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Dr Marie-Christine Gasingirwa DG Science, Technologie et Recherche Ministиre de l’ Education Kigali, RWANDA April, 2011


La Politique de la Science, la Technologie et l'Innovation au Rwanda Dr Marie-Christine Gasingirwa DG Science, Technologie et Recherche Minist re de l Education – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dr Marie-Christine Gasingirwa DG Science, Technologie et Recherche Ministиre de l’ Education Kigali, RWANDA April, 2011

Dr Marie-Christine GasingirwaDG Science,
Technologie et RechercheMinistère de l
EducationKigali, RWANDAApril, 2011
La Politique de la Science, la Technologie et
l'Innovation au Rwanda

Overview - Introduction country
information - Vision, strategies - STI
Policy and implementation - Indicators -
RD - Challenges - Way forward -
INTRODUCTIONCountry information
  • Popn. 10Millions
  • Popn density varies300-600/km2
  • GDP 400 USD/yr (cf 290 USD in 2001 with a target
    of 900 USD in 2020-Vision)

Land Area 26,338 square kilometers Location
Between 1 3 deg. latitude south and 29- 31deg.
longitude east 75 miles from the Equator 880
miles from the Indian Ocean 1250 miles from the
Atlantic Ocean Altitude Most of the country
lies above 1000 m, with half of which lies
between 1500 - 2000 m above sea level Terrain
Mostly grassy uplands and hills relief is
mountainous with altitude declining from west to
east Land use 47 cropland, 20 forest, 18
pasture, 13 other Administration 5 Provinces,
30 Districts, 416 Sectors
Country Information
  • Vision du Rwanda et le Role de la Science
    Technologie et ICT
  • The belief of the Government of Rwanda in the
    power of Science for building Rwandas Economy
    Economic Growth, Social Development is embodied
  • Vision 2020
  • The National Policy of Science, Technology and
  • NICI Plans
  • To transform Rwandas currently Agriculture based
    economy to a knowledge based economy by year
  • To use science, technology and ICT as a key
    enabler of this transformation

Knowledge Based Economy 2020
Agricultural Based Economy 2001
20 Years
Achieving Rwanda's Ambitions for STI
  • Ministry of Education, Department of Science,
    Technology and Innovation promotes science,
    technology and innovation by
  • building partnerships,
  • sourcing for opportunities,
  • monitoring progress and
  • backstopping the implementation of the STI policy
  • Implementation and delivery
  • Other ministries / Sectors
  • Other organizations both public and private
  • National Council for Science Technology and
  • innovation

Human Resource Development in Science and
  • - Rwandas development will ultimately depend on
    the development of our human resource base and
    that of the people, with whom we share our
    destiny. (Rwanda 1997, by His Excellence Paul
  • - The application of science and technology is
    fundamental, and indeed indispensable, to the
    social and economic transformation of our
    countries. Productive capacities in modern
    economies are not based merely on capital, land
    and labour. They are also dependent on scientific
    knowledge and sustained technological advances
  • (Speech to Royal Society UK September 2006)
  • - Professor Abdus Salam
  • 'Scientific and Technological knowledge is
    a Human Kind Heritage.
  • Therefore any country pre-occupied with
    changing the livelihood of their people from
    poverty to better conditions of living must
    appropriately invest in science, technology, and

Rwandas National Science, Technology and
Innovation Policy (2005) Policy objectives
  • Often known as the knowledge triangle or
    innovation triangle, Can also be represented as
    the Knowledge and Innovation Tetrahedron
  • This is the representation of the elements of the
    National STI Policy with
  • the three fundamental objectives, of
  • Knowledge Acquisition,
  • Knowledge Creation,
  • Knowledge Transfer and
  • Culture of Innovation to build on the solid
    foundation of these three

Culture of Innovation
  • Knowledge
  • Transfer

Knowledge Acquisition
Knowledge Creation
Knowledge Acquisition Human Capacity Building
  • The principal areas for knowledge acquisition
    start at Primary level and move up through
    Secondary to Vocational, Technical, and Higher
    Institutions of learning.
  • At primary level a project is ongoing to equip
    all 2,200 primary schools in Rwanda with a
    science corner. This will display fundamental
    information about science with particular
    relevance to the world around the school
    including the cycle of life, fundamentals of
    energy, the environment, and a computer with
    internet connection. OLPC 100,000 lap tops
    being rolled out in 2009
  • The proposed interventions at secondary level
    will include the provision of a high quality
    science and technology education, in schools
    equipped to also undertake practical lessons.
  • At higher level (NUR, KIST, KHI, KIE, ISAE, UP)
    priority is focused on theoretical and practical
    training for medical practitioners, technologists
    in various fields, agriculturalists, scientists,
    engineers, doctors etc.

Knowledge Creation Infrastructure and Human
Capacity Building in Research
  • Post doctoral training for our PhD holder
    lecturers in collaboration with foreign
  • The establishment of an ST trust fund,(RWEF)
  • Research Fellowships
  • Industrial Attachments in all major projects,
  • Specific Research in Commodities with potential
    for Economic Growth (LS, convergence platforms),
  • The establishment and reinforcement of high
    quality laboratories, including all health
    districts and a state of the art reference
    laboratory (NRL),
  • To establish ST Centres of Excellence in HLIs,
  • Science and Technology Conferences
  • Reinforce the capacity of Industries to conduct
    research by establishing RD Units.

