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SR6e Chapter 2

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CHAPTER 2 THEORIES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT * * * * * * * * * Reinforcement occurs when a consequence strengthens a response or makes it more likely to occur Two forms of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SR6e Chapter 2


1
CHAPTER 2 THEORIES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
2
Learning Objectives
  • What are the main issues addressed by
    developmental theories?
  • Where does each major theorist Freud, Erikson,
    Skinner, Bandura, Piaget, and Gottlieb stand on
    each of these issues?

3
Theories of Human Development
  • Developmental theory
  • Ideas proposed to describe/explain phenomena
  • Provides means to organize, interpret, explain
    facts or observations
  • Guides collection of new data

4
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5
Five Key Developmental Issues
  • Goodness-badness of human nature
  • Evidence of biologically-based tendencies for
    good and bad
  • Nature-nurture issue
  • Biological forces or environmental forces
  • Activity-passivity issue
  • Are humans active agents in their own development
    or passively shaped by forces beyond their
    control?

6
Five Key Developmental Issues, continued
  • Continuity-discontinuity issue
  • Are changes over the lifespan gradual or abrupt
    (like stair steps)?
  • Are changes quantitative (a matter of degree) or
    qualitative (changes in kind)?
  • Universality-context-specificity issue
  • Are developmental changes common to all humans or
    different across cultures, subcultures, contexts,
    and individuals?

7
Learning Objectives
  • What are the features of Freuds psychoanalytic
    theory of personality?
  • What are the features of Freuds psychoanalytic
    theory of psychosexual development?
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of
    psychoanalytic theory?

8
Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality
  • Central notion humans have instincts that
    motivate behavior
  • Unconscious motivation
  • Humans possess psychic energy that is divided
    among three components of the personality
  • Id impulsive, selfish part of personality
  • Ego rational aspect that seeks to gratify
    instincts
  • Superego internalized moral standards

9
Freuds Theory of Psychosexual Development
  • As a child biologically matures, libido seeks to
    gratify different biological needs
  • Libido psychic energy of the sex instinct
  • Child moves through five stages
  • Oral infancy
  • Anal toddlerhood
  • Phallic 3 to 6 years of age
  • Latent 6 to 12 years of age
  • Genital - adolescence

10
Concepts in Freuds Theory of Psychosexual
Development
  • Fixation arrested development the libido is
    tied to an earlier stage of development
  • Oedipus complex a young boy loves his mother
    and fears his father will retaliate by castrating
    him
  • Resolves this conflict by identification taking
    on or internalizing the attitudes and behaviors
    of the other person
  • Electra complex a young girl desires her
    father, views her mother as a rival
  • Resolves the conflict by identifying with her
    mother

11
Concepts in Freuds Theory Defense Mechanisms
  • Defense mechanisms unconscious coping devices
    that the ego adopts to defend itself against
    anxiety
  • Repression
  • Regression
  • Projection
  • Reaction formation

12
Strengths and Weaknesses of Freuds Theory
  • Weaknesses
  • Theory said to be ambiguous, internally
    inconsistent, not testable, and therefore not
    falsifiable
  • Strengths
  • Many insights have held up and been influential
  • Called attention to unconscious processes
  • Emphasized importance of early experience
  • Emphasized importance of emotions and emotional
    conflicts

13
Learning Objectives
  • How does Eriksons psychoanalytic theory compare
    to Freuds theory?
  • What crisis characterizes each of Eriksons
    psychosocial stages?

14
Erik Erikson
  • Most influential neo-Freudian
  • Some differences with Freud
  • Less emphasis on sexual urges
  • More emphasis on rational ego
  • More positive, adaptive view of human nature
  • Development continues through adulthood

15
Eriksons Stages Approximate Ages
  • Trust vs. mistrust infancy
  • Autonomy vs. shame and doubt toddlerhood
  • Initiative vs. guilt preschool
  • Industry vs. inferiority school-age childhood
  • Identity vs. role confusion adolescence
  • Intimacy vs. isolation young adulthood
  • Generativity vs. stagnation middle age
  • Integrity vs. despair Late life

16
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17
Strengths and Weaknesses of Eriksons
Psychosocial Theory
  • Strengths
  • Emphasis on rational and adaptive nature
  • Emphasis on interaction of biological and social
    influences
  • Influenced research into adolescence and
    adulthood
  • Weaknesses
  • Sometimes vague and difficult to test
  • Describes human personality development but does
    not explain how development occurs

18
Learning Objectives
  • What are the distinct features of the learning
    theories covered in this chapter Watsons
    classical conditioning, Skinners operant
    conditioning, and Banduras social-cognitive
    theory?
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of the
    learning theories in our understanding of
    lifespan development?

