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SITXENV001A

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... and may endanger the water supply of others WATER IS REQUIRED IN THE HOTEL FOR Drinking Bathrooms Toilets and bidets Space heating Air conditioning Kitchen ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SITXENV001A


1
SITXENV001A Participate in environmentally sustain
able work practises
2
Definitions
  • Environmental Sustainability
  • Resource

3
Environment
  • The environment is the world around us, and
    consists of all of the different components that
    make up the Earth.
  • These components are not only restricted to air,
    land and water, but include everything that
    surrounds you, such as natural resources, flora,
    fauna, climate, layers of the atmosphere, etc.
    All of these components interact and are
    interrelated .

4
Sustainability
  • development that meets the needs of the present
    without compromising the ability of future
    generations to meet their own needs
  • (The Brundtland Report, 1987)
  • World Commission on Environmental Development
    1987

5
What is Sustainability ?
  • What are we leaving future generation ?

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Sustainability
  • For future generations to have the ability to
    provide basic requirements for themselves,
    present generations need to ensure that our
    actions today do not limit the range of social,
    environmental and economic options open to future
    generations.
  • This can be summarised as the need to reduce our
    ecological footprint today, and maintain it at a
    level which doesnt exceed the global biocapacity
    (natures ability to renew its resources).

8
Are we living sustainability ?
  • Australians spend over 10.5 billion annually on
    goods and services that are never or hardly ever
    used . This is more than the total spent by
    governments on Australian universities and roads.
  • Over 5.3 billion worth of food was thrown away
    in 2004. This equates to 13 times the amount
    Australians donated to overseas aid agencies at
    that time.

9
Intercon Washington
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vZ2oyDYf9tnE

10
Environmental Sustainability
  • The ability of the environment and its resources
    to provide for the needs of the present without
    damaging it for future generations to provide for
    their own needs.
  • Ensures that our actions today do not impact,
    limit or reduce the options and standard of
    living for the future.
  • Ensuring the ability of the earth to support
    future generations

11
Environmental Sustainability
  • When a process is sustainable, it can be carried
    out over and over without negative environmental
    effects.
  • Sustainability of the planets environment and
    its climate is fundamental because we are so
    dependant on it for our continue existence and
    livelihood.

12
Environmental Sustainability
  • Scientists almost universally agree that climate
    change and global warming are caused by human
    intervention and development largely through
    emissions of greenhouse gases which are released
    by the burning of fossil fuels and through
    activities such as deforestation and agriculture.
    Some of the impact are
  • Glaciers and snowlines are retreating
  • Prolonged droughts are increasing
  • Sea levels are rising
  • Storms and hurricanes are becoming more frequent

13
Environmental issues that affect sustainability
  • Climate change
  • Global warming
  • Acid Rain
  • Water pollution
  • Air pollution
  • Loss of biodiversity
  • Soil degradation
  • Waste dumping
  • Deforestation

14
National Geographic Global Warming
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?voJAbATJCugsfeature
    PlayListp185F88E54654E1B0index2

15
What is a Resource ?
  • Resources are all the materials and energy that
    go into producing the effect or product that
    results from your work.
  • Natural resources are derived from the
    environment .
  • Many of them are essential for our survival

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18
Potential Environmental ThreatMaterial Paper
  • Deforestation
  • Energy use - fossil fuels
  • Concentrated water use
  • Bleaching- Chlorine
  • Use of printing inks
  • Air Pollution - Nitrogen dioxide , sulphur
    dioxide and carbon dioxide are all emitted
    during paper manufacturing
  • Ending up in Landfill

19
Potential Environmental ThreatMaterial Paper
  • Trees are incredibly efficient and powerful at
    withdrawing carbon from the atmosphere. They
    absorb carbon dioxide through tiny pores in their
    leaves and store it in their wood, bark, leaves
    and soil. Trees also help to combat salinity,
    reduce soil erosion, provide windbreaks, clean
    underground water systems and provide habitat for
    wildlife.

20
Potential Environmental Threat Material Paper
  • In 2001 Australia used approx 1.26 million tonnes
    in printing and writing paper .
  • This consumption is equivalent to 30 million
    trees
  • Forests store 50 of the world's carbon
  • Half the world's forests have been cleared or
    burned, and 80 of what's left has been seriously
    degraded.
  • 42 of the industrial wood harvest is used to
    make paper.
  • Paper accounts for 25 of landfill waste

21
Potential Environmental Threat Material Paper
  • Compared to using virgin wood, paper made with
    100 recycled content uses
  • 44 less energy
  • produces 38 less greenhouse gas emissions
  • 41 less particulate emissions
  • 50 less wastewater
  • 49 less solid waste and -- of course -- 100
    less wood.

22
Potential Environmental Threat Material Paper
  • Buy recycled office paper
  • Dont print if you dont need
  • Send information electronically
  • Print double sided
  • Recycle

23
Potential Environmental Threat Material
Plastic
  • Plastic has moulded society in many ways that
    make life both easier and safer. Since its mass
    production began in the 1940s, plastics wide
    range of unique properties has propelled it to an
    essential status in society. Next year, more than
    300 million tons will be produced worldwide.

