Part II: Ethics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Part II: Ethics PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3c5c39-ZDBmY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Part II: Ethics

Description:

Part II: Ethics Ch. 2: How should one live? Ch. 3: How can I know what is right? Ch. 4: What makes society just? Ch. 5: Is justice for all possible? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:48
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 31
Provided by: AcademicC1
Category:
Tags: ethics | part

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Part II: Ethics


1
Part II Ethics
  • Ch. 2 How should one live?
  • Ch. 3 How can I know what is right?
  • Ch. 4 What makes society just?
  • Ch. 5 Is justice for all possible?

2
Chapter 2 How Should One Live?
  • What constitutes a good life?
  • Need to answer moral questions in a way that is
    not ambiguous or vague
  • What is the difference between actual desires and
    ones idea of what they ought to do?

3
Answering Moral Questions
  • Moral questions must be answered in a way that is
    not
  • Ambiguous has many meanings and is not clear
    precisely to what it refers
  • Vague without clear distinctions

4
Answering Moral Questions
  • Moral questions should be answered in way that
    is
  • Descriptive describes the kinds of values
    people have and the sorts of principles they use
  • Normative the norms that ought to guide ones
    actions

5
Reading the Philosophers
  • Ask yourself how the author would answer these
    questions
  • What is the good life?
  • How is the good life attained?
  • Why is the life described as a good one?

6
Justification for Answers
  • When asking why questions, the author should
    provide two types of justification
  • Justification of the goal
  • Justification of the means

7
The Buddha and the Middle Way
  • Buddha the Enlightened One
  • Siddhartha Gautama (563 BCE.) was deemed Buddha
    after being enlightened concerning how to attain
    wisdom and overcome suffering
  • Nirvana release from suffering

8
Buddhism
  • Buddhism developed from Siddhartha Gautamas
    teaching
  • Three main groups
  • Theravada Way of the Elders
  • Mahayana Greater Vehicle
  • Vajrayana Diamond Vehicle

9
Buddhism
  • Four Noble Truths heart of Buddahs message.
  • Middle Way or Eightfold Path the Fourth Noble
    Truth

10
The Four Noble Truths The Buddha
  • The Noble Truth of Suffering
  • The Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering
  • The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering
  • The Noble Truth of the Way of Practice Leading to
    the Cessation of Suffering

11
The Noble Truth of Suffering
  • Suffering is understood through the five
    aggregates (components of the individual human
    being) of grasping
  • The aggregates of grasping
  • Form
  • Feeling
  • Perception
  • Mental formations
  • Consciousness

12
The Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering
  • A craving or desire arises and establishes itself
    through the pleasures of sights, sounds, smells,
    tastes, tangibles, and mind-objects

13
The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering
  • Complete fading away and extinction of craving or
    desire
  • Liberation from desires

14
Noble Truth of the Way of Practice Leading to the
Cessation of Suffering
  • Noble Eightfold Path
  • Right View
  • Right Thought
  • Right Speech
  • Right Action
  • Right Livelihood
  • Right Effort
  • Right Mindfulness
  • Right Concentration

15
The Fourth Noble Truth Walpola Rahula
  • Fourth Noble Truth Composed of Eightfold Path
  • Called the Middle Path because it avoids two
    extremes
  • Search for happiness through pleasure of senses
  • Search for happiness through self-mortification

16
The Fourth Noble Truth Walpola Rahula
  • Eightfold Path promote three essentials of
    Buddhist training and discipline
  • Ethical Conduct Right speech, action, and
    livelihood
  • Mental Discipline Right effort, mindfulness,
    and concentration
  • Wisdom Right thought and understanding

17
Confucius and the Life of Virtue
  • Confucius
  • born in China (551 479 BCE)
  • humanistic social philosophy concern for
    achieving good social order and cultivating
    humane qualities in the human spirit

18
Confucius and the Life of Virtue
  • Key attributes of Confucian philosophy
  • Ren (jen) goodness, benevolence, and
    humanheartedness. What we become by
    cultivating aesthetic, moral, cognitive, and
    spiritual sensibilities.
  • Li rules of proper behavior. Grounded in
    tradition.
  • Xiao (hsiao) practice of kindness, honor,
    respect, and loyalty among family members
  • Yi refers to what is appropriate or fitting to
    do in a given situation

19
Confucius and Moral Character D. C. Lau
  • Distinctions of ideal moral character
  • Sage (sheng jen) highest level of moral
    character
  • Good man and complete man
  • Gentleman (chün tzu) characterized by
    benevolence.
  • Small man (Hsiao Jen) opposite of gentleman

20
Confucius and Moral Character D. C. Lau
  • Becoming a Gentleman The meaning of benevolence.
  • Do not impose on others what you yourself do not
    desire (XII.2)
  • Shu method of discovering what other people do
    or do not wish done to them
  • Chung doing ones best, practicing what one has
    learned from shu
  • Benevolence consists in overcoming self and
    observance of rites

21
Socrates on Living the Examined Life
  • Socrates was born in Athens 9 years after
    Confucius died
  • Socratic method consists of asking questions to
    formulate, critique, and reform definitions of
    concepts
  • Divine command theory Gods command or will
    makes something morally right

22
The Apology Plato
  • Platos account of the trial and defense of
    Socrates in 399 BCE.
  • What is the good life?
  • The examined life, because the life which is
    unexamined is not worth living (pg 57).
  • How is the good life attained?
  • Examine life through asking questions
  • He who understands his own limitations is wiser
    than he who thinks he is wise

23
The Apology Plato
  • What makes this the good life?
  • In the examined life, one seeks virtue and wisdom
    and looks to the welfare of others
  • This is profitable both to ones self and others

24
Aristotle on Happiness and the Life of Moderation
  • Aristotle was a student of Plato (384 322 BCE)
  • Tutor of Alexandor the Great
  • Aristotle was a teleologist he believed that
    all existing things have a purpose
  • Teleology end, goal, or purpose
  • He was concerned with the good of all humans, or
    eudaimonia

25
Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle
  • Every action and pursuit aims at some good
  • The things we do for the sake of a desired end
    are the chief good
  • Human good is the activity of the soul in
    accordance with virtue

26
Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle
  • Happiness is the activity of the soul in
    accordance with perfect virtue
  • The nature of virtue
  • Intellectual virtue born through teaching
  • Moral result of habit
  • Virtue is a state of character concerned with
    choice
  • Moral virtue is a mean between excess and
    deficiency

27
The Song of God
  • How does one strive for moral perfection in
    morally imperfect world?
  • Hinduism
  • Dharma order of the cosmos embodied in social
    and ethical law codes
  • Karma consequences of action. As you sow,
    you will reap
  • Samsara cycle of rebirth, death, and suffering
    of human life
  • Reincarnation rebirth into new physical body

28
Bhagavad-Gita
  • The First Teaching Arjunas Dejection
  • The Second Teaching Philosophy and Spiritual
    Discipline

29
The Virtue of Selfishness
  • Ethical egoism view that people ought to do
    what is in their own self-interest
  • Altruism people ought to do what is in the
    interest of others

30
The Ethics of Emergencies Ayn Rand
  • Altruism has destroyed the concept of any
    authentic benevolence or good will among men
  • The moral purpose of life is the achievement of
    ones own happiness
  • Values are the first concern and motive power of
    life
About PowerShow.com