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A Brief Introduction to English-speaking Countries

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Title: A Brief Introduction to English-speaking Countries


1
A Brief Introduction to English-speaking
Countries
  • Zhang Huahong
  • School of Foreign Studies
  • Available at
  • sfs.scnu.edu.cn/hhzhang/index.htm

2
Preliminary Considerations
  • The significance of the study
  • The suggested way of study
  • Means of course evaluation
  • Teaching and learning focus
  • Text books Book 1, Book 2 of
  • ???????????

3
Weekly Assignments
  • 1.Do the exercises of two chapters.
  • 2.Work in groups of four discussing the
  • Questions For Thought after the text
  • in speaking class, as assigned by the
  • monitor, prepared for presentation.
  • 3.Group members work out the accord-
  • ing answers on the paper by turns
  • and hand in for regular evaluation.

4
Significance of Course Paper
  • 1.Writing aims at cultivating scientific
  • spirit of learning with discovery and
  • analysis by means of extensive and
  • selective reading.
  • 2.A course paper is made up of
  • a. summary of related readings to the
  • topic under discussion
  • b. arguments or hypothesis
  • c. confirmation of the hypothesis

5
1.Abstract 2.Key words 3.Body a. Introduction
with Literature review b. Points of interest
under discussion c. Hypothesis/argument d.
Illustration e. Comment f. Conclusion 4.Refere
nce
  • Suggested format of Paper

6
?????????????? ????.??????????.(???) ???,??
?.????.? Reference 1Levinson, S. Pragmatics
M. Cambridge Cambridge University Press,
1983. 15-20. 2???.??????????J.??
?,1995(1)68-72. ???????? N????J????
M?? D????C???
  • Format of Reference

7
Early Settlement
  • 3,000 BC Iberians from Spain
  • 2,000 BC Beakers from
    Holland
  • 700 BC Germanic Celts
  • 55 BC500 AD Romans
  • 500 AD Anglo-Saxons
  • 800900 AD Vikings and Danes
  • 1066 AD Norman French

8
William the Conqueror
  • (1066-1154) William I, (succeeded by William
    II, Henry I) reorganized the feudal system,
    making all landholders swear greater loyalty to
    him rather than to their separate lords. He also
    ordered an exhaustive survey of the landed wealth
    in his realm. The written results, known as the
    Domesday Book, helped determine the revenues owed
    him by his subjects.

9
Plantagenet (Norman)
  • (1154-1485) Nickname of Anjou dynasty,
    founded by Geoffrey IV, husband of Matilda,
    daughter of King Henry I of England. The kings,
    in the main line of descent, were Henry II,
    Richard I, John, Henry III, Edward I, Edward II,
    Edward III, and Richard II through the house of
    Lancaster, Henry IV, Henry V, Henry VI and
    through the house of York, Edward IV, Edward V,
    Richard III.

10
Tudor (Welsh)
  • The dynasty (1485-1603) founded by the Welsh
    nobleman Owen Tudor, who married Catherine of
    Valois, the widow of the English king Henry V.
    Their eldest son, Edmund Tudor, married Margaret
    Beaufort, a descendant of John of Gaunt, son of
    King Edward III. In 1485 Edmund and Margaret's
    son, Henry, killed Richard III of the house of
    York and became Henry VII, the first Tudor
    monarch succeeded by Henry VIII and his son and
    two daughters, Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth I.

11
Stuart (Scottish)
  • (1603-1714) James I, who succeeded childless
    Queen Elizabeth, as the first Stuart king of
    England, was succeeded by Charles I, Charles II,
    James II, and Mary II. who first ruled with her
    husband, William III, until her death in 1694.
    William then ruled alone until 1702, succeeded by
    Queen Anne, the second daughter of James II.