24
Potential Environmental Threat Material
Plastic
  • Produced from the waste products of oil refining
  • Production of plastics is a major user of fossil
    fuels. 8 of world oil production goes to
    manufacturing plastics
  • Waste management and disposal- Plastic buried
    deep in landfills can leach harmful chemicals
    that spread into groundwater

25
Potential Environmental Threat Material
Plastic
  • Impacts on marine life - plastic debris, laced
    with chemicals and often ingested by marine
    animals, can injure or poison wildlife
  • Chemicals added to plastics are absorbed by human
    bodies. Some of these chemicals have been shown
    to affect reproduction and development in animal
    studies
  • Around 500,000 plastic bags are collected during
    Clean Up Australia Day each year.

26
Potential Environmental Threat Material
Plastic
  • Plastics are very long-lived products that could
    potentially have service over decades, yet our
    main use of these lightweight, inexpensive
    materials are as single-use items that will go to
    the garbage dump within a year, where theyll
    persist for centuries
  • Worldwide an estimated 4 billion plastic bags end
    up as litter each year . Tied end to end they
    could circle the planet 63 times

27
Potential Environmental Threat Material
Hazardous Materials
  • Fuel oil
  • Liquefied Petroleum gas
  • Cleaning chemicals
  • Mercury in compact fluorescent lamps
  • Pesticides/ Herbicides

28
Hazardous MaterialsCleaning chemicals commonly
used
  • Laundry and dishwashing detergents
  • Toilet bath cleaners
  • Bleaches
  • Surface and floor cleaners
  • Disinfectants
  • Degreasers and oven cleaners
  • Descalers
  • Glass Cleaners
  • Metal cleaners
  • Dry-cleaning chemicals
  • Swimming Pool Chemical

29
Potential Environmental Threat Of Cleaning
Chemicals
  • Improper use storage and disposal of chemicals
    and other hazardous waste can result in pollution
    and contamination of local environmental
    resources
  • Chemicals used for cleaning guest rooms can
    contaminate local soil and water supplies and may
    pose a potential hazard to human health l
  • Many products used for maintenance and cleaning
    are irritants especially those containing ammonia
    or chlorine
  • Bio- accumulate in plants and animals

30
Potential Environmental ThreatOf Cleaning
Chemicals
  • Phosphate is used as a builder to overcome
    water hardness and improve surfactant
    performance.
  • Phosphate may be a limiting nutrient in some
    aquatic environments and in some other countries
    the use of phosphate in detergents has been
    discouraged to prevent unsustainable plant growth
    and oxygen starvation (eutrophication) of lakes
    and waterways. 

31
Radisson Plaza Sydney
  • Unique microfiber cleaning technology
  • All chemical free cleaning products

32
Microfiber How does it work?
  • Microfiber is a man-made product that is best
    used in cleaning applications by combining two
    basic fibers, Polyester and Polyamide (a nylon
    by-product.)
  • An independent study found that microfiber cloths
    mops, used only with regular tap water, are
    99.94 effective in removing bacteria from smooth
    surfaces, as compared to conventional cloths and
    mops used with cleaning agents or bleach, which
    were only 91.89 effective

33
Potential Environmental Threat Material
Hazardous Materials
  • Limit the number of chemicals used on your
    property
  • Use biodegradable and environmentally certified
    cleaning agents
  • Keep a register of all hazardous chemicals and
    teach staff how to handle dispose of them safely
  • Dispose of hazardous materials responsibly

34
Potential Environmental Threat Energy
  • High dependency on fossil fuels petrol diesel,
    natural gas, LPG, coal, oil , kerosene
  • Burning of fossil fuels is a major contributor
    to greenhouse gases causing global warming
  • Non renewable source Decline in output

35
Potential Environmental Threat Equipment and
Associated consumables
  • Raw materials Environmentally sensitive ? damage
    to environment when extracted ?
  • Manufacture solvents, glues, paints, finishes
  • used waste produced , energy water used?
  • Transport Distance ?
  • Use energy rating , water consumption
  • Disposal recycle reuse landfill

36
Life Cycle Analysis Cradle to Grave
37
Current environmental issues
  • Sustainability
  • Waste management
  • Energy use and efficiency
  • Resource use and efficiency
  • Water resource management
  • Recycling/re-use

38
Water Resource management
Source Green pay
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41
Water Resource Management
  • The amount of freshwater on Earth is limited and
    its quality is under constant threat
    particularly in heavily populated and
    industrialised areas
  • Our extensive use of water in the rapid
    development of agriculture industry, energy
    generation and urbanisation over the last 60
    years resulted in water being contaminated with
    solid liquid and gaseous matter of all kinds .

