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Clean Coal Technology, The Indian Perspective: Challenges and Road Map Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP on 25th Jan 2012

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Title: Clean Coal Technology, The Indian Perspective: Challenges and Road Map Presented by Himadri Banerji at TREC-STEP on 25th Jan 2012


1
Clean Coal Technology, The Indian Perspective
Challenges and Road MapPresented by Himadri
Banerji at TREC-STEP on 25th Jan 2012
2
Coal The most Significant Source of Energy
Some 23 of primary energy needs are met by coal
and 39 of electricity is generated from coal.
About 70 of world steel production depends on
coal feedstock. Coal is the world's most abundant
and widely distributed fossil fuel source. The
International Energy Agency expects a 43
increase in its use from 2000 to 2020. Burning
coal produces about 12 billion tonnes of carbon
dioxide each year which is released to the
atmosphere, about 70 of this being from power
generation. Other estimates put carbon dioxide
emissions from power generation at one third of
the world total of over 28 billion tonnes of
CO2 emissions.
3
What are Clean Coal Solutions?
A continuously developing range of technology
solutions which improve the efficiency and
environmental impact of using coal as an energy
source. ? Beneficiating coal (pre-combustion)
coal de-watering, washing and briquetting. ? Effic
ient alternative uses of coal reserves UCG,
coal seam methane ? Efficiency improvements of
power plants (post combustion) Plant upgrades,
? Supercritical and ultra supercritical
plants. ? Advanced technologies IGCC, PFBC and
IGFC ? Super-Advanced Technologies Carbon
sequestration or elimination
4
Why are Clean Coal solutions so important?
  • Dual Crisis - Energy crisis v Climate change
    crisis
  • Energy Crisis Quick Stats (international Energy
    Agency, WEO 2006)
  • Global energy demand will increase by 70 by
    2030.
  • 70 of the increase will come from China and
    India.
  • Fossil fuels will account for 83 of global
    energy production.
  • Coal will makeup 25 of all fossil fuels used
    The largest contributor.
  • Power generation will account for over 80 of
    increased Coal usage.
  • Energy Crisis---Impacts and Concerns
  • Fear and uncertainty for growing economies on how
    to fuel their continued economic success is
    rising.
  • Coal is the most abundant source of energy in the
    world and will be continued to be used as the
    major feedstock for electricity production for at
    least the next 30-40 years


Dual Crisis - Energy crisis v Climate change
crisis
Dual Crisis - Energy crisis v Climate change
crisis
Energy Crisis Quick Stats (international Energy
Agency, WEO 2006)
Energy Crisis Quick Stats (international Energy
Agency, WEO 2006)
Global energy demand will increase by 70 by
2030.
Global energy demand will increase by 70 by
2030.
?
?
70 of the increase will come from China and
India.
70 of the increase will come from China and
India.
?
?
Fossil fuels will account for 83 of global
energy production.
Fossil fuels will account for 83 of global
energy production.
?
?
Coal will makeup 25 of all fossil fuels used
The largest contributor.
Coal will makeup 25 of all fossil fuels used
The largest contributor.
?
?
Power generation will account for over 80 of
increased Coal usage.
Power generation will account for over 80 of
increased Coal usage.
?
?
Fear and uncertainty for growing economies on how
to fuel their continued
Fear and uncertainty for growing economies on how
to fuel their continued
economic success is rising.
economic success is rising.
Coal is the most abundant source of energy in the
world and will be
Coal is the most abundant source of energy in the
world and will be
continued to be used as the major feedstock for
electricity production for
continued to be used as the major feedstock for
electricity production for
at least the next 30-40 years
at least the next 30-40 years
5
UNIVERSAL ENERGY ACCESS BY2030
There are estimates that more than 2 Billion
people lack access to clean and modern energy
sources. In China, 423 Million people rely on
conventional biomass for cooking applications.
The corresponding number in India and Africa is
855 and 657 Million respectively. Almost 400
million Indians lack access to electricity. The
per capita electricity consumption of India is a
measly 600 kWh as against over 12,000 for the US.
Providing clean and cheap energy access is a
major challenge, especially in the developing
countries.
6
Indias Power Sector..Reliance on Coal
Availability of, and access to, electricity is a
crucial element of modern economies and it helps
pave the way for human development.
Accordingly, the power sector has been given a
high priority in the national planning processes
in India and a concerted focus on enhancing this
sector has resulted in significant gains in
generation and availability of electricity in the
years since independence.
Coal-based power has driven much of the growth in
Indias power sector over the past three decades.
By 2004-05, coal and lignite accounted for about
57 of installed capacity (68 GW out of 118 GW)
and 71 of generated electricity (424 TWh out of
594 TWh) in the country
Currently, the power sector consumes about 80 of
the coal produced in the country. As the demand
for electricity is expect to rise dramatically
over the next decade, coal will continue to
be the dominant energy source.
7
Indias Power Sector Reliance on Sub Critical
Technology
The Central Electricity Authority (CEA) has
estimated that meeting electricity demand over
the next ten years will require more than
doubling the existing capacity, from about 132 GW
in 2007 to about 280 GW by 2017, of which at
least 80 GW of new capacityis expected to be
based on coal. Sub-critical pulverized coal
(PC) combustion power plants manufactured by
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) based
on technologies licensed from various
international manufacturers have been the
backbone of Indias coal-power sector.