Rwandan Research Institutes and Agencies Focus
  • IRST - research and generation of suitable
    technologies in energy, environment, health,
    society and economic fields
  • ISAR - development of appropriate technologies to
    transform agriculture from subsistence to
  • RADA - implement the national agriculture policy,
    supply farmers with appropriate technologies to
    increase production, reinforce the farmers
    technical capacity
  • RARDA - growth of animal production through
    development of appropriate technologies,
    providing advisory, outreach and extension
    services to stakeholders in the animal resources
  • RHODA - develop necessary legislation to govern
    activities for the increased production of
    horticultural products, implement national
    horticultural strategy
  • REMA implement the national environmental
    policy, environmental protection and regulation
  • RDB/IT (Former RITA) a centre of innovation
    and national point of reference for ICTs

Knowledge Transfer STI Capacity for Economic
Growth, Poverty Reduction and Meeting MDGs
  • Using STI Capacity Building in Rwanda as a Tool
    for Improving the Lives of the Rural Poor,
    Reducing Poverty, and Achieving the MDGs, also as
    a tool for generating wealth and diversifying the
  • Agriculture Productivity -Research and Extension
  • Geothermal Energy / Geosciences
  • Food Processing and Food Technology
  • Clean Drinking Water and Sanitation
  • Biofuels-CITT/KIST
  • Vocational and Technical Education and Training
  • ICT
  • Crops / commodities developed or under
    development include
  • Coffee, Silk
  • Horticulture (flowers, vegetables, fruits)
  • Aquaculture, Herbs and Essential Oils
  • Banana Fibre

Orange Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (OFSP) rich in vit
A (2)
Culture of Innovation Knowledge Creation and
Knowledge Transfer Supporting the Green
Revolution in Rwanda (1)
Culture of Innovation Biodigesters in
construction phase at Groupe Scolaire du Bon
  • 2. CITT (Centre for Innovation and Technology
    Transfer) under KIST , with a VisionTo be a
    centre of excellence for innovation, research,
    development and transfer of appropriate
    technologies, focusing on rural and peri-urban
    communities and equality of opportunities in

Science and Technology Policy Areas
  • Agriculture Animal Husbandry
  • Scientific techniques shall be used to improve
    land yield and productivity which is key to
    optimising the use of Rwandas limited land
  • Scientific techniques shall be applied for the
    promotion and development of specific commodities
    with a view to transformation of agriculture and
    animal husbandry with particular emphasis on the
    promotion of exports
  • Biotechnology
  • The development of biotechnology to support
    increase in productivity both in terms of crop
    yield and animal husbandry and to assist with the
    achievement of the Millennium Development Goals
  • Health
  • A scientific approach to health issues to promote
    and focus heavily on infectious disease vaccines
    and clinical treatments

Science and Technology Policy Areas
  • Environment
  • Scientific techniques shall be applied for the
    sustainable management of natural resources
    including biodiversity, water and soil
    conservation, marshlands improvement and issues
    related to climate change
  • Water and Sanitation
  • Science and technology interventions to achieve
    sustainable and integrated water resources
    development and management to enable access
    nationally to effective sanitation systems and
    clean drinking water
  • Transport
  • To develop local Rwandan capacity in the design
    and construction of transport infrastructure,
    including bridges, viaducts and culverts

Science and Technology Policy Areas
  • Energy
  • To promote scientific and technological
    activities that will increase access to
    electricity and provide good quality,
    cost-effective service, including the development
    of capacity in all areas of energy research,
    development and implementation, with particular
    regard to renewable energy and the protection of
    the environment
  • ICT
  • A focus shall be applied to information
    technology, especially in the fields of
    intelligence systems and decision making
  • Geo-information
  • Advanced Geographical Information / Remote
    Sensing Systems (GIS/RS) shall be developed,
    covering the whole country, to enable spatial
    databases to be developed and maintained to
    maximise knowledge and understanding of the

Science and Technology Policy Areas
  • Tourism
  • Scientific and Technological processes shall be
    developed in support of the application of
    science to eco-environmental tourism with a view
    to supporting the development of the tourism
    sector in Rwanda
  • Industry
  • The application of Science and Technology shall
    be promoted in support of the growth of the
    Industrial sector with a focus on light industry
    within a diversified economy, competitive and
    oriented towards exports
  • Private Sector
  • The Science and Technology policy objective for
    the private sector is to focus on technological
    and innovative advancements in support of the
    emergence of a healthy private sector that will
    lead economic growth in Rwanda

