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VICTORIANS

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Title: VICTORIANS


1
THE
VICTORIANS
1837-1901
2
QUEEN VICTORIA
Victoria was born at Kensington Palace, London,
on 24 May 1819. She was the only daughter of
Edward, Duke of Kent, fourth son of George III.
Her father died shortly after her birth and she
became heir to the throne because the three
uncles who were ahead of her in succession -
George IV, Frederick Duke of York, and William IV
- had no legitimate children who survived.
Warm-hearted and lively, Victoria had a gift
for drawing and painting educated by a governess
at home, she was a natural diarist and kept a
regular journal throughout her life. On William
IV's death in 1837, she became Queen at the age
of 18. Queen Victoria is associated with
Britain's great age of industrial expansion,
economic progress and, especially, empire. At her
death, it was said, Britain had a worldwide
empire on which the sun never set. In the early
part of her reign, she was influenced by two men
her first Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne, and her
husband, Prince Albert, whom she married in 1840.
Both men taught her much about how to be a ruler
in a 'constitutional monarchy' where the monarch
had very few powers but could use much influence.
Albert took an active interest in the arts,
science, trade and industry the project for
which he is best remembered was the Great
Exhibition of 1851, the profits from which helped
to establish the South Kensington museums complex
in London. Her marriage to Prince Albert brought
nine children between 1840 and 1857. Most of her
children married into other Royal families of
Europe. Edward VII (born 1841), married
Alexandra, daughter of Christian IX of Denmark.
Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and of Saxe-Coburg and
Gotha (born 1844) married Marie of Russia.
Arthur, Duke of Connaught (born 1850) married
Louise Margaret of Prussia. Leopold, Duke of
Albany (born 1853) married Helen of
Waldeck-Pyrmont.
3
the victorian timeline
Important Dates in Victoria's Life 1.Victoria's
coronation. 2. Victoria married Albert. 3.
Prince Albert died. 4. Victoria became Empress of
India. 5. Victoria's Golden Jubilee (50 years) 6.
Victoria's Diamond Jubilee (60 years) 7. Victoria
died.
4
SCHOOL
All children go to school Many children in early
Victorian England never went to school at all and
more than half of them grew up unable even to
read or write. Although some did go to Sunday
schools which were run by churches. Children from
rich families were luckier than poor children.
Nannies looked after them, and they had toys and
books. A governess would  teach the children at
home. Then, when the boys were old enough, they
were sent away to a public school such as Eton or
Rugby. The daughters were kept at home and taught
singing, piano playing and sewing. Slowly, things
changed for poorer children too. By the end of
the Victorian age all children under 12 had to go
to school. Now everybody could learn how to read
and write, and how to count properly. Schools
There were several kinds of school for poorer
children. The youngest might go to a "Dame"
school, run by a local woman in a room of her
house. The older ones went to a day school. Other
schools were organised by churches and charities.
Among these were the "ragged" schools which were
for orphans and very poor children.   School
room The school could be quite a grim building.
The rooms were warmed by a single stove or open
fire. The walls of a Victorian schoolroom were
quite bare, except perhaps for an embroidered
text. Curtains were used to divide the
schoolhouse into classrooms. The shouts of
several classes competed as they were taught side
by side. There was little fresh air  because the
windows were built high in the walls, to stop
pupils looking outside and being distracted from
their work. Many schools were built in the
Victorian era, between 1837 and 1901. In the
country you would see barns being converted into
schoolrooms. Increasing numbers of children began
to attend, and they became more and more crowded.
But because school managers didnt like to spend
money on repairs, buildings were allowed to rot
and broken equipment was not replaced.
5
families
Upper Middle Class Families Families were very
important to Victorians. They were usually large,
in 1870 the average family had five or six
children. Most upper and middle class families
lived in big, comfortable houses. Each member of
the family had its own place and children were
taught to "know their place". The Father The
father was the head of the household. He was
often strict and was obeyed by all without
question. The children were taught to respect
their father and always spoke politely to him
calling him "Sir". Very few children would dare
to be cheeky to their father or answer him back.
When he wanted a little peace and quiet he would
retire to his study and the rest of the family
were not allowed to enter without his special
permission. The Mother The mother would often
spend her time planning dinner parties, visiting
her dressmaker or calling on friends, she did not
do jobs like washing clothes or cooking and
cleaning. Both "papa and mama saw the upbringing
of their children as an important responsibility.