42
Water Resource Management
  • The contamination of water has occurred to such
    an extent that the self cleaning forces in nature
    which have worked over thousands of years are no
    longer sufficient and both the quality and
    quantity of water has been seriously affected.
  • Many substances come back in multiple
    concentrations of up to a million times through
    the food chain .( Bio accumulation )
  • Water contaminated by sewage is one of the major
    causes of disease particularly in developing
    countries.
  • In more industrialised countries many chemicals
    have a synergistic effect when discharged with
    other chemical for e.g. if copper and zinc are
    discharged together then the toxicity of the two
    combined is much greater

43
Water Resource managementWhy ?
  • The Hospitality industry could not function
    without clean water for food preparation,
    cleaning and hygiene, guest comfort and
    recreation
  • Hotels also depend on the survival of supply
    industries such as agriculture
  • Waste water diminishes a scarce resource and
    costs the hotel money
  • Waste hot water wastes not only water but also
    energy
  • Water accounts for 10 of utility bills in many
    hotels
  • Guest demand for water usually far exceeds that
    of local residents

44
Water Resource ManagementWhy ?
  • Poor quality water supplies can provide a health
    risk to guests and employees
  • Poor quality water supplies can increase the
    running and maintenance costs of equipment and
    reduces its life
  • Contaminate waste water increases the load on
    effluent plants and may endanger the water supply
    of others

45
WATER IS REQUIRED IN THE HOTEL FOR
  • Drinking
  • Bathrooms
  • Toilets and bidets
  • Space heating
  • Air conditioning
  • Kitchen laundry
  • Firefighting
  • Outdoors/pools

46
Water Use in Hotels Source IHEI ( 2006)
47
Water Resource Management
  • Carry out a water use audit which will show how
    and where water is consumed and identifies
    potential areas of savings
  • Conduct regular inspections of faucets, showers
    toilets to detect any leaks About 30 of the
    water supplied to hotels and clubs is lost
    through leaks. Source Sydney Water
  • Educate guests- invite guests to reuse towel and
    linen programme
  • Improve efficiency by training all personnel
  • Develop standard operating procedures
  • Set targets for each department and monitor
    results
  • Install sensors, low flow and other water saving
    fittings
  • Use opportunities to divert and capture rain
    water to reuse in the hotel grounds

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Departmental Environmental impacts Water
  • Rooms Division (Front Office
  • Housekeeping)
  • Food and Beverage
  • Food production/ Kitchen
  • Banqueting
  • Clubs
  • Gaming
  • Sales and marketing
  • Human resources
  • Financial control/ accounts
  • Security
  • Maintenance

50
Food Production / KitchenWater
  • Dish and glass washers correctly maintained, only
    use when full
  • Use phosphate free dishwashing detergent
  • Dont leave taps running
  • Use flow restrictor valves on faucets
  • Water efficient appliances
  • Repair leaks
  • Sweep and mop instead of hosing floors

51
House keeping Laundry Water
  • Reuse rinse cycle water for washing
  • You can cut water consumption by as much
    as30 by reusing water from the final rinse cycle
    for the next load
  • Notify maintenance immediately of any leaks
  • Operate machines only when fully loaded
  • When purchasing new equipment check water rating

52
Laundry Ozone Technology
  • Ozone laundry systems inject ozone into the water
    which works with laundry chemicals to provide a
    more efficient wash reducing energy and water
    through shorter cycles and requiring less
    detergent .
  • Enables a more efficient laundry process using
    cold water, and also improves the effectiveness
    of the spin cycle.
  • A pilot ozone laundry study in Crowne Plaza
    Coogee Beach, Australia showed impressive savings
    in water use of 21 gas 70 electricity 55 and
    labour savings 17.

53
How does ozone work?
  • Ozone is a form of oxygen created when an
    electrical charge is passed through the air.
  • It is one of the most powerfully known oxidizing
    agent
  • In a laundry application the ozone is injected
    into the water .
  • The ozone works in conjunction with the laundry
    chemicals to provide a more efficient wash cycle
    using less energy and fewer chemicals

54
Food and Beverage Water
  • Serve iced water only on request ??
  • Dont leave taps running
  • Use glass washer only when full
  • Notify maintenance immediately of any leaks
  • Use flow restrictor valves on faucets
  • Use phosphate free dishwashing detergent

55
Rooms Division Guest Rooms
  • Review cleaning practices of room attendants to
    ensure that the number of toilet flushes and how
    long water is used in the shower and basin is
    minimised during cleaning
  • Reducing flush volumes of existing cisterns
  • Install flow restrictors on taps
  • Install low flow showerheads
  • Have housekeeping notify maintenance immediately
    of any leaks
  • Ask guest if they want towels and linen
    relaundered

56
Engineering and Maintenance
  • Check regularly for leaks
  • Plan preventative maintenance
  • Install sensors low-flow and other water saving
    fittings
  • Install sub-meters to measure specific areas of
    usage

57
Human Resources - Water
  • Training is the biggest factor
  • Train all staff in the properties' environmental
    policy.
  • Include environmental practises in job
    description

58
Back of House Water
  • Prestel taps in washrooms
  • Hippos in flush cisterns
  • Report leaking taps

59
Water saving Technologies
  • Taps/ Showerheads
  • Flow Restrictors on Taps
  • Faucet aerators
  • Self closing push taps
  • Low flow showerheads
  • Vacuum flow valves
  • Urinals
  • Passive infra red
  • Waterless
  • Toilets
  • Low flush
  • Cistern volume adjusting devices
  • composting toilets

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65
COMPOSTING TOILETS
  • Kills pathogens because of high temperatures
    achieved in decomposition
  • Do not require any water for flushing
  • Provides a clean ( non smelling fertiliser)
  • Suited to areas where water is very scarce
  • Guest expectations?

