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China under Mao Zedong 1949 - 1976

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Title: China under Mao Zedong 1949 - 1976


1
China under Mao Zedong1949 - 1976
2
Outline of this Presentation
  • Theoretical Maoism
  • Overview of the Civil War in China
  • The Great Leap Forward
  • The 100 Flowers Campaign
  • The Cultural Revolution
  • Maoist Propaganda
  • Conclusions
  • Reconciliation with the West
  • The Deng Xiaoping Reforms

3
Brief Sketch of the Mao Years
  • GMD-CCP Civil War (1946-1949)
  • Recovery and Socialism (1949-1956)
  • Rethinking the Soviet model (1956-1957)
  • Great Leap Forward (1957-1961)
  • Recovery growing elite division (1962-65))
  • Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)

4
Maoism in Theory
  • For a short period in the late sixties the
    "Little Red Book" containing the thoughts of
    Chinese Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong was
    one of the most intensively-studied books in the
    world.
  • Assembled by party editors from old speeches and
    writings of Mao, it was intended as a guide for
    those involved in the Cultural Revolution of
    1966-1969

5
Maoism in Theory
6
Maoism in Theory I
  • 1. Classes struggle, some classes triumph,
    others are eliminated. Such is history, such is
    the history of civilization for thousands of
    years. To interpret history from this viewpoint
    is historical materialism standing in opposition
    to this viewpoint is historical idealism.
  • "Cast Away Illusions, Prepare for Struggle"
    (August 14, 1949), Selected Works,  Vol. IV, p.
    428.
  • 2. A well-disciplined Party armed with the
    theory of Marxism-Leninism, using the method of
    self-criticism and linked with the masses of the
    people an army under the leadership of such a
    Party a united front of all revolutionary
    classes and all revolutionary groups under the
    leadership of such a Party - these are the three
    main weapons with which we have defeated the
    enemy.
  • "On the People's Democratic Dictatorship" (June
    30, 1949), Selected Works,  Vol. IV, p. 422.
  • 3. No political party can possibly lead a great
    revolutionary movement to victory unless it
    possesses revolutionary theory and a knowledge of
    history and has a profound grasp of the practical
    movement.
  • On the Question of Agricultural Co-operation 
    (July 51, 1955), 3rd ed., pp. 19-20.

7
Maoism in Theory II
  • 4. A revolution is not a dinner party, or
    writing an essay, or painting a picture, or doing
    embroidery it cannot be so refined, so leisurely
    and gentle, so temperate, kind, courteous,
    restrained and magnanimous. A revolution is an
    insurrection, an act of violence by which one
    class overthrows another.
  • "Report on an Investigation of the Peasant
    Movement in Hunan" (March 1927), Selected Works, 
    Vol. I, p. 28.
  • 5. The socialist system will eventually replace
    the capitalist system this is an objective law
    independent of man's will. However much the
    reactionaries try to hold back the wheel of
    history, sooner or later revolution will take
    place and will inevitably triumph.
  • "Speech at the Meeting of the Supreme Soviet of
    the U.S.S.R. in Celebration of the 40th
    Anniversary of the Great October Socialist
    Revolution" (November 6, 1957).
  • 6. We are now carrying out a revolution not only
    in the social system, the change from private to
    public ownership, but also in technology, the
    change from handicraft to large-scale modern
    machine production, and the two revolutions are
    interconnected. In agriculture, with conditions
    as they are in our country co-operation must
    precede the use of big machinery (in capitalist
    countries agriculture develops in a capitalist
    way). Therefore we must on no account regard
    industry and agriculture, socialist
    industrialization and the socialist
    transformation of agriculture as two separate and
    isolated things, and on no account must we
    emphasize the one and play down the other.

8
Maoism in Theory III
  • 7. We must have faith, first, that the peasant
    masses are ready to advance step by step along
    the road of socialism under the leadership of the
    Party, and second, that the Party is capable of
    leading the peasants along this road. These two
    points are the essence of the matter, the main
    current.
  • On the Question of Agricultural Co-operation 
    (July 31, 1955), 3rd ed., p. 18.
  • 8. By over-all planning we mean planning which
    takes into consideration the interests of the 600
    million people of our country. In drawing up
    plans, handling affairs or thinking over
    problems, we must proceed from the fact that
    China has a population of 600 million people, and
    we must never forget this fact.
  • On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among
    the People  (February 27, 1957), 1st pocket ed.
    p. 47.
  • 9. "Don't you want to abolish state power?" Yes,
    we do, but not right now we cannot do it yet.
    Why? Because imperialism still exists, because
    domestic reaction still exists, because classes
    still exist in our country. Our present task is
    to strengthen the people's state apparatus -
    mainly the people's army, the people's police and
    the people's courts - in order to consolidate
    national defence and protect the people's
    interests.
  • "On the People's Democratic Dictatorship" (June
    30, 1949), Selected Works,  Vol. IV, p. 418.
  • 10. In all the practical work of our Party, all
    correct leadership is necessarily "from the
    masses, to the masses." This means take the
    ideas of the masses (scattered and unsystematic
    ideas) and concentrate them (through study turn
    them into concentrated and systematic ideas),
    then go to the masses and propagate and explain
    these ideas until the masses embrace them as
    their own, hold fast to them and translate them
    into action, and test the correctness of these
    ideas in such action. Then once again concentrate
    ideas from the masses and once again go the
    masses so that the ideas are persevered in and
    carried through. And so on, over and over again
    in an endless spiral, with the ideas becoming
    more correct, more vital and richer each time.
    Such is the Marxist theory of knowledge.
  • "Some Questions Concerning Methods of
    Leadership" (June 1, 1943)