Collaboration and National STI Policy
  • The policy recognises the need to develop within
    the population a critical mass of knowledgeable
    critical thinking citizens
  • Results of Collaboration seen in support of
    Various STI initiatives (1)
  • National Initiatives
  • OLPC (MIT)
  • National Backbone, (World Bank, Korea Telecom,
    Ministries of Telecoms Tanzania, Kenya)
  • Support gained at
  • National level
  • Bi-lateral
  • Multilateral
  • Corporate
  • Data Centre (Government of Rwanda)
  • CNS (Communication Navigation Surveillance), ATM
    (Air Traffic Management ), (USTDA, COMESA)
  • Regional Centre of Excellence in ICT (Carnegie
    Mellon University US, AfDB), COE in Biodiversity

Regional ( International) Science Collaboration
  • Technology Applications
  • Broadcasting, Climate Change, Communication
    Navigation Surveillance (CNS) /Air Traffic
    Management (ATM)
  • Tripartite Agreement Virunga National Park
  • Technology Applications
  • Energy (Methane / Geothermal)
  • Joint Discussions DRC Rwanda
  • Technology Applications
  • Fibre Optic Comms
  • Joint Discussions Rwanda / Uganda / Kenya /
  • Technology Applications
  • Conservation
  • Rwanda / Burundi Nyungwe National Park

Regional ( International) Science Collaboration
Transmitter on top of Mount Karismbi
Albertine Rift
Mountain Gorillas
Golden Monkey Endangered species of Albertine
Methane Gas Plant Lake Kivu
Using ICT as an enabler to support the following
  • Direct Economic Benefits
  • Job creation e.g outsourcing from other countries
    based on ICT knowledge, service industry,
    software development, design and manufacture,
    support in local industry, hardware assembly
  • Creating wealth for people
  • Economic growth
  • Indirect Social and Economic Benefits
  • Access to services e.g. health information,
    education information, financial including
    banking, Governmental services/
  • Access to markets e.g. agricultural
  • Telemedicine, Tele-education (Distance learning)
  • Communication keeping people in touch with each

  • En 2009, on a enregistré 37 952 élèves
    scolarisés en science et technologie sur 110 992
    effectifs du secondaire soit 34,2,
  • En 2010, on a enregistré 36.4 des élèves
    orientés dans les filières scientifiques et
    technologiques soit un effectif de 46.125 élèves
    sur 126 788 élèves scolarisés au secondaire.

  • En 2010, 25 894 étudiants fréquentaient les
    facultés des sciences et technologie sur un
    effectif total de 62 734 étudiants des
    institutions denseignement supérieur et
    universitaires soit 41.3
  • En 2009, 22 421 étudiants fréquentaient les
    facultés des sciences et technologie sur un
    effectif total de 55 213 soit 40.6.

  • 2400 enseignants et chercheurs dont la moitie
    exercent leurs fonctions dans les filieres
    scientifiques et technologiques.
  •  Les principales institutions de recherche du
    Rwanda IRST et ISAR ont 100 chercheurs et 50

  • Research in public institutions is financed
    partially from the national annual budget with
    the support of external funders by development
    partners under bilateral (SIDA-SAREC, DFID,
    USAID, NUFFIC, JICA, CUD, BTC, GIZ, etc..) and
    international cooperation (WB, AfDB, UNESCO,
    UNECA, WHO,etc)
  • The National STI policy is expected, with time,
    to progressively attain the required 1 of the
    annual budget set aside for RD as recommended by
  • Individual research institutions sign MoUs with
    development partners, both local as well as
    regional/international, on mutually agreed terms
  • The Private sector, is strongly urged to invest
    in research projects as they stand to benefit
    from them at both short and long term levels.

Challenges in Research
  • The problems that beset research in Rwanda are
    categorized into the following types
  • Financial- research is not sufficiently financed
    leading to some planned projects grinding to a
    holt before
  • completion
  • Lack of qualified human capacity in different
  • Work load vs time staff at Universities, hardly
    have any time to engage in research in addition
    to their heavy involvement in teaching and
    supervision of their students work. Very few are
    full time researchers

Other problems include
  • Infrastructure and research equipments for STI
    are limited eg laboratories, workshops,
    reagents, etc
  • Insufficient involvement of the private sector
  • Mobility /instability of researchers in their
    careers and research programmes
  • Data are still scattered in different
    institutions, eg the RNEC, NISR, HEC, different
    ministries and agencies,etc.
  • Disorganized statistics and research reporting
    was attributed to lack of an organized
    framework in which all research could be
    coordinated, before. Since the establishment of
    the Directorate of Science, Technology and
    Research (DSTR/I), under the NCSTI law governing
    research, this coordination is now in progress.
    Moreover there are, now, well elaborated rules
    governing research in Rwanda to bring about

  • With the establishment of the Directorate of
    Science, Technology and Research (DSTR/I), under
    the NCSTI law governing research, this
    coordination is now in progress. Moreover there
    are, now, well elaborated rules governing
    research in Rwanda to bring about order.
  • A Data Bank is in compilation to establish a
    harmonized way of data collection and analysis
    for accurate record and for smooth coordination
    and utilization/sharing of information
    (retrieving data pertaining to STI that is still
    scattered in different institutions).
    Organization of seminars for efficient data
    collection and analysis.
  • Statistics on RD, Innovations, and others
    collected from secondary sources will be
  • Research will be harmonized and data reliable.

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