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Think about it!
  • Hot water is usually supplied to guest rooms at
    600C, the guest usually uses cold water to cool
    it to 430C.
  • The energy used to raise the water from 430C to
    600C has been wasted.
  • A temperature of between 450C and 490C is usually
    acceptable.

68
Success
  • London Hilton
  • By the simple process of putting a brick into
    the cistern of each bathroom the hotel saves 1.34
    litres of water per flush
  • Ramada International
  • In HK, salt water used for toilets, and sewage
    and laundry water recycled for irrigation

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70
Energy is..
  • The ability to do work
  • Can neither be created nor destroyed
  • Can be changed from one form to another

71
Energy
  • Energy is created a number of ways to provide
    power to all forms of developed technology. The
    creation of energy can be separated into two
    categories of resources used, which are
  • Non renewable
  • Renewable

72
Non Renewable
  • Unsustainable and finite resources used for
    energy production involve the extraction of a
    particular resource from the Earth and at present
    are the major sources of energy used in society.
    These resources have formed within or on the
    Earth over many hundreds of millions of years,
    and the waste generated from using these
    resources to create energy is extremely
    detrimental to the environment. These finite
    resources include
  • Oil
  • Uranium
  • Gas
  • Coal
  • Wood

73
Renewable Resources
  • Wind Power - uses the energy in wind to turn
    blades on wind turbines to produce electricity.
  • Solar Power - involves using solar cells
    (Photovoltaic cells) to convert the suns rays
    into electricity. Solar energy is regarded as
    being one of the most infinite forms of energy.
  • Hydroelectricity - uses flowing water to turn
    turbines which generate electricity. Renewable
    hydro generation is electricity generation
    obtained from running water without damaging the
    environment in the process.
  • Biomass Generation is electricity generated from
    using organic sources such as plant material or
    methane gas from rubbish tips

74
Energy -What are the issues ?
  • There are overwhelming reasons why we need to
    reduce our overall energy management and our
    dependence on energy derived from fossil fuels
  • Scientists agree almost universally that climate
    changes are being caused by human intervention
    and development largely through emission of
    greenhouse gases GHGs are released by the
    burning of fossil fuels
  • Issues with fossil fuels-
  • Atmospheric pollution, global warming, ozone
    depletion and acid rain
  • Escalating cost
  • security of supply

75
Energy use and Efficiency
  • If governments around the world continue with
    their existing policies the worlds energy needs
    will be over 50 higher in 2030 than today
  • China and India would account for 45 of the
    increase in global primary energy demand

76
Energy use and Efficiency
  • Not only do Hospitality organisations contribute
    to problem but are highly vulnerable to the
    effects of climate change
  • Significant changes in climate at tourist
    destinations can compromise the health safety and
    comfort of guests .

77
Energy use and Efficiency
  • The principles of energy management are to reduce
    the quantity and cost of energy used by the
    hotel subject to the constraint that at no stage
    should there be a perceived loss of comfort level
    supplied to the guests

78
Where is the energy used in a hotel ?
  • Heating ventilation and air conditioning are the
    greatest single consumer of energy in the hotel
    representing somewhere between 25- 50 of the
    total energy cost
  • Guests rooms consume a major proportion of the
    Hotels energy typically 30 of the total for a
    hotel .
  • Kitchens are traditionally among the least
    efficient operations in hotels. Large mounts of
    electricity gas and water are often wasted .

79
Typical Energy use by a Hotel
80
General Energy Saving
  • Guest rooms consume a major proportion of hotel
    energy During periods of low occupancy group
    rooms in which you put guests relative to
    mechanical and electrical systems and shut off
    unoccupied areas .
  • Occupancy linked controls Key card systems to
    control power and AC
  • Ensure that all equipment is operating at maximum
    efficiency through regular maintenance
  • Kitchens offer excellent opportunities for
    achieving energy efficiency through turning on
    equipment as needed

81
General Energy saving
  • Laundries Operate all equipment fully loaded,
    maintain hot water temperatures at 60 C
  • Fit energy saving light bulbs in all areas and
    decrease lighting levels in all areas
  • Train staff in specific measures e.g.
    Housekeeping to clean vacant rooms first to turn
    off TV, and other equipment
  • Where appropriate invest in heat recovery
    systems.
  • Invest in alternative energy sources such as
    solar energy