12
Hanover (German)
  • (1714-1901) Childless Queen Anne was
    succeeded by George I, then by George II, George
    III, George IV, childless William IV and Queen
    Victoria.
  • Twentieth Century (German)
  • (1901-) Edward VII, George V, Edward VIII,
    George VI, Queen Elizabeth II

13
U. K. Historical Dates
  • 1536,1707 the Kingdom of Great Britain
  • 1801 the United Kingdom was created
  • 1833 slavery abolished in the Empire
  • 1911 power of House of Lords reduced
  • 1921 the British kingdom was renamed
  • 1945 Labor Party made a welfare state
  • 1979 the first woman as prime minister
  • 1997 the Labor Party returned to power
  • 1999 Scotland, Walesa level of self-rule

14
1. Why is Britain called a complicated
country with a complicated name? 2. What are the
effects of its imperial past? 3. When did it
become a member of the European Union? 4. Why
is it considered a multiracial society? 5. How
remarkable are its class, regional and
economic differences? 6. How significant is the
role of London?
  • General features of Britain

15
1. GREAT BRITAIN
  • 1.How does England play a dominant role of in
    culture and economy?
  • 2.Can you tell the story of King Arthur?
  • 3.Whats the legend of Robin Hood like?
  • 4.In what way is parliament dominant over the
    throne?
  • 5.What are the physical features of Scotland?
  • 6.What caused the cultural division between
    highland and lowland?

16
  • 7.How important is the battle of Bannockburn to
    the Scots?
  • 8.Who is the national hero to bring about the
    300-year independence of Scotland?
  • 9.What happened to Scotland in 1707?
  • 10.How is the strong Scottish identity shown?
  • 11. Can you say something about Wales?
  • 12. Why is it said Wales has a history of
    invasions?
  • 13. In what century was its unification with the
    UK completed?

17
2. Northern Ireland
  • 1.Can you tell about the population and
  • physical features of Northern Ireland?
  • 2.What about its economy?
  • 3.What is the Home Rule Bill?
  • 4.What happened in Ireland in the Easter
  • Rising of 1916?
  • 5.What does the Sinn Fein Party aim at?
  • 6.What caused the religious conflicts in
  • Ireland historically?

18
7.What is the significance of partition of
Ireland in 1921? 8.Who began the Civil Rights
Movement in Northern Ireland in the 1960s?
9.What caused the presence of British
soldiers in Northern Ireland since 1969? 10.How
was IRAs violence in the 1970s? 11.What does
Bloody Sunday symbolize? 12.What caused the
collapse of the power- sharing in Northern
Ireland? 13.How did the British and Irish
govern- ments cooperate for a solution?
19
3. THE U. K. GOVERNMENT
  • 1.King Egbert
  • 2.Divine right of kings
  • 3.The civil war
  • 4.Roundheads
  • 5.Magna Carta
  • 6.The Great Council
  • 7.William of Orange
  • 8.The Bill of Rights of 1689

20
  • 9.The Cabinet
  • 10.The prime minister
  • 11.George I
  • 12.The Constitution
  • 13.Parliaments power and functions
  • 14.The roles of the monarch
  • 15.The House of Lords
  • 16.Life peers
  • 17.The House of Commons

21
4. POLITICS
  • 1.Importance of general elections
  • 2.The formation of the government
  • 3.Vote of no confidence
  • 4.The electoral campaigns
  • 5.Procedure of general elections
  • 6.The Conservative Party
  • 7.The Labor Party
  • 8.The Liberal Democrats

22
  • 8. The National Health Service
  • 9. Recent political trends in the UK
  • 10.Margaret Thatcher
  • 11.John Major
  • 12.Tony Blair

23
5. THE UK ECONOMY
  • 1.Absolute decline and relative
  • decline of British economy
  • 2.Privatization in the 1980s
  • 3.Main sectors of the UK economy
  • 4.Primary industries
  • 5.Secondary industries
  • 6.Tertiary industries
  • 7.Agriculture

24
  • 8. Energy production
  • 9. Offshore oil industry
  • 10.Manufacturing industry
  • 11.The City of London
  • 12.London Stock Exchange
  • 13.Aerospace industry
  • 14.Frank Whittle
  • 15.Concorde

25
  • 6. BRITISH LITERATURE
  • 1.Early British literature concerned with
    Christianity
  • 2.Beowulf
  • 3.The Canterbury Tales by Chaucer
  • 4.Stories of King Arthur and his knights
  • 5.Drama in the Renaissance
  • 6.William Shakespeare