9
Anti-Japanese War (1937-1945)
10
Civil War (1946 1949)
  • GMD Guomindang (Nationalist Party)
  • Chiang Kai-shek (President)
  • CCP Chinese Communist Party
  • Mao Zedong

11
War of Liberation
12
Mao Zedongs Basic Goals
  • A revolution from above to remove 3 big
    mountains
  • imperialism
  • feudalism
  • bureaucratic-capitalism
  • A United Front of
  • workers
  • peasants
  • petty bourgeoisie

13
Economic Reconstruction 1950s
  • Soviet Union model and assistance
  • land reform (eliminate landlord class)
  • heavy industry (state-owned enterprises)
  • First National Peoples Congress (1954)
  • PRC Constitution
  • Zhou Enlai
  • Premier
  • Foreign Minister

14
Great Leap Forward (1957-1961)
  • abandon the Soviet (scientific planning) model
    of economic development
  • Soviet mass mobilization
  • peoples communes

15
The Great Leap Forward
  • Maos early experiences with peasant revolution
    convinced him of the immense potential of peasant
    strength. He believed that if properly organized
    and inspired, the Chinese masses could accomplish
    amazing feats.
  • Beginning in the mid-1950s Mao advocated the
    rapid formation of agricultural communes, arguing
    that the energy of the people could help China
    achieve a high tide of Communist development.
  • This ideology exploded in the Great Leap Forward
    in 1958. Mao called upon all Chinese to engage in
    zealous physical labor to transform the economy
    and overtake the West in industrial and
    agricultural production within a few years.
  • Afraid to disappoint their leaders, peasants
    falsified grain production numbers.
  • Several poor harvests caused massive famine and
    the deaths of millions of people throughout China.

16
The Great Leap Forward 1957
  • Radical Left gained control put aside 5 year
    plan in favor of The Great Leap Forward in which
    China would elude the timetable imposed by the
    rate of capital accumulation by calling upon the
    vast resources of its industrial and agricultural
    force, thus walking on two legs.
  • Vast initiatives implemented in five months too
    brief for proper preparation. Organizational
    chaos ensued and Russia withdrew support
    radicals forced to abandon the effort due to
    falling agricultural/industrial output.
  • Entered a period of Readjustment, Consolidation
    and Repair (1961-65) with the abandonment of
    the GLF, the moderates within the CCP fostered
    sharp changes in policy to restore order and to
    repair damage done to economy. Particular
    emphasis was given to agriculture to reduce
    threat of mass malnutrition and starvation.
    focus on communes.

17
The Great Leap Forward 1957
  • Maos policies in the Great Leap Forward had
    failed, but those in the government who
    criticized him directly, such as Peng Dehuai,
    were humiliated and purged from office.
  • Criticism of Mao from outside the government was
    also muted because the educated elite remembered
    the turmoil of the Hundred Flowers and
    Antirightist campaigns of 1957.
  • Maos relationship with intellectuals was an
    uneasy one, and he was critical of the gap
    between the lives of the urban educated elite and
    the rural masses.
  • These tensions were among the underlying causes
    of the Cultural Revolution

18
Great Leap Forward (1957-1961)
  • unrealistic output targets
  • industry
  • agricultural and human disaster

19
Growing Division (1962-1965)
  • Mao Zedong vs. Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping
  • charismatic leadership vs. bureaucracy

20
The Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)
  • Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
  • commitment to revolution and class struggle
  • Turned into a power struggle to succeed Mao
  • Maos red guards would raid houses looking for
    four olds. A four old is an item or behavior
    that shows old custom, old culture, old habit, or
    old ideas. Mao declared the Chinese people
    blank.
  • Before the drama had played itself out, it
    consumed, physically or spiritually, virtually
    all of the original promoters as well as many of
    its intended victims.
  • There is no period in Chinas history so complex
    and contradictory or so lacking in historical
    precedents, no other period where all historical
    analogies fail. Rarely has any society revealed
    itself so openly with all its contradictions and
    scars, and rarely have events unfolded in ways so
    strange, torturous and bizarre. (293)
  • The main responsibility for the movement rests
    with Mao himself. (292)
  • The legacy of the CR is mass disillusionment with
    Communism.