They believed a child must be taught the
difference between right and wrong if he was to
grow into a good and thoughtful adult. If a child
did something wrong he would be punished for his
own good. "Spare the rod and spoil the child" was
a saying Victorians firmly believed in.   The
Children Most days middle class children saw
very little of their parents. The children in a
middle class family would spend most of their
time in the nursery and would be brought up by
their nanny. Victorian children were expected to
rise early, because lying in bed was thought to
be lazy and sinful. The nanny would-be paid about
25 a year to wash, dress and watch over them,
amuse them, dose them, take them out and teach
them how to behave. Some would only see their
parents once a day. In the evening, clean and
tidy the children were allowed downstairs for an
hour before they went to bed. Some mothers taught
their children to read and write and sometimes
fathers taught their sons Latin. As the children
grew older, tutors and governesses were often
employed and boys were sometimes sent away to
school When the children grew up, only the boys
were expected to work, the daughters stayed at
home with their mother. They were expected only
to marry as soon as possible. The Servants All
households except the very poorest had servants
to do their day to day work. The cook and the
butler were the most important. The butler
answered the front door and waited on the family.
The cook was responsible for shopping for food
and running the kitchen, she would often be
helped by kitchen and scullery maids. Housemaids
cleaned the rooms and footmen did the heavy work.
    People would come from the country to work
as servants in the town houses. These jobs were
popular because they gave them somewhere to live
and clothes. On average they earned about 50 a
year. Often they spent their working lives with
the same household. Poor / Working Class
Families For poorer families their greatest fear
was ending up in the workhouse, where thousands
of homeless and penniless families were forced to
live. If your family was taken into the workhouse
you would  be split up dressed in uniform and
have your hair cut short. This could happen to a
family if father were taken ill and unable to
work.     Lots of children in poor families died
of diseases like scarlet fever, measles, polio
and TB which are curable today. These were spread
by foul drinking water, open drains and lack of
proper toilets. In overcrowded rooms if one
person caught a disease it spread quickly through
the rest.
6
the industrial revolution
As the number of factories grew people from the
countryside began to move into the towns looking
for better paid work. The wages of a farm worker
were very low and there were less jobs working on
farms because of the invention and use of new
machines such as threshers. Also thousands of new
workers were needed to work machines in mills and
foundries and the factory owners built houses for
them. Cities filled to overflowing and London was
particularly bad. At the start of the 19th
Century about 1/5 of Britains population lived
there, but by 1851 half the population of the
country had set up home in London. London, like
most cities, was not prepared for this great
increase in people. People crowded into already
crowded houses. Rooms were rented to whole
families or perhaps several families. If there
was no rooms to rent, people stayed in lodging
houses.Housing The worker's houses were
usually near to the factories so that people
could walk to work. They were built really
quickly and cheaply. The houses were cheap, most
had between 2-4 rooms - one or two rooms
downstairs, and one or two rooms upstairs.
Victorian families were big with 4 or 5 children.
There was no running water or toilet. A whole
street would have to share an outdoor pump and a
couple of outside toilets. Most houses in the
North of England were "back to backs" (built in
double rows) with no windows at the front, no
backyards and a sewer down the middle of the
street. The houses were built crammed close
together, with very narrow streets between them.
Most of the houses were crowded with five or more
people possibly crammed into a single room. Even
the cellars were full.  Most of the new towns
were dirty and unhealthy. The household rubbish
was thrown out into the streets. Housing
conditions like these were a perfect breeding
grounds for diseases. More than 31,000 people
died during an outbreak of cholera in 1832 and
lots more were killed by typhus, smallpox and
dysentery.Pollution Chimneys, bridges and
factory smoke blocked out most of the light in
the towns. A layer of dirty smoke often covered
the streets like a blanket. This came from the
factories that used steam to power their
machines. The steam was made by burning coal to
heat water. Burning coal produces a lot of dirty,
black smoke. Improvements Gradually,
improvements for the poor were made. In 1848,
Parliament passed laws that allowed city councils
to clean up the streets. One of the first cities
to become a healthier place was Birmingham.
Proper sewers and drains were built. Land owners
had to build houses to a set standard. Streets
were paved and lighting was put up. Over time
slums were knocked down and new houses built.
However, these changes did not take place
overnight. When slums were knocked down in 1875
the poor people had little choice but to move to
another slum, making that one worse. Few could
afford new housing.