8
Indias Load CurveRecipe for Disaster Can Smart
Metering Help?
Load Shedding Urban Centric Supply Tariff
Distortion
9
History of Efficiencies of Indian Power Plants
10
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11
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12
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13
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14
The International Scene on Technology
Internationally Combustion based on supercritical
steam, offering higher efficiencies than
sub-critical PC, is a commercial technology.
Ultra-supercritical PC, which offers even
higher efficiency, is also being deployed, while
oxy-fuel combustion for facilitating capture of
carbon-dioxide (CO2) is under development.
Integrated gasification with combined-cycle
operation (IGCC), with significant potential for
high efficiency and for cost-effective reduction
of CO2 and other emissions, is likely to be
commercially available in the near future.
15
Coal-fired power generation, thermal
efficiency  OECD Projected Costs of Generating
Electricity 2010, Tables 3.3. PCC pulverised
coal combustion, AC air-cooled, WC
water-cooled. 
16
Costs and Efficiencies of some referenced plants
17
Chaleenges to Development of Ultra Super Critical
Units
The most important challenge is to develop
materials to withstand the tough operating
conditions Main requirements Creep rupture
strength gt100 MPa at 100,000 hrs Resistance to
fire side corrosion at elevated temperatures
Resistance to steam side oxidation Good thermal
conductivity Low coefficient of expansion Good
manufacturability Amenable to casting, forging,
welding, and manufacture of pipes and tubes
18
Adv-USC Materials Nickel based alloys have been
developed for 700 C application IN 617, IN740,
Alloy 263 and their variants Development is also
in progress to develop improved materials to meet
specific objectives 12-15Cr Advanced
Martensitic Steels for temperatures up to 650
C Z Phase strengthening steels up to 650
C Low Nickel alloys for 700 C to 710 C
19
Additional Challenges for Adv-USC in India
Developing indigenous processes and capacities
for complex alloys and other materials Developing
technologies and vendors for castings,
forgings for steam turbines and pipes and tubes
for boilers Developing welding technologies for
thick sections and for dissimilar metals in
welded rotors Characterisation and long term
testing of indigenously produced
materials Component testing facility for
corrosion with Indian coals Developing
capabilities for ab initio design of
equipment like boilers and steam turbines
20
Indias Energy WoesAn Ailing Power Sector
In the case of electric power, any increase in
generation capacity is more than offset by
inefficiencies and wastage at every stage
generation, transmission, distribution and
delivery. Without fixing these inefficiencies
and wastage, increasing generation capacity and
production is like filling a bucket full of holes!
21
The key challenges facing Indias power sector
An urgent need to increase energy and
electricity availability for human and
infrastructure development Increasing energy
security Local environment protection and
pollution control and Control of greenhouse
gas emissions (particularly carbon dioxide).
22
The key challenges facing Indias power sector
  • Generating utility-scale electricity from coal
    requires a range of tradeoffs financial,
    natural resource, environmental, and social and
    there is need to meet the requirements of a
    diverse set of stakeholders who have strong
    concerns about decisions made in this sector.
  • We need to cut down on transmission and
    distribution losses and
  • Untangle the environmental problems that coal
    mining has run into.
  • Policymakers have to balance the needs of
    development with environmental considerations.

23
Major Constraints in meeting these key challenges
The task of meeting these broad challenges is
further complicated by several constraints
Availability and quality of domestic coal
Limited financial resources Inadequate
technical capacity for RD, manufacturing, and
OM and The institutional characteristics of
the Indian power sector.
24
Options in Clean Coal Technology for India
Commercial supercritical combustion technology is
the best option for India in the short-to-medium
term. While gasification and advanced
combustion technologies will be potentially
important options for the longer-term future,
there are significant issues surrounding the
current relevance of these emerging technologies
for India, including uncertainties in technical
and cost trajectory, suitability for Indian
conditions, and timing of Indias greenhouse-gas
mitigation commitments.
25
Suggested Roadmap For India
implement the following roadmap (a) improve
the efficiency of the power system (generating
stock, TD network, and end-use sectors) to
reduce the need for addition in generation
capacity and therefore buy time for making
appropriate technology decisions (b) implement
supercritical-combustion-based generation plants
to meet capacity addition needs in the
short-to-medium term
26
Suggested Roadmap For India
(c) enforce and tighten local environmental
pollution controls through better pollution
control technologies and greater and meaningful
public participation and (d) invest in a
focused plan to examine geological carbon storage
options, with detailed assessment of CO2 storage
locations, capacity and storage mechanisms in
order to collect valuable information for Indias
carbon mitigation options and inform future
technology selection as well as siting decisions
for coal-power plants.
27
Suggested Roadmap For India
  • (e) Evaluate on an ongoing basis the
    appropriateness of emerging
  • technologies for India through a monitoring and
    feasibility
  • assessment program, and
  • (f) By advancing specific elements of these
    technologies and ensure
  • that they can be deployed as and when needed
    through
  • (g) Strategic research, development, and
    demonstration program, in partnership with key
    actors from the coal and hydrocarbon mining, and
    the petrochemical industry
  • (h) Consolidate the existing coal-based RD
    programs in
  • industry, research institutes, and academia under
    a common vision with specific objectives and
    plans for the future, and help make appropriate
    international linkages

28
Funding Global transition to low carbon
technologies is inherently an expensive
option. For instance, most renewable sources are
expensive as compared with conventional
technologies. Wind is now almost cost
competitive, but solar power is very expensive
almost four times that of coal based power
generation. Developing countries would be unable
to undertake such a transition in the absence of
a global funding initiative to incentivize a
large scale deployment of renewable power.
The present mechanisms such as CDM and World
Bank/GEF funded projects have only gone so far
and are not adequate for large scale adoption of
renewable sources in developing countries.
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