21
The Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)
  • Mao tried to co-opt the intellectuals (who, like
    Mao, rejected traditionalism).
  • At the same time, Mao tried to co-opt the
    peasants and to arm them with revolutionary
    consciousness
  • In sum, Mao wanted to solve 3 main problems
  • Growing inequality
  • The fading socialist vision
  • The entrenchment of bureaucratic elites
  • What began as a war against bureaucatic privelege
    and oppression, but soon fell under the sway of
    the Chinese Armythe most oppressive and
    bureaucratic organ of the CCP.

22
Red Guards (1966-69)
  • Renamed streets and buildings
  • Lined the streets with pictures of Mao
  • Attacked and humiliated thise in Western or
    traditional clothing
  • As early as 1967, the Red Guards were seen by
    many in the Party to be a liability.

23
This is a poster showing the red guards raiding
houses. They destroyed museums, homes and works
of art in order to destroy the Four Olds.
24
The Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)
  • I. Public struggle session
  • Places where the accused were struggled against
  • the work unit of the accused (ordinary people)
  • Huge, opened stadiums (famous people, e.g., Liu
    Shaoqi)
  • Participants
  • Accusers whoever believed Mao and his ideology
    whoever wanted be recognized as good people
  • Spectators whoever wanted to be entertained by
    such spectacle (renao, excitement)
  • Process of struggle
  • The accused was forced to endured verbal attack
    by colleagues, students, friends, relatives
  • Subordinates were pitted against superiors,
    students against teachers, friends against
    friends, colleagues against colleagues, spouse
    against spouse

25
The Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)
  • II. Against the Four Olds
  • Red guards school students, most of them
    teenagers
  • Engaged in sacking, looting, beating and killing
  • Destroyed public and personal properties, and
    anything regarded as representing the Four Olds
  • Whoever classified as landlords, reactionaries,
    counterrevolutionaries, rightists, bad elements,
    traitors, spies, capitalist-roaders, all of them
    ox ghosts and snake spirits

26
The Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)
  • III. Self-Destruction
  • Self-criticism, including false confession
  • Self-destruction
  • Suicide
  • Suicide due to depression and despair
  • Suicide due to fear
  • Suicide in order to protest against an unjust
    government
  • IV. Psychological Terror
  • Some 12 million young people were rounded up and
    sent to the countryside to study (xuexi)

27
Divisions Among the Elite The Case of Lin Biao
  • the putative successor to Mao
  • In 1971 Lin allegedly tried but failed
  • to assassinate Mao
  • to flee to Soviet Union
  • He died in a plane crash in 1971
  • Eroded the credibility
  • of the entire leadership
  • of the Cultural Revolution

28
Divisions Among the Elite The Case of the Gang
of Four (1972 1976)
  • power struggle between
  • the radical Gang of Four, led by Jiang Qing,
    Maos wife
  • the moderates, led by Premier Zhou Enlai
  • a radical leftist political group of CCP leaders
    led by Madame Mao who were arrested and removed
    from their positions in 1976
  • following the death of Mao, and were primarily
    blamed for the events of the Cultural Revolution.

29
Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)
30
Maoist Propaganda
  • Long Live Chairman Mao

31
Maoist Propaganda
  • The People's Liberation Army represents the
    great school of Mao Zedong Thought

32
Maoist Propaganda
  • Criticize the old world and build a new one with
    Mao Zedong Thought as our guide

33
Maoist Propaganda
  • Our country is a united, multicultural nation

34
Maoist Propaganda
We are proud to participate in the
industrialization of the nation
35
Maoist Propaganda
Awakened people! You will certainly attain the
ultimate victory
36
Maoist Propaganda
  • Thoroughly engage in revolutionary criticism

37
Maoist Propaganda
  • Strike the battle drum of the Great Leap Forward
    even Louder

38
Maoist Propaganda
  • We must grasp revolution. Increase production!

39
Post-Mao Propaganda (1979)
  • Deng Xiaoping introduced "Four Basic Principles
    in March
  • 1979. They are
  • We must keep to the socialist road
  • We must uphold the dictatorship of the
    proletariat
  • We must uphold the leadership of the Communist
    Party
  • We must uphold Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong
    Thought

40
Post-Mao Propaganda (1986)
  • Do not spit freely. Spitting is neither hygienic
    nor civilized

41
Post-Mao Propaganda (1988)
  • Less births, better births to develop China
    vigorously

42
Mao and Zhou Died in 1976
  • Turning point in Chinas postwar era
  • Gang of Four were arrested
  • End of the Cultural Revolution

43
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