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ROLE OF COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH NURSE IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT

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Hence participate actively in disaster management as a community health nurse and protect the health of the community by quality nursing care. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ROLE OF COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH NURSE IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT


1
(No Transcript)
2
ROLE OF COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH NURSE IN
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
3
INTRODUCTION
  • Think globally and act locally holds true to
    disaster management. Disaster occurrence is a
    global phenomenon. It can occur at anywhere at
    any time. Disaster occurrence in any countries
    affects its health and economic conditions. Most
    types of natural disaster are apt to reoccur in
    the same areas or countries.
  • Furthermore with the changing ecosystem,
    deforestation, misuse of land we have every
    reason to believe that frequency of disasters
    such as floods, droughts will increase in the
    coming decades.

4
MEANING OF DISASTER
  • Disaster means a catastrophe, calamity or mishap,
    a grave occurrence which causes loss of life,
    human suffering, damage to and destruction of
    property degradation of environment which
    disrupts the normal functioning of societies,
    government communities and which adversely
    affects individual and families with severity and
    it is beyond the coping capacity of the
    community of the affected area.

5
DEFINITION OF DISASTER
  • Any occurrence that causes damage, economic
    disruption, loss of human life and deterioration
    in health and the health services on a scale
    sufficient to warrant an extra ordinary response
    from outside the affected community or area.

6
NATURAL DISASTER IN INDIA
  • Silent disaster of population explosion
  • HIV/AIDS bomb biological
  • Floods
  • Droughts
  • Earthquakes- Gujarat 2001
  • Cyclone- Orissa 1999
  • Landside of avalanches
  • Chemical disaster in Bhopal 1984
  • Stampede
  • Fire accidents
  • Tsunami Dec 2004

7
CLASSIFICATION OF DISASTER
  • Water and climate related disasters
  • Geological related disasters
  • Biological related disasters
  • Chemical, industrial and nuclear disasters
  • Accident related disasters
  • Man made disasters.

8
WATER AND CLIMATE RELATED DISASTERS
  • Cyclones
  • Tornadoes and hurricanes
  • Hail storm
  • Sea erosion
  • Cloud burst
  • Heat wave and cold wave
  • Snow and volcanoes
  • Drought
  • Thunder and lightning

9
GEOLOGICALLY RELATED DISASTERS
  • Earthquakes
  • Landslides and mud flow
  • Dam failure/ Dam bursts
  • Mine fires

10
BIOLOGICALLY RELATED DISASTERS
  • Biological disasters and epidemics
  • Pest attacks
  • Cattle epidemics
  • Food poisoning

11
CHEMICAL, INDUSTRIAL AND NUCLEAR RELATED
DISASTERS
  • Chemical and industrial disasters
  • Nuclear disasters

12
ACCIDENT RELATED DISASTERS
  • Forest fire
  • Urban fire
  • Mine flooding
  • Oil spill
  • Major building collapse
  • Village fire
  • Serial bomb blasts
  • Festival related disasters
  • Electrical disasters and fires
  • Air, road and rail accidents
  • Boat capsizing

13
MAN MADE DISASTERS
  • Population explosion
  • Wars and conflicts
  • Leaks from nuclear plants
  • Deforestation
  • Wide spread pollution to environment
  • Wide spread use of fossil fuel

14
EFFECTS OF DISASTERS
GENERAL EFFECTS
  • Loss of life
  • Injury
  • Damage of property
  • Damage of cash
  • Loss of lively hood
  • Disruption of lifestyle
  • Disruption of essential services
  • Loss/disruption of infra structure
  • State economic loss
  • Sociological/psychological after effects

15
HEALTH EFFECTS
  • Accidents and trauma
  • Loss of life and disposal of dead bodies
  • Outbreaks of communicable diseases (water-borne)
  • Vector-borne diseases
  • Problems of malnutrition
  • Problems of psychological trauma
  •  Problems of orphans and shelter

16
 COMPONENTS OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT

  • Disaster
  •  
  •  


  • Preparedness Response
  •  
  •   Mitigation Rehabilitation


  •  

  • Reconstruction


17
STEPS IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT
  • Search, rescue, and first aid
  • Field care
  • Triage
  • Red color- immediate care
  • Yellow color-care within 24 hrs
  • Green color- ambulatory care
  • Black color-dead people
  • Tagging -Printing a tag with all details
  • Care of the dead

18
RESPONSE
  • Local people come first
  • This consists of
  • Shelter and emergency settlement
  • Water supply and sanitation
  • Vector and pest control
  • Control of communicable disease
  • Prevention of out breaks
  • Food supply

19
Nodal agency and organization
  • DISASTER
  • NODAL MINISTRY
  • Natural disaster
  • Drought and drought relief
  • Air accidents
  • Railway accident
  • Chemical disasters
  • Biological disasters
  • Nuclear disaster
  • Ministry of home affair
  • Ministry of agriculture
  • Ministry of civil aviation
  • Ministry of railways
  • Ministry of environment and forests
  • Ministry of health
  • Dept. of atomic energy

20
ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE
  • Nodal agency for disaster management-ministry of
    home affairs
  • National Contingency Action Plan (Cap)
  • - To facilitate launching of relief and
    rescue measures
  • without delay
  • Various committees at the national level
  • - Cabinet committee- for effective
    implementation of
  • relief measures
  • - National crisis management committee-
    headed by
  • cabinet
  • Co-ordinates activities of the central
    secretary.
  • Ministries and state Governments.