7
child labour
Many factory workers were children. They worked
long hours and were often treated badly by the
supervisors or overseers. Sometimes the children
started work as young as four or five years old.
A young child could not earn much, but even a few
pence would be enough to buy food.Coal Mines
The coal mines were dangerous places where roofs
sometimes caved in, explosions happened and
workers got all sorts of injuries. There were
very few safety rules. Cutting and moving coal
which machines do nowadays was done by men, women
and children.     The younger children often
worked as "trappers" who worked trap doors. They
sat in a hole hollowed out for them and held a
string which was fastened to the door. When they
heard the coal wagons coming they had to open the
door by pulling a string. This job was one of the
easiest down the mine but it was very lonely and
the place were they sat was usually damp and
draughty.     Older children might be employed
as "coal bearers" carrying loads of coal on their
backs in big baskets. The Mines Act was passed
by the Government in 1842 forbidding the
employment of women and girls and all boys under
the age of teen down mines. Later it became
illegal for a boy under 12 to work down a mine.
Mills While thousands of children worked down
the mine, thousands of others worked in the
cotton mills. The mill owners often took in
orphans to their workhouses, they lived at the
mill and were worked as hard as possible. They
spent most of their working hours at the machines
with little time for fresh air or exercise. Even
part of Sunday was spent cleaning machines. There
were some serious accidents, some children were
scalped when their hair was caught in the
machine, hands were crushed and some children
were killed when they went to sleep and fell into
the machine.Factories and Brick Works Children
often worked long and gruelling hours in
factories and had to carry out some hazardous
jobs. In match factories children were employed
to dip matches into a chemical called
phosphorous. This phosphorous could cause their
teeth to rot and some died from the effect of
breathing it into their lungs. Chimney Sweeps
Although in 1832 the use of boys for sweeping
chimneys was forbidden by law, boys continued to
be forced through the narrow winding passages of
chimneys in large houses. When they first started
at between five and ten years old, children
suffered many cuts, grazes and bruises on their
knees, elbows and thighs however after months of
suffering their skin became hardened. Street
Children Hordes of dirty, ragged children roamed
the streets with no regular money and no home to
got to. The children of the streets were often
orphans with no-one to care for them. They stole
or picked pockets to buy food and slept in
outhouses or doorways. Charles Dickens wrote
about these children in his book "Oliver Twist".
    Some street children did jobs to earn money.
They could work as crossing-sweepers, sweeping a
way through the mud and horse dung of the main
paths to make way for ladies and gentlemen.
Others sold lace, flowers, matches or muffins etc
out in the streets.Country Children Poor
families who lived in the countryside were also
forced to send their children out to work. Seven
and eight year olds could work as bird
scarers,out in the fields from four in the
morning until seven at night. Older ones worked
in gangs as casual labourers. Changes for the
better It took time for the government to decide
that working children ought to be protected by
laws as many people did not see anything wrong
with the idea of children earning their keep.
They also believed that people should be left
alone to help themselves and not expect others to
protect or keep them. They felt children had a
right to send their children out to work. People
such as Lord Shaftsbury and Sir Robert Peel
worked hard to persuade the public that it was
wrong for children to suffer health problems and
to miss out on schooling due to work.
8
games
By the second half of Queen Victoria's reign,
most people earned more money and worked shorter
hours than ever before. This meant that for the
first time, ordinary people had enough spare time
to enjoy sports and other pastimes, and to go to
the seaside for holidays.   Nursery Toys The
younger children of well off families had lots of
beautiful toys in their nurseries. The favourite
was the rocking horse which was made from wood
and painted brightly. Girls also enjoyed playing
with their dolls' houses, furniture for these
could be bought and changed with times and
fashions. Victorian dolls were probably the most
beautiful ones made. Their heads and shoulders
were made of wax or china with bodies made of
stuffed calico or wood. Most dolls were dressed
as adults with beautiful clothes  made from
satin, taffeta or lace. A poor girl would long
for a doll like this which she would only see in
shop windows, She would never be able to afford
one but might have a rag doll instead. Boys
would play with their tin or lead soldiers. Later
in the century as the railways developed across
the country clockwork trains became popular.
Older children Often older children would play
with toy theatres. The plays they would perform
would take up a lot of their time and money.
First they had to buy a stage which would be made
of wood and cardboard with a row of tin
footlights with oil burning wicks along the
front. Sheets of characters and scenes would cost
a penny plain and two pence ready coloured.   
