe what
    differentiated instruction is like.

22
Concept of Definition Map
What is it?
Examples
Nonexamples
Teaching students according to their individual
needs.
Teaching targeted small groups Flexible grouping
patterns Using assessment data to plan
instruction Matching text level to student
ability Independent projects tailored to student
ability
Whole class instruction Small groups that never
change (tracking) All students reading same
text Same independent seatwork assignments to
entire class
Differentiated Instruction
What is it like?
  • Data-based instruction
  • Individualized instruction
  • Scaffolding

23
What isDifferentiated Instruction?
  • Varying instructions to meet the needs of all
    students within the same classroom
  • Taking students where they are and moving them
    forward
  • Flexibly grouping and regrouping students
    according to shared needs and abilities

24
The Academic Continuum
25
Differentiation Acceleration
  • If students leave third grade behind on reading
    they probably will never catch up.
  • Reading progress is accelerated when reading
    instruction is matched to the students needs.
  • Torgesen Mathes, 1998 Juel 1988 Torgesen
    Burgess, 1998

26
The most effective learning arrangements increase
academic engagement.
27
Effective Classroom Management Factors
  • Frequent monitoring
  • Nonverbal signals
  • Use of routines
  • Models routines first
  • Frequent positive interactions (4 to 1 ratio)
  • Reinforce student accomplishments

28
Develop a Classroom Plan for Differentiated
Instruction
  • Routines are the key to sanity.
  • Arrangement of the classroom.
  • Time Allocation.
  • Scheduling.

29
Establishing Routines
  • Rules for Centers
  • Moving to centers
  • Asking for help
  • Being accountable
  • Activities
  • Previously learned
  • Academically engaging

30
Moving to Centers
  • At the beginning of the year practice the routine
    of moving with the students
  • Role play how to ask for help
  • Three before me
  • Exit slips
  • Students complete a half sheet of paper that
    contains a rubric for self-evaluation
  • Attach to completed work

31
Activities
  • All activities should be previously learned
  • Use new words for word sort
  • Extend word activities into writing activities
  • Academically engaging
  • As much fun as cutting out boots and pasting on
    glitter might be to the students, it is not
    instructionally relevant.

32
Other Guidelines
  • Make literacy stations an important part of
    learning each day not something to do when
    everything is finished.
  • Have no more than two or three work stations.
  • Stations are always the same!!!!!!
  • Less is more!!!!!
  • Dont have to be cute, just well thought out.

33
Instructional Delivery
  • Well organized
  • Task oriented
  • Explicit
  • Reduces practice of errors
  • Demonstration, guided practice
  • with prompts, and feedback

34
Instructional Delivery
  • Classroom is well organized.
  • Desks are arranged so that all students are in
    the teacher's instructional zone.
  • Instruction is explicit (no guess work).
    Students know what and why.
  • All students are being engaged in instruction.
  • No students are on the peripheral only marginally
    participating.
  • No students are sitting alone confused.
  • No student has been written off.

35
Time Matters
  • This means
  • Allocating more time to reading is only a first
    step.
  • Carefully choosing instructional materials and
    activities based on what research suggests is
    most effective.
  • Reducing down time and related activities time.

36
Daily Time Allocation
37
Focus on Academics
  • Engaged Time
  • Critical Factor
  • Time students actually spend performing an
    academic task
  • Students are sitting alone doing things they
    dont understand
  • Increasing Engagement
  • Doesnt have to be cute!
  • Unison responses
  • Partner Activities
  • Peer Tutoring
  • Cooperative Learning

38
Demonstration
39
(No Transcript)
40
George
Jeffrey
Jeffrey
Charles
All LIS
All NA S1
David
George
George
David
Elmer
All SD
All SD
Charles
Charles
James
James
Alex
Alex
Alex
Alex
David
David
Rob
Rob
Rob
Rob
Angelina
Elmer
Elmer
Peter
Pat
Pat
Pat
Jeffrey
Hank 28 - 1
Jeffrey
2 out of 5 D
1 out of 4 D
Paris
Peter 26 - 1
Charles
Sam
Paris 28 - 1
James
Peter
Hank
All INS
Peter
Sam 31 - 1
James
Sam
Pat
Jane
Angelina 33 - 3
Paris
George
Angelina
3 4 out of 5 D
2 out of 4 D
Hank
Claire 52 - 1
Elmer
Sam
Claire
Abby 48 - 4
Angelina
Ralph
Paris
Ralph
Jane 65 - 5
All IND
Ralph
All D
Jane
All D
Jane
Claire
Ralph 70 - 5
Claire
Abby
Hank
Abby
Wendy 92 - 5
Abby
Bud
Bud
Bud
Bud 122 - 5
Wendy
Wendy
Wendy
41
David
Basic PA and GK Skills, Listening Comprehension
Alex
Rob
Pat
Charles
Jeffrey
Blending, Word Building Comprehension
James