26
  • 7.Classicism in the 18th century
  • 8.Romanticism in the 19th century
  • 9.Critical realism in the 19th century
  • 10.Characteristics of the twentieth century
    literature
  • 11.Naturalism
  • 12.Modernism
  • 13.Postmodernism

27
  • 7. SPORTS IN BRITAIN
  • Football, the FA and the FA Cup
  • Tennis and Wimbledon
  • Cricket and Golf
  • Hunting and fishing
  • Horse racing and equestrianism
  • The Grand National
  • The Royal Ascot
  • Hunt saboteurs

28
  • 8. HOLIDAYS AND FESTIVALS
  • 1.Traditions of Christmas
  • 2.The Christmas Pantomime
  • 3.Principal boy and the Dame
  • 4.Boxing Days tradition
  • 5.Easter and Ramadan
  • 6.Trooping the color
  • 7.Bonfire Nights traditions
  • 8.The Battle of the Boyne

29
  • 9.William of Orange
  • 10.St Patricks Day in Ireland
  • 11.The Christian Trinity
  • 12.Hogmanay in Scotland
  • 13.First-footing
  • 14.Robert Burns and haggis
  • 15.Halloweens traditions
  • 16.The Druids in Wales
  • 17.The Eisteddfod in Wales

30
  • 9. British Education
  • Purpose of the education system
  • Education and social class
  • Comprehensive school
  • Grammar school
  • National Curriculum
  • Public school
  • GCSE, GCE-A, and GNVQs
  • Old Universities

31
  • 10. British Society
  • owner-occupation
  • Four main types of home
  • flats terraced houses
  • the semi detached houses
  • Class system in the society
  • Upper and lower middle-classes
  • Hereditary aristocracy
  • Oxbridge and life peers
  • Ethnic relations in Britain

32
  • 11 Foreign Relations
  • 1.Britains imperial prime
  • 2.Active in setting up the U.N.
  • 3.End of the great British empire
  • 4.Foreign policy influenced by its history and
    geopolitical traits
  • 5.Long-term physical separation from the European
    continent
  • 6.The involvement of the Foreign and Commonwealth
    Office

33
  • 7.The Treasury
  • 8.A parliamentary democracy
  • 9.Permanent member of UN. SC
  • 10.Member of the European Union
  • 11.Member of the Commonwealth
  • 12.Special relationship with US
  • 13.The Suez Crisis
  • 14.Outpost of US military bloc
  • 15.The presence of US bases in UK

34
  • 12 British Media
  • 1.Popularity and functions
  • 2.Newspapers
  • Observer Times Guardian
  • News of the World Telegraph
  • Financial Times The
    tabloids
  • 3.The broadcast media
  • 4.Television and radio
  • 5.British Broadcasting Corporation
  • 6.The Independent TV Commission

35
  • 13. Australia outline, history
  • 1.The flag of Austria
  • 2.The national anthem
  • 3.Australias coat of arms
  • 4.Official language and National day
  • 5.Location, size and climate
  • 6.Multicultural society
  • Aboriginal migration
  • Torres Strait Islander
  • 7. Services to facilitate immigration

36
  • 8.Aboriginal society before whites
  • 9.Impact of European settlement
  • 10.British colonization
  • 11.Exploration of the land by whites
  • 12.Expansion of British settlement
  • 13.Economy in early colonies
  • 14.Structure of local governments
  • authorities
  • legislature
  • 15.Formation of the Commonwealth of Australia

37
  • 14. Political Life
  • 1.The six states (settlement, economy,
    population, natural resources and capitals)
  • New South Wales Victoria
  • Queensland South
    Australia
  • Western Australia Tasmania,,
  • 2.The three internal territories
  • 3.The external territories
  • 4.Australian federation
  • How to change the Constitution
  • Anglo-Australian links

38
  • Powers and duties of Governor-General
  • and the governors
  • Formation of federal government
  • Australian parliament
  • term of the Senators
  • term of the MP
  • 5.State level
  • parliament and government
  • Policy-making of the government
  • 6.Finance and responsibility of the
  • local government
  • 7.Secret ballots