Girls might spend their spare time sewing. They
practised their stitches by embroidering letters
of the alphabet, texts or complex pictures within
a fancy border. These pieces of embroidery were
called samplers.     Reading was a popular
pastime, many books written during the victorian
era are still enjoyed today. 
9
outdoor games
and sports
Outdoor games These changed with the seasons,
children played with hoops, balls or tops. They
also played marbles or alleys.   Sport became
extremely popular in Victorian times. Traditional
sports like football, cricket and boxing had been
played for centuries but now they were given
proper rules for the first time. The first
Football Association (FA) Cup was played in 1871.
This was when many football clubs were set up,
ones like Aston Villa and Everton were set up by
churches to attract more people to come to
church. Others like Arsenal were set up by
employers. Football was meant to keep people
healthy and to encourage a sense of fair play. It
wasn't that successful and free kicks (1877) and
penalty kicks (1891) had to be brought in to
clamp down on foul play. English and Australian
teams played their first cricket Test Match in
England in 1880. W.G. Grace was among the
players. The organised matches drew large crowds
and watching sport became a hobby.   Croquet
Lawn Tennis Croquet was introduced in England in
1856 and was probably brought to America in the
early 1860s. It was considered particularly
suitable for women since it required considerable
skills but not too much strength or technique.
(Victorians believed women were deficient in
both!). Although croquet was never a popular
mens game, it had both social and economic
advantages men and women could play together,
and it required little equipment and no special
clothing.  Lawn tennis was another popular sport
for middle-class women. At first proper tennis
evolved patting the ball back and forth, without
keeping score, but, players were soon caught up
in the competitive spirit of the game, finding it
an excellent method of exercise and a useful
mental and physical outlet. More active than
croquet or archery  tennis also appealed to men.
By the 1880s it had become the rage in
fashionable summer resorts, and magazines devoted
space to the proper clothes to wear while
playing. Cycling This became very popular. The
safety bicycle was brought out in 1885 and was
the cheapest way to travel. People who lived in
town would ride out into the countryside on their
bicycles.
10
clothes
"The clothes make the man" is a phrase that could
have been coined during the Victorian period.
Victorian clothes were very much a symbol of who
you were, what you did for a living, and how much
money was in your bank account. For Men and
Woman For the wealthy, silk stockings covered the
legs. For the less wealthy, it was wool socks.
Beachwear in Victorian times consisted of a
costume which covered the entire body with yards
of material. There were exceptions though - arms
could be bare from the elbows down. Ladies had
to have their legs completely covered. This was
either done by wearing black stockings or, later
in the century, pants. Men were able to show
their shins. Bathing bonnets were worn by both.
Good quality leather shoes could always be
made-to-order, but by 1850 manufactured shoes
were available for purchase. Shoes were now made
for the 'proper' feet. Etiquette played its part
in Victorian clothing. It was considered 'good
etiquette' to dress appropriately to ones age,
and position in society. To own an umbrella was
a social-scale barometer. The wealthy owned their
own bumbershoots, while the general public would
rent an umbrella if the weather turned wet.
Victorian dress was not complete without a
walking stick, or cane. Some canes contained
compartments which were useful for holding vials
of perfume. Victorian fashion did include
eyeglasses, But, they were strictly for looks and
not for the correction of vision. Often, if there
were lenses in the frames, those lenses were
removed and the empty frames would become part of
the ensemble. Although the cloth for Victorian
clothes was manufactured, ready-made outfits were
unknown. Seamstresses and tailors were
responsible for custom-made creations. Milliners,
glovers, and hatters would help to complete the
look. If the pocket-book didn't allow such
individual attention, families would make their
own Victorian clothes or find used garments. The
poorer members of society would visit
second-hand, even third and fourth-hand, shops
for garments which still had some wear in them.
11
ladies clothes
Throughout the era, Victorian fashion changed
dramatically. Skirts went from straight to being
spread over large hoops. At the end of the era,
the hoop disappeared from view and it was back to
slimmer skirts, although now sporting a bustle.
Sleeves made different fashion statements, also.