Elmer George

Peter


Needs PA
Angelina
Claire

Fluency Reading Comprehension
Abby

Sam
Hank, Paris
Ralph
Enrichment Comprehension Vocabulary
Bud
Wendy
Jane
42
Grouping Patterns
  • Teachers who get the best outcomes use multiple
    grouping patterns to accommodate students
    academic diversity.
  • Whole Group
  • Small Group
  • Peer pairing
  • Cooperative projects
  • Dependent on the the activity and student ability
  • Eye on increasing active engagement.

43
Grouping Practices
44
Daily Small Group Lessons
  • Can include multiple tracks.
  • Each track will be visited for only a brief time.
  • Amount of new information should be reduced.
  • Most of each lesson should be review and
    generalization.

45
IAG provides over 100 pages of research based
activities
  • Grouping Students
  • Cumulative Daily Review
  • Book and Print Awareness
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Word Study
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary
  • Comprehension
  • Spelling
  • Writing

46
IAG Continuum
Phonemic Awareness
IAG Activities
Skills in Order of Difficulty
Rhyming and alliteration
4.7 Listed from top to 4.9 bottom
in order of 4.6 difficulty. 4.11 4.10 4.8
4.15, 4.16, 4.17 Listed left to right-comparable
Onset-rime blending
47
IAG ContinuumWord Study Graphophonemic
Knowledge
  • Easy Green
  • - Letter-Sound Correspondence
  • Less Easy Blue
  • - Onset-Rime Blending
  • - Phoneme Comparison
  • Less Difficult Red
  • - Phoneme Blending
  • - Elision
  • - Phoneme Segmentation
  • Difficult Orange
  • - Chunking

IAG ACTIVITIES
5.16 (letter-sound correspondence) 5.19
(onset-rime blending)
48
4.9 The Ship is loaded With

Have students sit in a circle and make sure you
have something to toss. To begin the game say,
The ship is loaded with cheese. Then toss the
(bean bag) to someone else in the circle. The
person must make a rhyme from the sentence.
Example The ship is loaded with peas. (fleas,
trees, bees, etc.)
49
(No Transcript)
50
IAG Continuum and Teacher Lesson Planning Sheet
2.
1.
3.
51
1 Basic Skills
A 1-4 B1-37 E1
4.09, 4.12, 4.15, 5.8, 5.14, 7.5, 8.1, 8.2
52
Schedule for Small Group
53
(No Transcript)
54
The Differentiated Classroom
  • Look for
  • Routines
  • How classrooms are arranged to facilitate
    differentiation
  • How teachers use many techniques for increasing
    academic engagement during both teacher directed
    and student directed instruction 

55
A Differentiated Classroom
Class Library
Projects Table
Cabinets
Small Group
Projects Table
Conference Chair
Teachers Materials
Computers
Chalkboard
24 Students
56
Teacher-Directed
Student-Directed
  • Clear expectations for student behavior
  • Clear academic objectives
  • Read, write, discuss, and practice critical
    skills
  • Multiple and varied opportunities to practice
  • Interactive
  • Engaging
  • Differentiated
  • Gives immediate and specific feedback
  • Reteaches as necessary
  • Teaches to mastery
  • Read, write, discuss, and practice critical
    skills independently
  • Accountable for their own learning

57
Grouping Arrangements
  • Teacher-Directed
  • Whole group
  • Small group
  • Same Ability
  • Mixed Ability
  • Individual
  • Student-Directed
  • Work stations
  • Peer activities
  • Collaborative groups
  • Independent work

58
Increasing Academic Engagement During
Teacher-Directed Instruction
  • Increase every students opportunity to respond
    to the teacher.
  • Use techniques other than calling on one student
    at time.