39
  • 8. Political parties in Australia
  • 9. Public service and organization
  • of ministries
  • 10.Freedom-of-information legislation
  • 11.National interests in developing international
    relations
  • 12.Australia and the UN
  • 13.Changes in foreign policy
  • 14.Australia in Asia-Pacific region with ASEAN

40
  • With Japan and China
  • With South Korea
  • With Indo-China
  • With Papua New Guinea
  • 15.Australia in the South Pacific region
  • With New Zealand
  • 16.Australia and the western countries
  • With the US
  • With Canada
  • With the European countries
  • 17.Australias nuclear policies

41
  • 15. Australian Economy
  • 1.Changes after WWII
  • expansion of secondary industry
  • economic diversification and growth
  • export-oriented mining and energy projects
  • 2.Rural and mining sectors account
  • for ¾ of total exports
  • leading role of wool production
  • worlds largest coal exporter
  • 3.Secondary and tertiary industries
  • 4.Overall performance since 1980s

42
  • 5.Unexpected mineral discovery
  • 6.Major mineral producer-exporter
  • 7.Worlds key commodity supplier
  • 8.Change in pattern of international
  • trade in the last 25 years
  • ranges of products and export markets
  • diversified
  • the manufacturing share of overall
  • exports soaring
  • 9.Australias import pattern
  • 10.Government investment in trade

43
  • 11.Imports suppliers
  • US, Japan as the largest
  • falling British share
  • rising share of developing world
  • 12.Role in world trade organizations
  • 13.Trade with New Zealand
  • 14.Limitations on agricultural growth
  • 15.Major agricultural exporter
  • 16.Manufacturing industry
  • economic restructuring ¼ of total
    exports
  • 17.Tertiary sector largest segment

44
  • 16. Culture and Society
  • 1.Two main types of school
  • 2.Compulsory schooling
  • Primary schooling
  • Secondary schooling
  • correspondence courses
  • schools of the air
  • 3.Education for Aboriginal and Islander
  • 4.Education for the disabled
  • 5.Multicultural education

45
  • 6.Assistance from federal government
  • 7.teachers qualification
  • 8.post-secondary education
  • 9.Arts distinctive Australian trends
  • 10.Poetry Henry Kendall
  • Henry Lawson
  • 11.Fiction Henry Lawson
  • Patrick White
  • 12.Drama David Williamson
  • 13.Newpapers and Magazines

46
  • National newspapers
  • Local newspapers
  • Oldest newspapers
  • Proprietorship in the print media
  • 14.national radio and television services
  • ABC
  • Radio Australia
  • SBS
  • 15.commercial radio and TV stations
  • The Australian Broadcasting Tribunal
  • Formal regulations

47
  • 16.The Australian Associated Press
  • 17.Restraints on the media
  • 18.Public and private health care
  • Practicing doctors and nurses
  • Hospitals
  • Medicare
  • Health-insurance organizations
  • 19.Federal governments role
  • 20.Care for Aboriginal and Islander
  • National Aboriginal Health Strategy

48
  • 21.Royal Flying Doctor Service
  • 22.The Red Cross Society
  • 23.The fighting against AIDS
  • 24.National Campaign Against Drugs
  • 25.History of social services
  • 26.Social security programs today
  • The age pension
  • The sole parent pension

49
  • 21. New Zealand (1)
  • 1.Geography
  • North Island
  • South Island
  • 2.The Weather
  • 3.Wildlife
  • Unique flora and fauna
  • 4.Environmental Issues
  • Resource Management Act
  • Ozone depletion

50
  • 5.Population
  • Highly urbanized
  • Concentrated on the North Island
  • Components
  • European, Maori, Polynesian
  • Immigration
  • 6.Maori society
  • 7.Pacific Island people
  • 8.Language
  • 9.Human Rights
  • 10.Standard of Living

51
  • 11.Maoritanga
  • Traditions
  • Legends about Maui
  • Maori Society
  • Ethnic Relations
  • Maori Language
  • 12.History
  • First settlers of the Island
  • European Navigators and settlers
  • The Gold Rushes
  • Maori-Pakeha relationship
  • Social welfare system
  • The Post-War Years