82
Environmental impacts Energy
  • Rooms Division(Front Office
  • Housekeeping)
  • Food and Beverage
  • Food production/ Kitchen
  • Banqueting
  • Clubs
  • Gaming
  • Sales and marketing
  • Human resources
  • Financial control/ accounts
  • Security
  • Maintenance

83
Departmental Environmental Impacts
  • The Kitchen and the Laundry are two areas which
    waste the most energy and produce the most
    pollution and can create the greatest savings to
    both the environment and the Hotel budget

84
Food Production / KitchenEnergy
  • 12-15 of a Hotels total energy use
  • 60 of energy used is not used to cook

85
Food production / KitchenEnergy
  • Break the habit of turning everything on first
    thing every morning
  • Leave equipment off until its needed and turn it
    off or down when not needed
  • Clean and service all equipment regularly
  • Cook the largest volume practical
  • Cover pots and pans to reduce cooking time and
    energy

86
Food production / KitchenEnergy
  • Load ovens to capacity , Load and unload ovens
    quickly
  • Dont turn on dishwasher until its fully loaded
  • Coordinate deliveries to eliminate unnecessary
    opening of freezers and refrigeration units
  • Dont place hot food in a cool room Keep all
    door seal in a good condition

87
House keeping Laundry Energy
  • Operate machines with full loads
  • Schedule dryers to operate continuously so as not
    to waste residual heat built up. Check seals and
    gaskets for proper closing
  • Use cold water instead of hot wherever possible
  • Have all equipment cleaned and regularly serviced

88
Food and Beverage Energy
  • HVAC maintained and controlled
  • Have all equipment cleaned and regularly serviced
  • Only use glass washer when fully loaded

89
Rooms Division Guest rooms Energy
  • Blocking off and grouping rooms
  • light controlling key cards
  • Environmental information in guest packs
  • Compact fluorescent or LED Lamps
  • Check room temperatures
  • Watch for malfunctioning fans, aircon, heating
    etc
  • Train housekeeping to use cold water instead of
    hot wherever possible

90
Sales and Marketing Energy
  • Control of lighting in office areas
  • Low energy computers
  • Switch off and save policy

91
Engineering and Maintenance Energy
  • All HVAC fully maintained with controls
    correctly set
  • Low energy lighting wherever appropriate
  • Sensors in all low non-public traffic areas

92
Back of House Energy
  • Sensors in low traffic areas
  • Switch off and save policy

93
  • HAVE YOU SWITCHED OFF YOUR
  • COMPUTER SCREEN AND PRINTER?

Your Screen will produce 22kg of unwanted Carbon
Dioxide per year. Your printer will produce 72kg
of unwanted Carbon Dioxide per year.
94
Principles of Energy Management
  • To reduce the amount and cost of energy by a
    hotel and requires that there is no perceivable
    change in levels of guest comfort as a result of
    changes in energy management practices
  • If there is a change in guest comfort then this
    needs to be done in consultation with the guest

95
  • Compact fluorescent
  • use a gas (usually argon), mercury particles and
    phosphor to create light. The gas is excited by
    electricity, combining with mercury particles to
    produce invisible ultraviolet light.
  • Fluorescents don't use heat to create light
  • Incandescent
  • create light by heating a filament inside the
    bulb. The heat makes the filament glow white hot,
    producing visible light
  • 90 of energy use is for heating
  • LED stands for Light Emitting Diode
  • LED bulbs and tubes use diodes instead of gas or
    heated filaments to produce light making them the
    most energy efficient of all the lighting systems

96
LIGHTING MANAGEMENT
  • Lighting typically accounts for 15-20 of the
    hotels electricity consumption and because it
    also emits heat adds to air conditioning .
  • Split lighting circuits into zones
  • Install switches, timers , dimmers, and motion
    detectors
  • Make the most of daylight

97
Alternative Forms of Energy GAS
  • Clean
  • Produces about a fifth of the quantity of carbon
    dioxide emissions
  • Uses

98
Alternative Forms of Energy
  • Solar energy (photovoltaic)
  • Wind generators
  • Hydro-electric systems
  • Cogeneration
  • Biofuels

99
SOLAR ENERGY
  • Solar cells convert sunlight into electricity
  • Must be positioned to capture maximum sunlight

100
ADVANTAGES OF SOLAR
  • Simple to operate
  • Low operating and maintenance costs
  • Reliable operation
  • Non-polluting - no noise or emissions are
    produced
  • Generate electricity at the point of use so there
    is no transport of fuels, and less electricity is
    lost due to transmission.

101
LIMITATIONS OF SOLAR
  • Require a large surface area which may not be
    available in built-up areas
  • Cost can be a barrier
  • A back-up diesel generator may be necessary for
    reliability

102
Crowne Plaza Alice Springs
  • The largest building mounted solar photovoltaic
    (PV) system in the Southern Hemisphere
  • .
  • The ground-breaking 3.3 million PV installation
    will reduce the hotels energy consumption by
    40-80 percent dependant on the time of year, with
    the energy efficiency program further reducing
    consumption by 18 percent.