21
  • ROLE OF STATE GOVERNMENT-AUTONOMOUS
  • Chief Secretary consider
  • infrastructure and guidance,
  • Formulate action plans
  • District collector for directing
  • supervising and monitoring relief
  • Measures
  • District relief committee-review of
  • relief measures Official and non-
  • official members
  • ARMED FORCES OF THE COUNTRY

22
  • REHABILITATION BY HEALTH SECTOR
  • Water supply
  • Food supply
  • Improvement of sanitation
  • Control of vectors
  • Care of survivors,
  • RECONSTRUCTION
  • Setting up of shelter
  • Health, food, and facilities in the campus
  • Education
  • Training of people/students/volunteers

23
  • MITIGATION
  • This involves measures to lessen the effects of
    emergency (eg. Improving the structural quality
    of schools houses and other buildings .
  • This compliments the disaster preparedness and
    disaster response activities.

24
PREPAREDNESS
  • This consist of strengthening the capacity
  • of a country to manage efficiently all types
  • of emergency related to disaster.
  • The preparedness should
  • start from the community people
  • Training of health workers, social workers and
    members of Ngos etc.
  • In the form of money, manpower, and materials
  • A continuous, on-going multi sectored activity

25
MEASURES
  • Evaluation from the past experience
  • Location of disaster prone areas
  • Adaptation of a standard operatory procedure
  • Organization of communication, information and
    warning systems
  • Ensuring co-ordination and response mechanism
  • Development of education program
  • Co-ordination with news media
  • National and international relations
  • Organization of disaster stimulation exercises
  • Keeping stock of foods, drugs, and other
    essential commodities

26
ROLE OF UNITED NATIONS AGENCIES
  • International Agencies
  • WHO- UNICEF-FAO
  • World food program (WFR)
  • Office for the co-ordination of
    humanitarian affairs (OCHA)
  •  

27
  • Inter governmental organizations
  • European community humanitarian office (ECHO)
  • Organization of American states (OAS)
  • Centre of co-ordination for prevention of natural
    disasters in
  • Central America
  • Caribbean disasters emergency response agency
  • Non-governmental organizations
  • Co-operational American relief everywhere
    (CARE)
  • International committee of Red Cross
  • International committee of voluntary agencies 
  • International federation of Red cross and Red
    Crescent societies (IFRC), etc

28
FACTORS AFFECTING SCOPE AND SEVERITY OF DISASTERS
  •   
  • Vulnerability of a population or individual
  • Environmental factors and type of impact
  • (Physical, chemical, biological and social
    factors)
  • Warning time and proximity to disaster
  • Individual perception and response

29
DIMENSIONS OF DISASTER
  •  
  • Predictability e.g. earth
  • Frequency
  • Controllability
  • Time
  • Scope- and intensity

30
PHASES OF DISASTER
  • Pre impact phase
  • Impact phase
  • Post impact phase
  • Emergency phase
  • Recovery phase

31
 PRINCIPLES OF DISASTERS MANAGEMENT
(GARBENG-1969)
  • Prevent the occurrence of the disaster whenever
    possible.
  • Minimize the number of casualties.
  • Prevent further casualties
  • Rescue the victims.
  • Provide first aid to the injured
  • Evacuate the injured
  • Provide definite medical care
  • Promote reconstruction of lives

32
NURSES RESPONSIBILITY
  • PRE-PLANNING developing a response plan
  • All community medical and social agencies
    resources available
  • Storage of equipment and supplies
  • Follow the protocol of notification
  • Designation of an alternative reporting site for
    health care workers
  • Very familiar with the equipment and supplies to
    use
  • Mock disaster drills
  • Use of personal protective devices
  • Knowledge on potential hazards at the disaster
    sites. e.g. unstable building structure

33
COMMUNITY PREPAREDNESS
  • Education
  • First aid program
  • Making every home to store
  • Emergency telephone numbers
  • Battery operated radio
  • Working flash light
  • First aid kit
  • Three day supply of water
  • Medical information family physician detail
  • Persons to be notified in emergency

34
EMERGENCY RESPONSE
  • Personal concerns for health care providers
  • Survey assessment
  • Determining immediacy of care
  • Role at emergency aid stations
  • Major health concerns after a disaster
  • Psychological needs of victims
  • Recovery
  • Personal response of care providers to disaster
  • Ethical and legal implication

35
CONCLUSION
  • Community health nurses are an integral
    part of disaster planning and implementation
    efforts. They are involved as planers, educators,
    direct care givers and assessment supervisors.
  • They serve as a community survey assessors
    triage officers after the disaster has occurred.
    Hence participate actively in disaster management
    as a community health nurse and protect the
    health of the community by quality nursing care.

36
TAKE HOME MESSAGE
  • DISASTER CAN OCCUR AT ANY TIME
  • ANY FORM OR
  • ANY ARE
  • BE PREPARED TO MEET
  • THE CHALENGES OF AFTER EFFECT OF DISASTER.

37
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