52
  • 22. New Zealand (2)
  • 1.Government
  • The Constitution
  • Parliament
  • A single-chamber parliament
  • Members of Parliament
  • Election
  • Mixed Member Proportional Representation
  • The Cabinet
  • The Ombudsman
  • Local Government

53
  • 2.Education
  • Early Childhood Education
  • Primary Schools
  • Secondary Schools
  • Correspondence School
  • Private Schools
  • Special Needs Education
  • Universities
  • Polytechnics
  • The Open Polytechnic

54
  • 3.Agriculture
  • Hard-won Reputation as
  • the Worlds Largest Farm
  • Technology
  • Farm Management
  • Crops and Horticulture
  • 4.Forestry Fishing
  • Forests
  • Exports of Forest Products
  • Fisheries and Fish Exports
  • Aquaculture

55
  • 5.Overseas Trade
  • Exports
  • Dairy products
  • meat
  • wool
  • Forestry exports
  • Service
  • Markets
  • Government Policy and Priorities
  • Imports

56
23. AMERICAN BEGINNINGS 1.Discovery of
America 2.Puritanism 3.The Pilgrim Fathers 4.The
influence of Puritanism on American
culture 5.The causes and major leaders of the
American Revolution 6.The Declaration of
Independence Q1, Q3
57
24. U. S. POLITICAL SYSTEM 1.the Article of
Confederation 2.the making of the US
Constitution 3.the three branches of the federal
government 4.checks and balances 5.the Bill
of Rights 6.political parties Q1, Q3, Q5
58
25. AMERICAN ECONOMY 1.Samuel Slater
Q1, Q2, Q3 2.Eli Whitney 3.Industrial Revolution
in America 4.Corporation 5.Service industries
6.Stock 7.The root of Americas
affluence 8.Agribusiness 9.Migrant workers 10.The
success and problems of American agriculture
59
26. RELIGION IN THE U. S. 1.American
history and religious liberty 2.The US
Constitution and religion 3.Protestants in the
US 4.Catholic in the US 5.Three faiths in the
US 6.Religious diversity 7.Characteristics of
American religious beliefs Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4
60
27. AMERICAN LITERATURE 1.Writers of the
post-Revolutionary period Washington Irving
James Cooper 2.Transcendentalists Ralph Emerson
Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4 Henry Thoreau 3.Power of
imagination Egdar Poe Nathaniel Hawthorne
Herman Melville
61
27. AMERICAN LITERATURE 4.New visions of
American Walt Whitman 5.Reform and liberation
Harriet Stowe 6.Regionalism William Howells
Mark Twin Emily Dickinson
62
27. AMERICAN LITERATURE 7. A new wave
Henry James Edith Wharton Naturalists
Stephen Crane Theodore Dreiser Jack
London 8.Rebellious spirit Sherwood Anderson
Sinclair Lewis 9.The modernistsimagism---in
poetry Ezra Pound T. S. Eliot E. E. Cumming
Wallace Stevens William C. Williams
63
27. AMERICAN LITERATURE 10.The Lost
Generation F. Scott Fitzgerald Ernest
Hemingway William Faulkner 11.The Harlem
Renaissance 12.New Drama Eugene
ONeill 13.Depression Realism and Escapism
John Steinbeck Margaret Mitchell
64
27. AMERICAN LITERATURE Norman Mailer
Joseph Heller 14.The postwar voices The
Beat Generation Black writers Women
writers Theater Tennessee Williams
Arthur Miller
65
28. EDUCATION IN U. S. 1.the goal of
education 2.expenditure of education 3.different
education laws for different states 4.several
levels of schooling 5.curricula for
students 6.compulsory education for all
children 7.public taxation for schools 8.education
in the hands of state and local governments
Q1, Q2, Q3
66
28. EDUCATION IN U. S. 9.equal education
opportunities for minority groups 10.a
strong demand for higher education 11.the complex
system of higher education 12.varieties of
colleges and university 13.trends in degree
programs 14.the Servicemens Readjustment
Act 15.affirmative action programs 16.nontradition
al students
67
29. SOCIAL MOVEMENTS IN