19
Learning Theories Classical Conditioning
  • Behaviorism conclusions should be based only
    upon observable behavior
  • Principles of classical conditioning and learning
    by association
  • UCS automatic, unlearned stimulus
  • UCR automatic, unlearned response
  • CS learned stimulus
  • CR learned response

20
  • Caption The three phases of classical
    conditioning

21
Learning Theories Operant Conditioning
  • Learners behavior is more/less probable
    depending upon the consequences it produces
  • People tend to repeat behaviors that have
    desirable consequences and reduce behaviors that
    have undesirable consequences
  • We learn new skills and good and bad habits

22
Learning Theories Operant Conditioning
  • Reinforcement occurs when a consequence
    strengthens a response or makes it more likely to
    occur
  • Two forms of reinforcement
  • Positive something pleasant or desirable is
    added
  • Negative something unpleasant or undesirable is
    removed, escaped, or avoided

23
Learning Theories Operant Conditioning
  • Punishment decreases the strength of a behavior
    or weakens it
  • Two forms of punishment
  • Positive occurs when an unpleasant stimulus is
    applied or added to the situation following the
    behavior
  • Negative occurs when a desirable stimulus is
    removed following the behavior

24
  • Caption Possible consequences of whining
    behavior. Moosie comes into the TV room and sees
    his father talking and joking with his sister,
    Lulu, as the two watch a football game. Soon
    Moosie begins to whine, louder and louder, that
    he wants them to turn off the television so he
    can play Nintendo games. If you were Moosies
    father, how would you react? Above are four
    possible consequences of Moosies behavior.
    Consider both the type of consequence whether
    it is a pleasant or aversive stimulus and
    whether it is administered (added) or
    withdrawn. Notice that reinforcement strengthens
    whining behavior, or makes it more likely in the
    future, whereas punishment weakens it.

25
Learning Theories Operant ConditioningSpanking
A Form of Punishment
  • Best to use more positive approaches before
    resorting to spanking, but . . .
  • Spanking can have short-term effect if it
  • Is administered immediately after the act
  • Is administered consistently
  • Is not overly harsh
  • Is accompanied by explanation
  • Is administered by an otherwise affectionate
    person
  • Is used sparingly and combined with efforts to
    reinforce desirable behavior

26
Banduras Social-Cognitive Theory
  • Formerly called social-learning theory
  • Emphasizes the motivating, self-regulating role
    of cognition in human behavior
  • Includes observational learning the most
    important mechanism through which human behavior
    changes

27
Banduras Social-Cognitive Theory
  • Observational learning
  • Accomplished by observing the behavior of others
    (models)
  • Learners pay attention, construct and remember
    mental representations, retrieve the
    representations from memory, and use them to
    guide behavior
  • Famous Bobo doll study
  • Includes the processes of latent learning and
    vicarious reinforcement

28
Banduras Social-Cognitive Theory
  • Additional aspects of social-cognitive theory
  • Human agency ways in which people deliberately
    exercise cognitive control
  • Self-efficacy a high or low sense that one can
    effectively produce desired outcomes in a
    particular activity
  • Reciprocal determinism mutual influences among
    the person, the persons behavior, and the
    environment

29
  • Caption Banduras reciprocal determinism
    involves mutual influences of the person, the
    persons behavior, and the environment

30
Learning Theories Strengths and Weaknesses
  • Strengths
  • Theories are precise and testable
  • Can test via carefully controlled experiments
  • Principles apply across the lifespan
  • Practical applications are possible
  • Weaknesses
  • Inadequate accounts of developmental changes
  • Too little consideration of genetic and
    maturational processes

31
Learning Objectives
  • What is Piagets perspective on cognitive
    development?
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of Piagets
    theory?