59
TechniquesCheck for Understanding
  • Everybody Questions
  • Thumbs-Up, Thumbs-Down
  • Use of White Boards
  • Response Cards

60
Academic Engagement During Student-Directed
Instruction
  • Work stations
  • Computers
  • Peer-assisted learning
  • Collaborative group routines

61
Ideas for Work Stations
  • Partners
  • Partner reading
  • Word study
  • Vocabulary
  • Writing
  • Literature analysis
  • Technology
  • Software (differentiate for specific learners)
  • Computer searches
  • Editing

62
Work Stations
  • A work station is not always completed in a
    special location in the room.
  • Most stations can be completed at students
    desks.
  • Some stations will need to be completed somewhere
    else in the room.

63
What about the students with whom the teacher is
not working?
  • Want to see lowest students getting double
    dose.
  • Instructional routines for the students who are
    not being taught directly by the teacher.
  • Every student knows routines.
  • Objectives support other aspects of instruction.
  • Students are partnered.
  • Students are reading and discussing text
    selection following specific routines.
  • Should be active, but not a zoo!

64
Work Stations
  • Objectives support other aspects of instruction.
  • EASY IDEAS All Using Peer Pairings
  • Letters-Sounds and Outlaw Words Partner Review.
  • Buddy Reading
  • Listening Station
  • Writing Station
  • Spelling Station
  • Technology

65
The Listening Station
  • Students listen to a story book at a listening
    station as pairs. More that one pair can listen
    to a story.
  • Students apply already taught comprehension
    strategy such as
  • Sequencing notes
  • Story Sequence
  • Story map.

66
The Writing Station
  • Reading-Writing connection is solidly proven.
  • If they can read about it, they can write about
    it.
  • Use comprehension strategies to plan writing.
  • Spell it as your hear it.

67
Teaching Students to Write Sentences
  • Definition of a sentence
  • A sentence names a who or what and tells what
    the who or what is doing
  • Model
  • Use the rule to write a sentence from a picture
  • Include punctuation rules
  • Distinguish sentences from nonsentences

68
Composing a Sentence From a Picture

(who or what)
(tells what the who or what is doing)
69
Writing with the Development of Details
Students develop writing through the use of
appropriate details.
  • Add to sentence development
  • Adding details to a content web
  • Revision and Editing

70
Adding to Sentence Development
  • Combine simple sentences into compound sentences
    (use of and and but)
  • Introductory clauses (moving around the part
    that tells when)

Example The king counts his money before
breakfast.
71
Peer-Assisted Literacy Strategies (PALS)
All students are paired with other students of
the same class or instructional group.
Each pair has a coach and a reader.
Coach and reader jobs are reciprocal.
First reader is higher performing reader.
72
Peer Partners
  • All students in class are paired with peers.
  • Partners should be different learner types.
  • Those needing more intense reading instruction
    paired with typical readers
  • Typical readers paired with advanced readers

73
Peer Pairing Scheme
  • Rank-order your students in terms of reading
    skill.
  • Split them in half (more skilled half and less
    skilled half).

Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 Student 4 Student
5 Student 6 Student 7 Student 8 Student 9 Student
10 Student 11 Student 12
Student 13 Student 14 Student 15 Student 16
Student 17 Student 18 Student 19 Student
20 Student 21 Student 21 Student 23 Student 24
74
Peer Pairing Scheme
  • Pair the top-ranked student in the more skilled
    half with the top-ranked student in the less
    skilled half.
  • Continue this process until all of your students
    have partners.
  • Consider individual needs and personalities.

75
Other ImportantGuidelines for Pairings
  • Reassign partners every four to five weeks.
  • Do not change partners in response to student
    requests or complaints

76
Story Sharing
3 Activities
Pretend Reading Read Aloud Retell
77
Importance of Distributed Practice
  • Provides for success.
  • Getting the answer right is very reinforcing.
  • Ensure less error.

78
Every Minute Counts
  • Allocate more time to reading
  • Choose activities for their academic value
  • Use strategies that increase active engagement in
    reading

79
Review of What We Learned
  • In this section you learned
  • how to plan differentiated instruction using
    student assessment data,
  • how to use flexible grouping arrangements,
  • techniques to increase academic engagement during
    both teacher directed and student directed
    instruction,
  • how to arrange your classroom to facilitate
    differentiated instruction.

80
Reflections on Effective Differentiated
Instruction
  • Currently Do
  • New Techniques

Pledge I commit to implementing the following 2
new techniques in my classroom___________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________ Signature______________
_______
81
Remember...
  • Most reading difficulties can be prevented.
  • To provide targeted student instruction, student
    progress must be assessed and evaluated
    continually.
  • You are the best intervention strategy your
    students have.
  • (Snow, Burns, Griffin, 1998)
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