AMERICA 1.Greensboro Sit-In 2.The Civil Rights
Movement 3.Martin Luther King, Jr. 4.The Anti-War
Movement 5.Free Speech Movement 6.The Counter
Culture 7.Womens Liberation Movement
68
30. SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN AMERICA
1.racial problems 2.inequality in American
society 3.discrimination against blacks 4.the
black underclass 5.poverty as a social
problem 6.drug abuse Q1
69
30. SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN AMERICA
7.social costs of drug abuse 8.crime 9.the
profile of a typical criminal 10.racial prejudice
in the high rate of arrests 11.white-collar
crime 12.the abuse of power by government 13.the
abuse of power by corporations
70
31. TECHNOLOGY IN AMERICA 1.Eli Whitney and mass
production 2.John H Hall 3. the Stevens and
transportation 4.Samuel F B More 5.The Pony
Express System 6.Alexander Graham Bell 7.Thomas
Alva Edison 8.Frederick Winslow Taylor
71
31. TECHNOLOGY IN AMERICA 9.Henry Ford 10.the
invention of the radio 11.the Age of Visual
Information 12.household technologies
13.computer science 14.rocketry 15.Use of
nuclear energy
72
32. POST-WWII AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
1.the beginning of the Cold War
2.Americo-Soviet Arms Race 3.the Truman
Doctrine 4.the containment policy 5.the Cuban
Missile Crisis in 1962 6.the Korean War
Sino-American relations 7.engagement and
expansion 8.unilateralism 9.the Sept.11 terrorist
attack war on Iraq
73
33. SPORTS SCENIC SPOTS 1.the American
Football 2.baseball 3.Jackie Robinson 4.the
World Series 5.basketball 6.James Naismith 7.NBA
74
33. SPORTS SCENIC SPOTS 8.the Grand
Canyon 9.Yellowstone National Park 10.Disneyland 1
1.The National Monument 12.The Everglades 13.Niaga
ra Falls
75
34. EARLY AMERICAN JAZZ 1.jazz music 2.New
Orleans jazz 3.Louis Armstrong 4.Ragtime
music 5.Count Basie 6.Boogie Woogie
76
35. CANADACOUNTRY PEOPLE 1.the search for
the Canadian identity 2.the regions of
Canada 3.the Yukon the Northwest
Territories 4.British Columbia 5.the prairie
provinces
77
35. CANADACOUNTRY PEOPLE 6.Central
CanadaOntario Quebec 7.the Maritimes (the
Atlantic regions) 8.The First Nations (the
Aboriginal people) 9.European settlement in
Canada 10.The Confederation 11.The origin of the
word Canada
78
36. GOVERNMENT POLITICS 1.Canadas
political system 2.A nation based on peace,
order and good government 3.Tolerance of
different values and customs 4.English-speaking
Canada 5.French-speaking Canada
79
36. GOVERNMENT POLITICS 6.Canadas system
of government 7.The Governor General 8.The
federal government 9.The House of Commons 10.The
Senate
80
37. THE CANADIAN MOSAIC 1.the Canadian
mosaic 2.multiculturalism 3.the First
Nations 4.the Inuit 5.the Metis 6.immigration
policy of Canada 7.Immigration Act 1976 8.Quebec
and French Canadians
81
38. THE CANADIAN ECONOMY 1.three factors
influencing Canadian economy 2the Canada-US
Free Trade Agreement 3.natural resources in
Canada 4.agriculture in Canada 5.manufacturing
industry in Canada 6.service industry in Canada
82
39. CANADIAN LITERATURE 1.the central idea
of Canadian literature 2.Native Canadian
mythology 3.Early colonial literature 4.The
literature of nation-building 5.Ted Allen 6.Hugh
Maclennan 7.Margaret Laurence 8.Margaret
Atwood 9.Alice Munro 10.Michael Ondaatje
83
40. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 1.Canada as a
middle power in international
affairs 2.Canadas role in international
organizations 3.The emergence of Canada as a
full- fledged and sovereign state 4.Canadas
role in the Suez Crisis of 1956 5.Lester
Pearson 6.involuntary military
guarantee 7.Canada-US relations
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