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Crowne Plaza Alice Springs
  • Generate more than 530,000 kilowatts hours per
    year enough to power 60 family homes and will
    provide between 50 and 90 of the hotels power.
  • The project is a joint initiative between the
    hotel and the Australian Governments Solar
    Cities Programme following a comprehensive
    environmental audit undertaken by the hotel in
    2007.
  • Apart from reducing the hotels carbon dioxide
    emissions by 420 metric tonnes per year the
    project will reduce the citys fossil fuel
    reliance

105
MICRO-HYDROELECTRIC POWER
  • Uses falling water to drive a turbine and
    generate electricity.
  • Advantages
  • Limitations

106
COGENERATION
  • Process of combined heat and power generation.
  • The means by which the heat produced during the
    generation of electricity is put to good use
    rather than wasted.
  • Advantages
  • Limitations

107
WIND GENERATORS
  • A wind turbine is designed to move quickly
    through the air in order to gain the high speeds
    necessary to generate electricity.
  • It is essential to have average wind speeds of 20
    km/h or more for wind turbines to be effective.
  • Advantages
  • Limitations

108
BIOFUELS
  • Derived from the digestion, gasification, and
    combustion of various organic substances found in
    plant and animal wastes.
  • Biofuels from animals
  • Chicken litter.
  • Domestic waste.

109
Alternative forms of Energy
  • Biofuels from plants
  • Plants have the potential to be a source of
    energy in two ways
  • agricultural wastes can be used as fuel
  • plants can be grown and harvested as energy
    crops.
  • Oil crops.
  • Wood.
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages

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CASE STUDY - COURAN COVE
  • Australias largest eco-tourism resort
  • Excess heat from generators used to heat swimming
    pools
  • Energy efficient appliances used
  • Solar power used in eco cabins
  • Centralised energy management system used
  • Guests can monitor their energy usage on their
    own TV
  • No dishwashers or washing machines available in
    guest accom.

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Waste Issues
  • Inefficient resource use - the land filling of
    materials that still have value, perhaps in a
    different form
  • The increasing shortage of land where waste can
    be buried
  • The large distances over which waste is
    transported

114
Waste Issues
  • The quantity of waste produced in modern
    developed countries is staggering
  • Each year every Australian contributes about one
    tonne of waste to landfill ( Environment
    Australia 2003)
  • Landfill has been the most common method of
    dealing with solid waste in Australia

115
Waste Issues
  • Health implications of hazardous waste
  • Polluting effects of landfill sites - gas
    (including methane) emissions and liquid runoff
  • The economic folly of unnecessary and excess
    packaging
  • Excess consumption driven by the forces of
    lifestyle marketing and designed obsolescence

116
Waste management
  • It is now recognised that waste management is not
    simply a matter of disposing of unwanted and
    sometimes hazardous output.
  • Waste minimization (making sure the minimum
    amount of resources are wasted) must be given the
    highest priority because not only does it
    conserve resources it also has the potential to
    save money

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SOLID WASTE
  • A by-product of all hotels
  • A hotel creates approx 1kg of waste per guest
    night

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  • Waste Management Hierarchy

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Waste Management
  • Refuse
  • Reduce
  • Re-use
  • Recycle
  • Treat
  • Dispose of safely

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WASTE
  • Is costly to dispose of
  • May cause serious damage to the environment
  • Solution ?
  • Don't produce it - prevent it

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REFUSING
  • Adopt a waste-avoidance perspective for
    purchasing decisions
  • Purchase reusable, recyclable less toxic
    biodegradable products
  • Pre- cycle Give preference to responsible
    products with less packaging
  • Avoid disposable products Items sold as
    disposable can be thrown away but they dont
    disappear

123
Responsible purchasing
  • Life cycle analysis allows you to build up a
    detailed picture of the environmental impact of
    the products by asking questions relating to each
    stage of the products life cycle from cradle to
    grave
  • Example of Life Cycle analysis checklist in
    your pack

124
Life Cycle Analysis Cradle to Grave
125
REDUCING
  • Reduced consumption of the raw materials that
    generate waste
  • Results in
  • purchasing savings
  • reductions in waste-removal costs

126
WASTE REDUCTION
  • buy food and materials in bulk
  • avoid over-packaged items
  • provide dispensers for shampoo, coffee, sugar
    etc. rather than packaged single serves
  • install water-efficient appliances
  • implement appropriate maintenance programs that
    prolong the life of equipment

127
WASTE REDUCTION
  • develop catering practices that minimise food
    wastage through portion control and appropriate
    food storage,
  • use composting toilets to reduce waste-water
    volumes
  • reduce building waste at the source by accurately
    specifying materials and avoiding packaged items.