Slim sleeves gave way to "leg omitting" sleeves
by the end of Queen Victoria's reign. Head gear
was a style all its own. From large lavishly
decorated hats, covered with feathers and
flowers, the close-fitting bonnet was soon the
need-to-have garment. Not that these were any
plainer - feathers, lace, and flowers would still
be used for decoration. There was a constant,
though the corset. The design throughout the era
would change, but the initial purpose never
varied. To wear Victorian dress, it was necessary
to have a cinched-in waist. For younger ladies,
having a waist in inches the same as your age was
the goal. Seventeen years old? That meant you
would strive for a seventeen inch waist. Older
ladies were allowed more leeway. The baring of
the shoulder and upper part of the chest was
strictly for evening apparel, and most usually
this style was worn by upper and middle class
ladies. Working-class women were more modest.
Because of the exposure of flesh to cool air,
shawls joined the Victorian costume. Satins,
silks, and heavy velvets for the older generation
were the norm. For younger society ladies who
were on the look-out for "a good catch", the
lighter the material, the better. Fragile gauze
dresses, covered with bows or flowers, were made
to catch a prospective husband's eye. On average,
these dresses were worn only once or twice... and
then thrown away! Middle-class women bought
either garments, or ready-made clothes, with the
idea that they would last. If necessary, the
garment would at some point be cut-down so that
it could be worn by children. For the
well-dressed female tradesman (aka "monger"), a
bright silk scarf would be worn around the neck,
and a flower-strewn bonnet would adorn the head.
Brightly polished boots would be proudly shown
beneath a many petticoat skirt, which just
reached to the ankles.
12
mens clothing
"Victorian dress didn't go in for such radical
changes with men. But coat lengths did vary over
time and the cinching of the waist (yes, men
would wear a type of corset) gave way to the
ease-of-breathing loose jacket. Men's fashion
history can be traced via the style of trousers.
Early in Queen Victoria's reign, legs were
covered in tight form-fitting cloth. This
appearance soon changed to a looser tubular
style. Straight slacks, with a crease in front
and back, were common by the end of the century.
The elegant dress-coat for the day slowly gave
way to a long frock coat, usually black. The
dress coat did continue to make appearances,
though. 'White tie and tails' was the formal
eveningwear for gentleman, the 'tails' being the
former daytime coat. Games and cycling were the
major catalysts for any change in male Victorian
clothes. By the late 1800's, knickers were
introduced and a more casual style was adopted
for daytime wear. Plaids and checks were seen
more often, although most often in the country.
Like his female counterpart, a male monger would
wear a bright silk scarf around his neck. Atop
his head would be a closely fitting cap which
completely covered his hair. A long waistcoat and
seamed trousers would complete his Victorian
costume, ending with the sight
13
childrens clothes
The lives lead by Victorian children varied
widely depending on the social standing and
financial position of their parents The Royal
Children Queen Victoria and Prince Albert had
nine children. Their care was of paramount
importance so they had nurses, doctors, household
servants, tutors, and governors to take care of
their every need. Their clothing was of the
finest quality, they learned etiquette, their
slightest sniffle was investigated and good food
was a daily staple. Days were filled with
lessons, but there was time for play and leisure
activities. Their homes had spacious rooms,
filled with furniture and toys. Beds had clean
linen, and play things would be scattered about.
The Well To Do The lifestyle of Victoria and
Albert's children was similar to the lifestyle
all Victorian Children of the upper and middle
class enjoyed. Wants were taken care of almost
immediately. Girls honed their home-making skills
while boys would learn either estate management
or financial procedures. Dances and other group
gatherings would happen on a regular basis. "Well
to do" Victorian Children enjoyed travel, with
either trips to the seaside or to The Continent.
Pocket change was available for any small
personal purchases. Victorian toys for these
children were expensive. Rocking horses with real
hair and doll's houses full of beautiful
furniture would occupy young girls for hours. Wax
dolls and elegant tea sets would often be set up
in a corner of the bedroom. Boys would have
elaborate train sets. Toy soldiers and marbles
would be scattered about the floor. Checker
boards and chess sets could be easily reached.
The Down and Out On the other side of the coin,
poverty was a way of life for many Victorian
children. There often wasn't the time or energy
for play. Food was whatever could be found,
scraped together, or stolen. Starvation and cold
were facts of life. Clothing most often came
from trash barrels, or was purchased with
whatever few coins a person had on hand. Sniffles
would be allowed to grow into colds. Ill health
was often cured only by death as the poor could
not afford medical care. Although perhaps not
played with often, Victorian toys were available
for a bit of joy. Boys would use yo-yo's, tin
soldiers, and toy drums. Marbles were popular.