32
Concepts in Piagets Theory of Cognitive
Development
  • Intelligence process that helps a person adapt
    to the environment
  • Constructivism children construct new
    understandings of the world based on their
    experiences
  • Interaction between biological maturation and
    experiences is responsible for childrens
    developmental progress from one stage to the
    next, qualitatively different, stage

33
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34
Stages of Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development
  • Sensorimotor stage
  • Infants deal with the world through their senses
    and their motor skills
  • Properational stage
  • Preschoolers can use symbolic thought but cannot
    yet use logical problem-solving
  • Cannot demonstrate conservation

35
Stages of Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development
  • Concrete operations stage
  • School-age children are more logical and can use
    trial-and-error approach to problem-solving
  • Formal operations stage
  • Adolescents are able to think abstractly and
    hypothetically

36
Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development
  • Strengths
  • Well-accepted by developmentalists
  • Well-researched, mostly supported
  • Influenced education and parenting

37
Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development
  • Weaknesses
  • Too little consideration of influences of
    motivation and emotion upon thought processes
  • Questionable that the stages constitute a
    coherent, general mode of thinking
  • Perhaps underestimated cognitive abilities of
    young children
  • Too little emphasis upon parents and caregivers
  • Stages may not be universal

38
Challenges to Piagets Theory of Cognitive
Development
  • Vygotskys sociocultural perspective
  • View that cognitive development is shaped by its
    sociocultural context and childrens interactions
    with members of their culture
  • Information-processing approach
  • Examines fundamental processes of attention,
    memory, decision-making, etc.

39
Learning Objectives
  • How do systems theories conceptualize
    development?
  • What have evolutionary theory and ethology
    contributed to our understanding of human
    development?

40
Systems Theories
  • Systems theories attribute changes over the
    lifespan to ongoing, reciprocal transactions
    between a changing organism and a changing
    environment
  • Examples
  • Bronfenbrenners bioecological model
  • Gottliebs epigenetic psychobiological systems
    perspective

41
Evolutionary Theory and Ethology
  • Evolutionary theory considers how human
    characteristics and behaviors observed today may
    have been adaptive for our ancestors and thus
    become part of human genetics
  • Darwin inspired the field of ethology
  • Study of evolved behavior of species in their
    natural environments
  • Ethologists suggest that human behaviors are the
    products of evolution and help humans adapt to
    their environment

42
Learning Objectives
  • What are the essential elements of Gottliebs
    epigenetic psychobiological systems perspective
    of development?
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of the
    systems theories of development?

43
Gottliebs Epigenetic Psychobiological Systems
Perspective
  • Development is the product of interacting
    biological and environmental influences that form
    a larger system
  • Evolution endowed humans with genetic makeup
  • Genes and environment interact because humans
    actively change their environments
  • Occurs at the species level
  • Biological and cultural evolution contribute to
    change over time in the human species

44
Gottlieb Epigenesis
  • Epigenesis over and above genes
  • Nature and nurture, genes and environment, co-act
    to yield developmental outcomes
  • Epigenetic process
  • Activity of genes
  • Activity of neurons
  • Organisms behavior
  • Environmental influences

45
Strengths and Weaknesses of Systems Theories of
Development
  • Strengths
  • Call attention to ongoing transactions between
    the individual and the environment
  • Weaknesses
  • Only partially formulated and tested
  • No coherent developmental theory

46
Learning Objective
  • How can we categorize theories of human
    development?

47
Categories of Human Development Theories
  • Freud, Erikson, and Piaget
  • Stage theorists
  • Development guided in universal directions by
    biological-maturational forces
  • Parents are supporters of development
  • Watson, Skinner, and Bandura
  • Learning theorists
  • Emphasize environment more than biology
  • Parents are their childrens trainers

48
Categories of Human Development Theories
  • Systems and contextual theorists
  • View biology and environment as inseparable
    components of a larger system
  • Humans are active contributors to development,
    but environment also is an active participant.
  • Parents view themselves as partners with their
    children in the development process

49
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