128
RE-USING
  • The next step is to re-use or find another use
    for a product once it has served its useful life
  • Minimises resource consumption and waste by
    increasing the number of times a product is used
    before disposal
  • Offers considerable savings

129
RE-USE OPTIONS
  • using refillable dispensers rather than
    individually bottled soaps, shampoos and
    conditioners
  • asking employees to re-use coffee mugs instead of
    using disposable cups
  • using both sides of a piece of writing paper
  • re-using torn or soiled sheets and towels as
    drop-cloths or rags

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RE-USE OPTIONS
  • donating products and materials to charitable
    organisations
  • encouraging guests to re-use towels, sheets, and
    so on, so that linen does not need to be
    laundered daily
  • re-using building materials in new applications

131
RECYCLING
  • Involves recovering materials that would
    otherwise have been thrown away and reprocessing
    them into useful products
  • However, there must be a market for these goods
    otherwise the effort is not viable

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Suitable to Recycle
  • Glass
  • Paper
  • Steel cans (e.g. food, coffee, oil, paint and
    aerosol)
  • Bottle tops and jam jar lids
  • Aluminium soft drink and beer cans
  • Aluminium cooking foil
  • Milk and juice cartons

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COMPOSTING
  • Composting is very cost effective because it
    converts kitchen and garden waste into a
    substance that can enrich the soil and reduce
    erosion and water loss

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WASTE-MANAGEMENT STRATEGY
  • Start thinking of your waste as a potentially
    valuable resource, not as a valueless nuisance.
  • Audit your waste
  • Involve your staff
  • Start small
  • Order only re-useable or natural materials

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Departmental Environmental impacts Waste
  • Rooms Division(Front Office
  • Housekeeping)
  • Food and Beverage
  • Food production/ Kitchen
  • Banqueting
  • Clubs
  • Gaming
  • Sales and marketing
  • Human resources
  • Financial control/ accounts
  • Security
  • Maintenance

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Kitchen- Waste
  • Stop using disposable items
  • Work with suppliers to stop unnecessary packaging
  • Recycle - segregation of glass, tin, plastics and
    paper
  • Composting organic waste
  • Donating left over food to charities- Oz Harvest
  • Menu planning and portion control to reduce
    waste food
  • Use Stock rotation- FIFO
  • Avoid energy and water wastage

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House keeping Laundry Waste
  • Save and reuse clothes hangers
  • Collect and deliver items of laundry to guests in
    reusable cotton bags rather than plastic ones
  • Recycle bed linen by making it into laundry bags
  • Use detergent in recommended dosage
  • Avoid water and energy waste ( refer back to
    slides )

138
PLEASE CAN YOU RETURN YOUR HANGERS AND TROUSER
GUARDS
YOU CAN SAVE HILTON SYDNEY 3,000 EACH YEAR AND
HELP TO SAVE THE ENVIRONMENT
139
Food and Beverage- Waste
  • Replace paper napkins or table covering with
    linen Laundering wastes less energy and produces
    less pollution
  • Work with suppliers to stop unnecessary packaging
  • Stop serving bottled water
  • Avoid using single serve items e.g. butter jam
  • Buffets create a lot of wastage
  • Use FIFO

140
Front Office- Waste
  • Electronic internal information to reduce paper
    usage
  • Check with guest if they would like newspapers
  • Reuse of paper
  • Recycle toner cartridges

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RECYCLE ALL YOUR PAPER IN THE BLUE BIN PROVIDED
  • USE THE BLACK BINS
  • IN YOUR OFFICE
  • FOR OTHER
  • RUBBISH

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Guest Rooms- Waste
  • Use non- toxic cleaners
  • Reuse linen unsuitable for its original purpose
    Towels and sheets for cleaning cloths
  • Use dispensers instead of sachets
  • Give half used products e.g. shampoo shower gel
    to a charity
  • Use cleaning materials in the recommended
    concentrations and dispose of containers properly
  • Use recycle bins

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Conference and Meeting- Waste
  • Reuse of non-confidential papers
  • Segregation of paper for recycling

144
Engineering and Maintenance Waste
  • Care of used oils, lubricants, paints and solvents

145
Back of House- Waste
  • Recycling schemes for plastic cups, cans, bottles
    etc

146
Sales and Marketing- Waste
  • Careful planning of brochure production runs

147
Human Resources - Waste
  • Control of use of paper, toners, etc.
  • Training is the biggest contribution

148
Financial Control
  • Monitoring, measuring and controlling food waste
  • Monitoring landfill and carrier returns

149
Tools to measure performance
  • HEAT ( Hospitality Energy analysis tool ) This is
    an online tool that enables properties to see
    how they compare with industry norms in terms of
  • Energy consumption
  • Energy Costs
  • Energy Management

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Example of Software Tools to measure performance
  • HEAT ( Hospitality Energy analysis tool )
  • Bottomline3
  • Green Engage

151
HEAT Hospitality Energy Analysis Tool
  • Once you have entered your data, HEAT will
    calculate your energy use and then provide you
    with an online report concerning your energy use
    and advice on how to improve your efficiency
  • Example of report on USB

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HEAT Hospitality Energy Analysis Tool
  • It will also give you specific advice on
  • Controlling energy better
  • Using Energy More Efficiently
  • Reducing avoidable waste while adding to customer
    comfort

153
Bottom line 3
  • Software tool was developed  via  Sydney
    University.
  • calculates the eco-foot print of any company
    based on 2 input types
  • 1) Basic finical summaries of a company,
  • 2) Basic percentage utilization against industry
    sectors of a companies income and expenditures.
  • Example, how much of annual budget spent on food
    or how much income  draws on food sector etc.  It
    also has a default estimate feature to do the
    guess work for a company based on typical
    percentages if unknown.