Girls would make their own dolls from bits of
rags and buttons. These dolls would be loved just
as much as the wax dolls available to the
wealthier little girls. A hopscotch game could be
held at a moment's notice. If toys couldn't be
found, rolling a hoop down the street would use
any energy which was left over from a day of
work. Games of hide-and-seek and Blindman's Bluff
would be enjoyed by groups of children. Working
for a Wage Children were expected to help
supplement the family budget and were sent to
work quite young. These weren't gentile jobs,
they were manual labour paying extremely low
wages. Factories employed the young to crawl
beneath huge machinery - into spaces which adults
were too large to enter. Long hours of drudgery
would be the order of the day, often starting
before dawn and continuing after dark. Conditions
were unsafe. Children who crawled beneath working
machines were often killed. Coal mines wanted
children to open and close ventilating doors.
Until the middle of the 1800's, children as young
as five would often work up to 12 hours a day
underground, often barefoot. If not employed in
a business, youngsters would roam the streets
looking for work. Being a messenger was a 'clean'
job, as was selling flowers. Others would polish
shoes, sweep front steps, or become chimney
sweeps. Some poorer Victorian children found
that criminal activities made their lives easier.
Pickpockets were everywhere. Snatching food off
food-vendor's carts and quickly running away was
often the only method of getting something to
eat. The Home Being without shelter, or parents,
wasn't unusual. Parents were often unable to
support their offspring. These children would be
turned out into the streets to fend for
themselves. Child abuse was a common occurrence,
so many children would just run away. If there
was shelter, it was often in a tenement. These
buildings would be filled with people of all
ages, most often sharing single rooms. Disease
was prevalent in these slum conditions due to the
populations of fleas and rats. Sanitation was
unheard of, and running water was a luxury few
could experience. Water would come from an
outside ditch. It was normal for these to be
filled with raw sewage and dead animals. By the
late 1800's, it was widely felt that something
needed to be done to help the poor. Homes were
opened to help the youngsters who were roaming
the streets. Laws governing the employment of
children went onto the statute books. However,
nothing happened quickly. Although a start had
been made, the lifestyle of destitute Victorian
children did not see any major improvement until
the early 1900's
14
workhouses
Inmates were given a variety of work to perform,
much of which was involved in running the
workhouse. The women mostly did domestic jobs
such as cleaning, or helping in the kitchen or
laundry. Some workhouses had workshops for
sewing, spinning and weaving or other local
trades. Others had their own vegetable gardens
where the inmates worked to provide food for the
workhouse. In 1888, a report on the Macclesfield
workhouse found that amongst the able-bodied
females there were 21 washers, 22 sewers and
knitters, 12 scrubbers, 12 assisting women, 4 in
the kitchen, 4 in the nursery, and 4 stocking
darners. On the men's side were 2 joiners, 1
Slater, 1 upholsterer, 1 blacksmith, 3 assisting
the porter the tramps, 6 men attending the
boilers, 3 attending the stone-shed men, 4
whitewashers, 4 attending the pigs, 2 looking
after sanitary matters, 1 regulating the coal
supply, 18 potato peelers, 1 messenger, 26 ward
men, 2 doorkeepers. There were also 12 boys at
work in the tailor's shop.
After 1834, the breaking of workhouse rules fell
into two categories Disorderly conduct, which
could be punished by a withdrawal for food
"luxuries" such as cheese or tea, or the more
serious Refractory conduct, which could result in
a period of solitary confinement. The workhouse
dining hall was required to display a poster
The diet fed to workhouse inmates was often laid
down in meticulous detail. For example, the
workhouse rules for the parish of St John at
Hackney in the 1750s stipulated a daily allowance
of 7 Ounces of Meat when dressed, without
Bones, to every grown Person,2 Ounces of
Butter,4 Ounces of Cheese,1 Pound of Bread,3
Pints of Beer
15
quiz
  • Who did queen Victoria marry?
  • a) George IV
  • b) Albert
  • c) William IV
  • What football teams were set up by Victorian
    churches?
  • Aston villa Everton
  • Liverpool Manchester united
  • Everton Manchester united
  • What years did queen Victoria reign?
  • 1879 1907
  • 1846 1925
  • 1837 1901
  • What was a Victorian class room like?
  • Bright colourful
  • Grim bare
  • Empty cold

16
wordsearch
wordsearch
wordsearch
Cane Victoria Albert work house slate
heir factories clothes school
17
answers
answers
answers
Cane Victoria Albert work house slate
heir factories clothes school
18
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