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Green Engage
  • Software used by IHG
  • Starts with hotels inputting their on site data.
  • The system automatically generates reports and
    compares similar hotels across the world.
  • Green Engage includes online lists for both new
    and current hotels showing the specific actions
    they need to take to reduce their energy, water
    and waste.
  • Every aspect of the hotel lifecycle is covered
    from picking a responsible destination, selecting
    the correct lighting for the hotel through to
    selecting responsible cleaning materials and
    providing staff training on sustainability.
  • The return on investment, carbon reduction and
    potential impact on our customers is calculated
    for each action item suggested.

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Legislation and Regulation
  • ACT an act of Parliament that makes laws . When
    people talk about the legislation, they mean a
    law or a body of laws.
  • REGULATIONS are the way that the legislation is
    applied
  • They are generally very specific in nature
  • They are the rules that deal with certain issues
    in greater detail than are contained in the act,
  • CODES of PRACTISE
  • provide practical guidance and advice on how to
    achieve the standard required by the Act and
    regulation. Codes of practice are developed
    through consultation with representatives from
    industry, workers and employers, special interest
    groups and government agencies. A code of
    practice is not law, but it should be followed
    unless there is an alternative course of action
    that achieves the same or better standards.
  • COMPLIANCE Meeting with the requirements of the
    legalisation , regulation and codes of practise

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Legalisation
  • Protection of the Environment Operations Act
  • ( POEO) 1997 (NSW) and amendments
  • Main NSW environmental Legislation covering
    water land air and noise pollution and waste
    management

160
Aims of the POEO Act
  • To protect, restore and enhance the quality of
    the environment in New South Wales, having regard
    to the need to maintain ecologically sustainable
    development
  • To provide increased opportunities for public
    involvement and participation in environment
    protection,
  • To ensure that the community has access to
    relevant and meaningful information about
    pollution,
  • Too reduce risks to human health and prevent the
    degradation of the environment by the use of
    mechanisms that promote the following
  • pollution prevention and cleaner production
  • the reduction to harmless levels of the discharge
    of substances likely to cause harm to the
    environment
  • the elimination of harmful wastes
  • the reduction in the use of materials and the
    re-use, recovery or recycling of materials
  • the making of progressive environmental
    improvements, including the reduction of
    pollution at source
  • the monitoring and reporting of environmental
    quality on a regular basis,

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Code of practise ( Work cover NSW )Control of
workplace hazardous substances
  • Designed to deal with the safe use of hazardous
    substances in the workplace so as to minimise the
    risk of disease and injury due to the exposure of
    hazardous substances in the workplace
  • www.workcover.nsw.gov.au/Documents/Publications/L
    awandPolicy/CodesOfPractice/control_of_workplace_h
    azardous_substances_code_of_practice_0153.pdf

162
Code of practise (Work Cover NSW) Control of
workplace hazardous substances
  • This code of practice provides guidance on hazard
    identification, risk assessment and control as
    required by the Occupational Health and Safety
    Regulation 2001, in relation to those substances
    classified as hazardous to health

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Code of practise ( Work cover NSW )Control of
workplace hazardous substances
  • It assists employers and self-employed persons
    meet their obligations to provide adequate health
    and safety information to users of hazardous
    substances.

164
Reporting
  • Some workplaces have committees that deal with
    environmental issues.
  • Find out the officer who deals with environmental
    hazards and issues.
  • Make sure you know what to do and who to talk to
    in the event of an environmental hazards or
    incident.

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Useful Website
  • Innovation Hotel www.ihg.com/responsibility
  • http//www.greenhotels.com
  • http//www.hospitableclimates.co.uk
  • http//www.greenhotelier.org/ nsw.com.au
  • http//www.clubsnsw.com.au
  • http//www.sustainability.vic.gov.au/
  • http//www.environment.nsw.gov.au/

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Useful Website
  • http//www.economicallysound.com/why_environmental
    ly_friendly_hotels.html
  • http//bottomline3.com/
  • http//www.sydneywater.com.au/Water4Life/InYourBus
    iness/HospitalityTraining.cfm
  • http//www.planning.nsw.gov.au

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Useful websites
  • http//www.scec.com.au/media_centre/sustainability
    forum/
  • http//www.greencapital.org.au/education.html
  • http//www.sustainableclubs.com.au/
  • http//tool.ncsustainability.com.au/default.aspx

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SITXENV001A Participate in environmentally sustain
able work practises
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